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siderophores of highly phytopathogenic alternaria longipes. structures of hydroxycoprogens.alternaria longipes atcc 26293, a highly phytopathogenic fungus, has been found to produce a large number of siderophores under iron-deficient conditions. most of the compounds are members of the coprogen family. structures of three novel siderophores, termed hydroxycoprogens, have been determined by 1h and 13c nmr, fab mass spectrometry and partial hydrolysis. the compounds are analogs of coprogen, neocoprogen i and isoneocoprogen i, in which one of the terminal trans-anhydromevalonic acid resi ...19892534987
n alpha-dimethylcoprogens. three novel trihydroxamate siderophores from pathogenic fungi.three novel siderophores have been isolated from a highly pathogenic strain of alternaria longipes (atcc 26293). the compounds are n alpha-dimethylated analogs of coprogen, neocoprogen i and isoneocoprogen i. structures of the compounds have been determined by 1h- and 13c-nmr, fast-atom-bombardment (fab) mass spectroscopy and partial hydrolysis. one of the new compounds, n alpha-dimethylcoprogen, is also produced, as the major siderophore, in another fungus, fusarium dimerum.19882978957
relationship of pathogenicity to tobacco leaves and toxicity to chickes of isolates of alternaria longipes.one hundred thirty-seven single-conidium isolates of alternaria longipes were tested for pathogenicity to tobacco leaves and for toxicity to 1-day-old chicks. of 58 isolates pathogenic to tobacco, 43 (74.3%) had a significant effect on test chicks. of 79 nonpathogenic isolates, 59 (74.7%) were nontoxic, 7 were toxic, and 13 were lethal. a relationship between pathogenicity and toxicity is suggested.19725062883
mycotoxicosis: toxicity to chicks of alternaria longipes isolated from tobacco. 19685693346
small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins from radish: their role in host defense.radish seeds have previously been shown to contain two homologous, 5-kd cysteine-rich proteins designated raphanus sativus-antifungal protein 1 (rs-afp1) and rs-afp2, both of which exhibit potent antifungal activity in vitro. we now demonstrate that these proteins are located in the cell wall and occur predominantly in the outer cell layers lining different seed organs. moreover, rs-afps are preferentially released during seed germination after disruption of the seed coat. the amount of released ...19957780308
cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by alternaria longipes in an immunosuppressed patient.alternaria longipes was reported as the agent of a cutaneous infection in a patient with a neoplastic disease. the fungus has not been reported previously as causing disease in humans. it was distinguished by its rather small conidia with smooth or slightly verruculose walls and a pale brown beak which rarely extended into a secondary conidiophore. in vitro inhibitory activities of amphotericin b, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and miconazole were shown.19958567925
antimicrobial peptides from mirabilis jalapa and amaranthus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco.the cdnas encoding the seed antimicrobial peptides (amps) from mirabilis jalapa (mj-amp2) and amaranthus caudatus (ac-amp2) have previously been characterized and it was found that mj-amp2 and ac-amp2 are processed from a precursor preprotein and preproprotein, respectively [de bolle et al., plant mol biol 28:713-721 (1995) and 22:1187-1190 (1993), respectively]. in order to study the processing, sorting and biological activity of these antimicrobial peptides in transgenic tobacco, four differen ...19968843942
[induction, purification and antifungal activity of beta-1, 3-glucanase from wheat leaves].treatment with mercuric chloride (0.01%), salicylic acid (10.0 mg/ml) or riboflavin (1 mmol/l) induced the beta-1, 3-glucanase activity in all the three wheat varieties i.e. 331, kangdao 680 and lumai 23 tested, with the strongest inductive effect on variety 331 by treatment with mercuric chloride (0.01%) for 24 h. from leaves of variety 331 treated with mercuric chloride (0.01%) for 24 h, a kind of beta-1, 3-glucanase was purified by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate, phenyl-sepha ...200415627688
