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allergic contact dermatitis from grasses.this study attempts to demonstrate the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from grass, and to develop a patch test series to screen patients with grass intolerance. 6 common grass species from lawns and military training areas were collected. solvent extracts of polar, non-polar and volatile fractions were prepared and used for patch testing in 20 control subjects and 46 patients with a history of grass intolerance. the 20 controls had negative responses to patch testing. 5 out of 46 patien ...19979255483
the role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western africa.sites in the humid forest of cameroon and the derived savanna of benin were selected to evaluate the effect of planting border rows of wild host plants on lepidopterous stem-borer infestations and on maize yield. grass species were chosen that in surveys and greenhouse trials were highly attractive to ovipositing female moths but with offspring mortality of close to 100%, thus acting as trap plants. in cameroon, elephant grass pennisetum purpureum moench significantly lowered infestations of bus ...200217598302
performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.the effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. adding elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (sweet potato vines, solanum, mixed and control) were formulated. after the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility ...200918551378
identification and validation of reference genes to study the gene expression in gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus grown in different carbon sources using rt-qpcr.gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain pal5 is a nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacterium originally isolated from sugarcane and later on was found to colonize other plants such as rice, elephant grass, sweet potato, coffee, and pineapple. currently, g. diazotrophicus has been considered a plant growth-promoting bacterium due to its characteristics of biological nitrogen fixation, phytohormone secretion, solubilization of mineral nutrients and antagonism to phytopathogens. reverse transcription fol ...201222814372
replacement levels of elephant grass by moist pineapple by-product silage in diets of santa inês crossbred sheep: performance and digestibility.the present study evaluated the effect of replacing elephant grass (eg) with moist pineapple by-product silage (ps) on the apparent digestibility, consumption of digestible nutrients and performance of 25 castrated male lambs santa ines crossbreds. the lambs had an initial body weight of 20.2 ± 3.5 kg and were housed in individual pens in a completely randomised design with five treatments (replacement of eg by ps at five proportions of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and five replicates during 74 days ...201323001582
chemical composition and nutrient degradability in elephant grass silage inoculated with streptococcus bovis isolated from the rumen.the objective of the present study was to assess the chemical and bromatological composition and in situ degradability of elephant grass silages inoculated with streptococcus bovis isolated from cattle rumen. a complete randomized design was used with four treatments and six replications: elephant grass silage, elephant grass silage inoculated with 10(6) cfu/g streptococcus bovis jb1 strains; elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 cfu/g streptococcus bovis hc5 strains; elephant grass silage i ...201424519006
the endophytic bacteria isolated from elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum schumach) promote plant growth and enhance salt tolerance of hybrid pennisetum.elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum schumach) and hybrid pennisetum (pennisetum americanum × p. purpureum schumach) are tall, fast-growing perennial c4 bunchgrasses that have been in recent developed as the most appropriate biomass feedstock in many countries for exploring various biofuel products. however, the challenges of increasing plant biomass yield and enhancing their stress tolerance, especially on marginal lands, have been existed for a long while. in the past several years, bacterial ...201627594917
feeding moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor.moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. to test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a changeover 3?×?3 latin square experiment, replicated twice. with equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p?<?0.001) between all diets where fresh moringa had the highest and the e ...201121344294
the morphology and morphometry of the epididymis in the greater cane rat (thryonomys swinderianus temmincks).the structure and morphometry of the epididymis in the greater cane rat were studied in this work. in assessing the morphology and characterising the morphometric values, a total of 15 adult male greater cane rats, bred and raised in captivity, were used. all the animals had brownish perineal staining, which was taken as index of sexual maturity in male cane rats, and they were maintained on elephant grass stems with water given ad libitum. from this work, the epididymis of the greater cane rat ...201021120812
intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed market wastes of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) vines and scarlet eggplant (solanum aethiopicum).intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed basal diets of market wastes of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) vines (spv) and scarlet eggplant (solanum aethiopicum) (sep) were examined in two experiments. in experiment i, the effect of presentation method (chopping, hanging or adding molasses) on the intake of sep and spv was evaluated. presentation method did not influence the intake of spv while hanging resulted in the highest (p < 0.05) intake of sep. in experiment ii, 24 male growi ...200919396623
natural enemies of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass in the forest zone of cameroon.the importance, geographical and temporal distributions of parasitoids of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass, pennisetum purpureum, were assessed during surveys in farmers' fields in six villages and two on-station trials in the forest zone of cameroon between 1995 and 1996. the borer species encountered were busseola fusca (fuller), sesamia calamistis hampson, eldana saccharina walker on both host plants, and mussidia nigrivenella ragonot on maize only. busseola fusca was the pred ...200111415475
biuret and urea in supplements for bovines fed green chop elephant grass. 19715571074
prevention of hydrolysable tannin toxicity in goats fed clidemia hirta by calcium hydroxide supplementation.although plants containing hydrolysable tannins can be hepatotoxic, such poisoning has not been reported in indonesia despite the presence of these plants. in order to determine the hepatotoxic potential of indonesian plants, goats were intoxicated experimentally with the indonesian plant climedia hirta (harendong), which contained 19% hydrolysable tannin. the prophylactic effect of ca(oh)2 supplementation on the disease was also examined. two groups of goats were fed for 28 days with grain-base ...19902254583
effects of roughage sources produced in a tropical environment on forage intake, and ruminal and microbial parameters.our objective was to study the effect of different roughage sources produced in a tropical environment on intake, digestibility, and ruminal parameters of crossbred bulls. five rumen-fistulated 30-mo-old holstein × bos indicus bulls (average bw =459 ± 32.5 kg) were utilized in a 5 × 5 randomized latin square design. the experiment consisted of five 19-d experimental periods (10 d for adaptation and 9 d for data collection) and 5 treatments. experimental diets consisted of corn (zea mays l.) sila ...201526020332
estimation of methane emissions from local and crossbreed beef cattle in dak lak province of vietnam.this study was aimed at evaluating effects of cattle breed resources and alternative mixed-feeding practices on meat productivity and emission intensities from household farming systems in daklak province, vietnam.201728335096
relationships between chemical properties of larval media and development of two stomoxys species (diptera: muscidae) from reunion island.the development of two cattle pests, stomoxys calcitrans l. and stomoxys niger niger macquart (diptera: muscidae), was studied in the laboratory using seven potential larval media from a dairy farm on reunion island. the media were six types of cattle feed and an old manure medium. egg-to-adult survival, duration of development, and adult live weight at emergence were determined for both fly species on each medium. the media were analyzed for ph, nitrogen, organic matter, and structural compound ...200818348795
high-pressure carbon dioxide/water pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse and elephant grass: assessment of the effect of biomass composition on process efficiency.the performance of two lignocellulosic biomasses was studied in high-pressure carbon dioxide/water pre-treatment. sugarcane bagasse and elephant grass were used to produce c5-sugars from hemicellulose and, simultaneously, to promote cellulose digestibility for enzymatic saccharification. different pre-treatment conditions, with combined severity factor ranging from -1.17 to -0.04, were evaluated and maximal total xylan to xylose yields of 59.2wt.% (34.4wt.% xylooligomers) and 46.4wt.% (34.9wt.% ...201727955864
bioconversion of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) acid hydrolysate to bacterial cellulose by gluconacetobacter xylinus.to evaluate the possibility of elephant grass acid hydrolysate converting into bacterial cellulose (bc) produced by gluconacetobacter xylinus ch001 and to characterize the morphology and structure of the cellulose produced.201323890373
spittle protein profile of mahanarva spectabilis (hemiptera: cercopidae) fed various elephant grass genotypes.an understanding of the interaction between spittlebugs and forage grasses is essential for establishing factors that favor productive pastures. in the present study, we evaluated the protein profiles of the spittle of mahanarva spectabilis (distant, 1909) (hemiptera: cercopidae) fed various elephant grass genotypes. each plant was infested with a single fifth-instar m. spectabilis. after 24 h, samples of the spittle produced by each nymph were collected and stored at -20°c, after which their pr ...201223096685
