[current aspects of hiv infection].the epidemiology of hiv-1 and hiv-2 infection in 1989/90 shows a further spread of both viruses, especially in southern europe, eastern asia and central africa. the sequence analysis of an immunodeficiency virus of a chimpanzee indicates the presence of siv-1, in contrast to all other monkey isolates analyzed hitherto as members of siv-2. the occurrence of eight newly hiv-infected hemophiliacs by one factor ix product gives rise to the question whether a 100% safety of blood products can be achi ...19911725606
prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in a captive colony of macaque monkeys.the prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in the macaque colony of the new england regional primate research center (nerprc) was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures as well as radioimmunoprecipitation-sds polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescence tests. out of 848 macaques, 3 (0.35%) had antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), 27 (3.2%) had antibodies to simian t-lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-1) and approximately 285 (34%) had ...19882895751
vaccination of pregnant macaques protects newborns against mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus infection.simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) infection of newborn rhesus macaques is a rapid, sensitive animal model of human pediatric aids. newborn macaques were readily infected by uncloned sivmac following oral-conjunctival exposure and had persistently high viremia and rapid development of aids. in contrast, when 3 pregnant macaques were vaccinated against siv, 2 of the newborns that had transplacentally acquired antiviral antibodies were protected against mucosal siv infection at birth. these resul ...19968648204
protection of human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed seronegative macaques from mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus present it is not known which form of immunity would be most effective against infection with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). to evaluate the possible role of cellular immunity, we examined whether four hiv type 2-exposed but seronegative macaques developed cellular immune responses and determined whether these exposed macaques were resistant to mucosal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv). following intrarectal challenge with siv, 2 monkeys were protected against detectabl ...19979188561
in vitro ethanol suppresses alveolar macrophage tnf-alpha during simian immunodeficiency virus infection.pulmonary infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with alcohol abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, two immunocompromising conditions that frequently coexist. this study examined the separate and combined effects of in vivo lentiviral infection and in vitro alcohol exposure on alveolar macrophage (am) production of tumor necrosis factor- alpha (tnf-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine that is critical to normal pulmonary host defense. ams, recov ...200010619810
interactions between mycobacterium leprae and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) in rhesus monkeys.groups of rhesus monkeys were inoculated with: 1) simian immunodeficiency virus (siv)b670 alone; 2) mycobacterium leprae alone; 3) siv plus m. leprae on the same day; and 4) m. leprae 2 weeks after siv. animals were monitored at intervals for virus loads, antibody responses to m. leprae glycolipid antigens and to siv gp120, t-cell cd4+ and cd4+ cd29+ subset percentages, leprosy and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) clinical symptoms. five out of six animals developed leprosy in each co-i ...200011085588
experimental coinfection of rhesus macaques with rhesus cytomegalovirus and simian immunodeficiency virus: pathogenesis.human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) possesses low pathogenic potential in an immunocompetent host. in the immunosuppressed host, however, a wide spectrum of infection outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic to life threatening, can follow either primary or nonprimary infection. the variability in the manifestations of hcmv infection in immunosuppressed individuals implies that there is a threshold of host antiviral immunity that can effectively limit disease potential. we used a nonhuman primate model of c ...200212097580
cd8+ t cell dynamics during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques: relationship of effector cell differentiation with the extent of viral replication.immunological and virological events that occur during the earliest stages of hiv-1 infection are now considered to have a major impact on subsequent disease progression. we observed changes in the frequencies of cd8(bright) t cells expressing different chemokine receptors in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques during the acute phase of the pathogenic sivmac251 infection; the frequency of cd8(bright) t cells expressing cxcr4 decreased, while the frequency of those expressing ...200515905532
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