[expression of the bacterial gene cspd in tobacco plants increases their resistance to fungal and viral pathogens].low molecular (7.2 kd) cold shock protein d (cspd) from bacillus thuringiensis was isolated in our laboratory in the late 1990s it was shown that cspd induced nonspecific resistance in plants to viral and fungal phytopathogens. it was suggested to explore the opportunity to express the gene of this elicitor in tobacco plant and evaluate the resistance ofthe transgenic plants to various pathogens. several transgenic tobacco lines were obtained. enhanced resistance of the transgenic plants was con ...200616512609
over-expression gberf2 transcription factor in tobacco enhances brown spots disease resistance by activating expression of downstream genes.erf transcription factors can bind gcc boxes or non-gcc cis elements to regulate biotic and abiotic stress responses. here, we report that an erf transcription factor gene (gberf2) was cloned by suppression subtraction hybridization from sea-island cotton after verticillium dahliae attack. the gberf2 cdna has a total length of 1143 bp with an open reading frame of 597 bp. the genomic sequence of gberf2 contains an intron of 515 bp. the gene encodes a predicated polypeptide of 198 amino acids wit ...200717321073
characterization of agmat2, a plasma membrane mannitol transporter from celery, expressed in phloem cells, including phloem parenchyma cells.a second mannitol transporter, agmat2, was identified in celery (apium graveolens l. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. this transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). data indicated that agmat2 works as an h(+)/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. when express ...200717631523
characterization of mutations in alhk1 gene from alternaria longipes: implication of limited function of two-component histidine kinase on conferring dicarboximide resistance.four series (s, m, r, and w) of alternaria longipes isolates were obtained based on consecutive induction with dimethachlon (dim) and ultraviolet irradiation. these isolates were then characterized according to their tolerance to dim, sensitivity to osmotic stress, and phenotypic properties. all the induced dim-resistant isolates showed a higher osmosensitivity than the parental strains, and the last generation was more resistant than the first generation in the m, r, and w series. in addition, ...200818239410
identification and antifungal assay of a wheat beta-1,3-glucanase.a wheat beta-1,3-glucanase gene (taglud) was identified as a fungal defense candidate. its transcript induction was more than 60-fold higher in a resistant wheat line, shannong0431, than in a susceptible wheat line, wenmai6, after infection with rhizoctonia cerealis. the taglud protein was overexpressed as inclusion bodies in escherichia coli. after refolding and purification, taglud with 1 unit of beta-1,3-glucanase showed antifungal activity in vitro against rhizoctonia solani, r. cerealis, ph ...200919267236
screening, identification and evaluation of potential biocontrol fungal endophytes against rhizoctonia solani ag3 on potato plants.rhizoctonia solani is an important soilborne pathogen of potato plants whose control typically depends on chemicals. here, we screened six fungal endophytes for the suppression of r. solani growth both in vitro and in a greenhouse. these isolates were identified using morphology and internal transcribed spacer regions of rdna as alternaria longipes, epicoccum nigrum, phomopsis sp., and trichoderma atroviride. both t. atroviride and e. nigrum showed significant in vitro inhibition of mycelial gro ...201020738401
microbial transformation of asiatic acid by alternaria longipes.asiatic acid is a major pentacyclic triterpene isolated from centella asiatica. it shows a variety of bioactivities. in order to obtain its derivatives, potentially useful for detailed pharmacological studies, the substrate was subjected to incubations with selected micro-organisms. in this work, asiatic acid was converted into three new compounds: 2α,3β,23,30-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (1), 2α,3β,22β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (2), and 2α,3β,22β,23,30-pentahydroxyurs-12-ene-2 ...201020839122