behavior of sheep fed babassu cake (orbygnia speciosa) as a substitution for elephant grass silage.this study aimed to evaluate the behavior of sheep fed babassu cake as a substitution for elephant grass silage. the experiment was conducted at the federal rural university of amazonia (universidade federal rural da amazônia - ufra), brazil, using 45 sheep housed in individual stalls, with unlimited access to feed and distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50% inclusion of babassu cake) and nine replications. all of the treatments contained a r ...201628027593
lignin depolymerisation and lignocellulose fractionation by solvated electrons in liquid ammonia.we explored the depolymerisation of several lignins in liquid ammonia at relatively high temperatures and pressures (120 °c and 88 bar). five different lignins were tested: indulin at kraft, protobind 1000 soda, wheat straw organosolv, poplar organosolv and elephant grass-milled wood lignin (eg mwl). in pure liquid ammonia, all lignins underwent slow incorporation of nitrogen into their structure, resulting in higher molecular weight and polydispersity index. subsequently, we show a reductive de ...201728139063
elephant grass, sugarcane, and rice bran in diets for confined sheep.we aimed to evaluate the effects of diets, based on elephant grass or sugarcane as roughage and corn meal or rice bran as energy concentrate, on performance and body composition in terms of diet intake and digestibility. a total of 30 santa ines crossbreds (sic), castrated male sheep with 19.8 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight (bw) were used. six animals were slaughtered at the onset of the experiment to estimate the initial body composition for the other animals. the remaining 24 animals were distri ...201222528534
steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with arachis pintoi.the inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. the objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (arachis pintoi cv. amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (pennisetum purpureum cv. brs kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. the experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass ...201323413007
intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (arachis pintoi cv. amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (deg, pennisetum purpureum schum cv. kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. the experimental treatments consisted of deg hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (dm)), which were tested in eight texel × s ...201424788311
genetic variability and relationship between mt-1 elephant grass and closely related cultivars assessed by srap markers.genetic variability and relationships among elephant grass cultivars were estimated by the srap (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) assay. a total of 60 individuals collected from five cultivars in china were analysed. sixty-two selected primer combinations generated 1395 bands, with an average of 22.5 per primer combination. the average value of percentage of polymorphic bands (ppb) was 72.8% at species level. the ppb was from 15.2% to 75%, with an average of 39.6% at cultivar level. h(po ...200920086293
herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. the aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (deg) (pennisetum purpureum cv. brs kurumi) alone or deg with peanut (arachis pintoi cv. amarillo). the experimental treatments were the following: deg pastures receiving nitrogen fertilizati ...201627101877
copper tolerance of the biomass crops elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum schumach), vetiver grass (vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (phragmites australis) in soil culture.pot trials were conducted to study the influence of copper (cu) on the growth and biomass of elephant grass (eg, pennisetum purpureum schumach), vetiver grass (vg, vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (ur, phragmites australis). cu toxicity in eg, vg and ur was positively correlated with the total and bioavailable cu concentrations in the soil. based on the ec50, dry weights, cu contents, chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis rates, the cu tolerance of the three species followed the tren ...201619393734
ethanol production from sugars obtained during enzymatic hydrolysis of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum, schum.) pretreated by steam explosion.in this work, steam explosion was used a pretreatment method to improve the conversion of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) to cellulosic ethanol. this way, enzymatic hydrolysis of vaccum-drained and water-washed steam-treated substrates was carried out with penicillium echinulatum enzymes while saccharomyces cerevisiae cat-1 was used for fermentation. after 48 h of hydrolysis, the highest yield of reducing sugars was obtained from vaccum-drained steam-treated substrates that were produced a ...201526038327