(-)-sclerotiorin from an unidentified marine fungus as an anti-meiotic and anti-fungal agent.(-)-sclerotiorin, isolated and purified from the fermented broth of an unidentified marine fungus (98f134), inhibited the maturation of starfish oocytes induced by 1-methyl adenine with an ic50 value of 0.50 microm. (-)-sclerotiorin also showed antifungal activity against saccharomyces cerevisiae, aspergilus fumigatus, alternaria longipes, piricularia oryzae, verticillium albo-atrum, fusarium culmorum, and f. nivale with ic50 values less than 20 microg/ml.201021213982
biotransformation of oleanolic acid by alternaria longipes and penicillium adametzi.microbial transformation of oleanolic acid (1) was carried out. six transformed products (2-7) from 1 by alternaria longipes and three transformed products (8-10) from 1 by penicillium adametzi were isolated. their structures were elucidated as 2a,3a,19a-trihydroxy-ursolic acid-28-o-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2), 2a,3ß,19a-trihydroxy-ursolic acid-28-o-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3), oleanolic acid 28-o-ß-d-glucopyranosyl ester (4), oleanolic acid-3-o-ß-d-glucopyranoside (5), 3-o-(ß-d-glucopyranosyl)-oleanoli ...201121279880
comparative genomics of pathogens causing brown spot disease of tobacco: alternaria longipes and alternaria alternata.the genus alternaria is a group of infectious/contagious pathogenic fungi that not only invade a wide range of crops but also induce severe allergic reactions in a part of the human population. in this study, two strains alternaria longipes cx1 and alternaria alternata cx2 were isolated from different brown spot lesions on infected tobacco leaves. their complete genomes were sequenced, de novo assembled, and comparatively analyzed. phylogenetic analysis revealed that a. longipes cx1 and a. alter ...201627159564
transcriptomic profile of tobacco in response to alternaria longipes and alternaria alternata infections.tobacco brown spot caused by alternaria fungal species is one of the most damaging diseases, and results in significant yield losses. however, little is known about the systematic response of tobacco to this fungal infection. to fill this knowledge gap, de novo assemblies of tobacco leaf transcriptomes were obtained in cultivars v2 and nc89 after the inoculation of either alternaria longipes (al) or alternaria alternata (aa) at three different time points. we studied the gene expression profile ...201627157477
[engineering and heterologous expression of a nikkomycin biosynthetic gene cluster].we expressed a nikkomycin biosynthetic gene cluster in the well-characterized surrogate streptomyces coelicolor m1146.201526562995
a novel mycovirus identified from the rice false smut fungus ustilaginoidea virens.the complete sequence of a novel mycovirus infecting ustilaginoidea virens, the causal agent of false smut of rice, is reported here and designated as ustilaginoidea virens unassigned rna virus hnnd-1 (uvurv-hnnd-1). this virus has an undivided dsrna genome of 2903 nt in length and contains two non-overlapping open reading frames (orf1 and 2), with the small orf1 encoding a protein of unknown function that showed sequence similarity to the comparable protein in virus alternaria longipes dsrna vi ...201526041139
identification and sequence determination of a novel double-stranded rna mycovirus from the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana.an isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana was found to contain five double-stranded (ds) rna elements ranging from 1.5 to more than 3 kbp. the complete sequence of the largest dsrna element is described here. analysis of the rdrp nucleotide sequence reveals its similarity to unclassified dsrna elements, such as alternaria longipes dsrna virus 1, and its distant relationship to the rna-dependent rna polymerases of members of the family partitiviridae.201525577168
identification and characterization of an antifungal protein, afafpr9, produced by marine-derived aspergillus fumigatus r9.a fungal strain, r9, was isolated from the south atlantic sediment sample and identified as aspergillus fumigatus. an antifungal protein, afafpr9, was purified from the culture supernatant of aspergillus fumigatus r9. afafpr9 was identified to be restrictocin, which is a member of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (rips), by maldi-tof-tof-ms. afafpr9 displayed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fusarium oxysporum, alternaria longipes, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, paecilomyces vario ...201525394604