grass mulching effect on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of three agricultural soils in nigeria.mulching the soil surface with a layer of plant residue is an effective method of conserving water and soil because it reduces surface runoff, increases infiltration of water into the soil and retard soil erosion. the effectiveness of using elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) as mulching material was evaluated in the laboratory using a rainfall simulator set at rainfall intensities typical of the tropics. six soil samples, two from each of the three major soil series representing the main agri ...200716678407
assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of niger delta, nigeria.the concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (ocps) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the niger delta, nigeria were examined. the concentrations of σ(25)ocp ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in olomoro, oginni, uzere, irri and calabar plants, respectively. the compositional profiles of the analysed ocps in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. the ocps detected in the samples could ha ...201222789817
leaf protein from ammonia-treated dwarf elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum schum cv. mott).proteins can be an excellent byproduct of the biorefining of lignocellulosic materials. in this work, extraction conditions for the white leaf proteins (cytoplasmic) of ammonia-treated dwarf elephant grass were established to obtain a protein juice suitable for the production of leaf protein concentrates. a calcium hydroxide solution was used as extracting agent, at several solid-liquid ratios, phs, temperatures, and times. extractions were carried out in erlenmeyer flasks containing 5 g (dry ba ...200515920275
natural activities of 40k, 238u and 232th in elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) in ibadan metropolis, nigeria.samples of elephant grass collected at some pasturing farmlands across different locations in ibadan metropolis were analyzed for their natural radioactivity concentrations due to 40k, 238u and 232th radionuclides. radioactivity measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy. the average radioactivity concentration of 40k was found to be 25.7+/-5.5 bq kg(-1) for 238u and 33.4+/-3.9 bq kg(-1) for 232th. the radiological health implication to the population that may result from these v ...200515465183
lipophilic extractives from the cortex and pith of elephant grass ( pennisetum purpureum schumach.) stems.the composition of lipophilic extractives in the cortex and pith of elephant grass ( pennisetum purpureum schumach.) stems was thoroughly studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the predominant compounds were fatty acids followed by sterols (in free and conjugated forms as esters and glycosides). other steroid compounds, as steroid hydrocarbons and ketones, were also present. additionally, important amounts of mono-, di-, and triglycerides were identified. other aliphatic series such as ...201222646817
structural characterization of the lignin in the cortex and pith of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) stems.the structure of the lignin in the cortex and pith of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) stems was studied both in situ and in isolated milled "wood" lignins by several analytical methods. the presence of p-coumarate and ferulate in the cortex and pith, as well as in their isolated lignins, was revealed by pyrolysis in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, and by 2d nmr, and indicated that ferulate acylates the carbohydrates while p-coumarate acylates the lignin polymer. 2d nmr showe ...201222414389
optimizing ammonia pressurization/depressurization processing conditions to enhance enzymatic susceptibility of dwarf elephant grass.an ammonia pressurization/depressurization process was investigated to evaluate the potential of producing reducing sugars from dwarf elephant grass, a warm-season forage. moisture, temperature, and ammonia loading affected sugar yield (p < 0.0001). at optimal conditions, ammonia processing solubilized 50.9% of the hemicellulose and raised the sugar yield (percentage of theoretical) from 18 to 83%. glucose and xylose production were increased 3.2- and 8.2-fold, respectively. the mild processing ...200010849787
elephant grass. 198217753421
the soviet elephant grass theory. 19827089536
genomic homeology between pennisetum purpureum and pennisetum glaucum (poaceae).the genus pennisetum (richard, 1805) includes two economically important tropical forage plants: pennisetum purpureum (schumacher, 1827) (elephant grass), with 2n = 4x = 28 chromosomes and genomes a'a'bb, and pennisetum glaucum (linnaeus, 1753) (pearl millet), with 2n = 2x = 14 chromosomes and genomes aa. the genetic proximity between them allows hybrids to be obtained (2n = 3x = 21) that yield forage of higher quality in relation to the parents. the study of genomic relationships provides subsi ...201425349671
enzymatic degradation of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) stems: influence of the pith and bark in the total hydrolysis.the internal pith of a high energy plant, elephant grass (eg), was more extensively degraded (>50% dry matter) compared to the outer cortex (31%) or the whole stem (35%) by an enzyme preparation from humicola insolens, ultraflo. reducing sugars and acetic acid release from the pith was also higher compared to the cortex. supplementation of ultraflo with a type-c feruloyl esterase increased the level of deacetylation but also led to reduced solubilisation. the addition of 20% dimethyl sulfoxide ( ...201425006023