the complete genome sequence of a novel mycovirus from alternaria longipes strain hn28.the complete nucleotide sequence of alternaria longipes dsrna virus 1 (alrv1), a novel double-stranded rna (dsrna) mycovirus, was determined and analyzed. alrv1-hn28 contains a single dsrna genome segment 3415 base pairs in length (excluding the 3' poly(a) tail) and was predicted to contain two discontiguous open reading frames (orfs, orf a and orf b). the 5'-proximal orf a (1182 nt) potentially encodes a protein of 394 amino acids (aa) with a predicted molecular mass of 43 kda; this protein sho ...201525248625
purification and identification of a novel antifungal protein secreted by penicillium citrinum from the southwest indian ocean.a novel antifungal protein produced by the fungal strain penicillium citrinum w1, which was isolated from a southwest indian ocean sediment sample, was purified and characterized. the culture supernatant of p. citrinum w1 inhibited the mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. after saturation of p. citrinum w1 culture supernatants with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography, an antifungal protein (pcpaf) was purified. the n-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that pcpaf ...201424931500
novel nikkomycin analogues generated by mutasynthesis in streptomyces ansochromogenes.nikkomycins are competitive inhibitors of chitin synthase and inhibit the growth of filamentous fungi, insects, acarids and yeasts. the gene cluster responsible for biosynthesis of nikkomycins has been cloned and the biosynthetic pathway was elucidated at the genetic, enzymatic and regulatory levels.201424751325
biotransformation of osthole by alternaria longipes.the biotransformation of osthole (1) by alternaria longipes was carried out, and five transformed products were obtained in the present research work. based on their extensive spectral data, the structures of these metabolites were characterized as 4'-hydroxyl-osthole (2), 4'-hydroxyl-2',3'-dihydroosthole (3), 2',3'-dihydroxylosthole (4), osthole-4'-oic acid methyl ester (5), and osthole-4'-oic acid glucuron-1-yl ester (6), respectively. among them, products 5 and 6 were new compounds.201323679093
purification and characterization of a novel antifungal protein secreted by penicillium chrysogenum from an arctic sediment.a fungal strain, penicillium chrysogenum a096, was isolated from an arctic sediment sample. its culture supernatant inhibited mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. after saturation of p. chrysogenum a096 culture supernatant with ammonium sulfate and ion exchange chromatography, a novel antifungal protein (pc-arctin) was purified and identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-time of flight-mass spectrometry (maldi-tof-tof-ms). the gene encoding for pc-arct ...201323474616
[optimization of biotransformation of ursolic acid by alternaria longipes].to conduct the biotransformation of ursolic acid by alternaria longipes as3. 2875, and optimize the culture medium and biotransformation conditions.201223189734
new furanones from the plant endophytic fungus pestalotiopsis besseyi.pestalafuranones a-e (compounds 1-5), five new 2(5h)-furanones, have been isolated from cultures of an isolate of pestalotiopsis besseyi. the structures of these compounds were elucidated mainly by analysis of their nmr spectroscopic data and hresims experiments. pestalafuranones a-c (compounds 1-3) displayed weak inhibitory effects against hiv-1 replication in c8166 cells, whereas pestalafuranones d (4) and e (5) showed moderate antifungal activity against the plant pathogens verticillium dahia ...201223187285
the group iii two-component histidine kinase alhk1 is involved in fungicides resistance, osmosensitivity, spore production and impacts negatively pathogenicity in alternaria longipes.members of group iii histidine kinases from different filamentous fungi were previously shown to mediate osmoregulation and resistance to dicarboximide, phenylpyrrole and, aromatic hydrocarbon fungicides. in this study, we report the disruption of the gene encoding group iii histidine kinase, alhk1, in the economically important plant pathogen alternaria longipes. the alhk1 gene disruption had pleiotropic effects on this fungus. besides the expected osmosensitivity and fungicides resistance, alh ...201222349956
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