rapd and issr markers in the evaluation of genetic divergence among accessions of elephant grass.considering the expected genetic variability of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum), due to its cultivation in different continents, we characterized and estimated the genetic divergences between 46 accessions of elephant grass with different edaphoclimatic adaptations, using rapd and issr markers. we evaluated, comparatively, the consistency of the information achieved with these markers. twenty-six rapd and 25 issr primers were employed. the rapd markers produced 185 bands, 72% of which were ...201121751156
[development and reproduction of sipha flava (forbes) (hemiptera: aphididae) at different temperatures].the aphid sipha flava (forbes) is a pest on elephant grass, but little is known about its biology. the objective of this work was to evaluate the temperature effects on the development, survival and reproduction of s. flava fed on pennisetum purpureum. twelve-hour-old nymphs were individualized on sections of elephant grass blades and maintained at 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 degrees c+/-1 degrees c, ur 70+/-10% and 12 h photophase. a total of 150 nymphs were used per treatment divided in 30 repli ...200919618044
thermal conversion of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum schum) to bio-gas, bio-oil and charcoal.elephant grass is an abundant, fast growing plant with significant potential as a renewable energy source and for conversion to higher calorific value fuels. this work investigates thermal conversion of elephant grass to bio-gas, bio-oil and charcoal under two heating rates of 10 and 50 degrees c/min. the energy required to pyrolyse elephant grass was evaluated using computer aided thermal analysis technique, while composition of the resultant bio-gas and bio-oil products were monitored with gas ...200818406608
use of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) acid hydrolysate for microbial oil production by trichosporon cutaneum.elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) dilute acid hydrolysate contains 34.6 g/l total sugars. the potential of lipid production by oleaginous yeast trichosporon cutaneum grown on elephant grass acid hydrolysate was investigated for the first time. during the fermentation process on the elephant grass acid hydrolysate, glucose, xylose, and arabinose could be well utilized as carbon sources by t. cutaneum. interestingly, xylose was almost no use before glucose was consumed completely. this illustr ...201626771212
second-generation ethanol production from elephant grass at high total solids.the enzymatic hydrolysis of pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass) was evaluated at high total solid levels (from 4% to 20% (w/v)) in a concomitant ball milling treatment in a rotating hydrolysis reactor (rhr). the greatest glucose yield was 20.17% when 4% (w/v) untreated biomass was employed. when sugars obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis were submitted to fermentation with saccharomyces cerevisiae, the greatest ethanol yield was 22.61% when 4% (w/v) untreated biomass was employed; however, the ...201627023383
decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal waste and poultry manure in the soil in a biofuel crops field.biofuel crops are gaining importance because of the need to replace non-renewable sources. also, due to the increasing amounts of wastes generated, there is the need to recycle them to the soil, both to fertilize crops and to improve soil physical properties through organic matter increase and microbiological changes in the rhizosphere. we therefore studied the influence of six biofuel crops (elephant grass, giant cane, sugarcane, blue gum, black cottonwood, willow) on the decomposition rate and ...201727620351
carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed babassu cake (orbignya speciosa) as a replacement for elephant grass silage.the study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. forty-five castrated male santa ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%dm) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to ...201727714492
performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.the influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. the product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. the maximum h2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. a h2/co rat ...201627367811
water-energy nexus: anaerobic co-digestion with elephant grass hydrolyzate.the anaerobic co-digestion process in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (cstr) was carried out under mesophilic conditions (37 ± 0.2 °c). all the trials were performed at a hydraulic retention time (hrt) of 15 days and the ad reactor was daily fed with a mixture of sewage sludge (ss) and elephant grass hydrolyzate (egh). in this study, three different trials were assessed, with different mixture proportions of ssss and egh: f0 (100:0,v/v), f1 (75:25, v/v) and f2 (50:50, v/v), during 90 days each ...201627315600
influence of different chemical pretreatments of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum, schum.) used as a substrate for cellulase and xylanase production in submerged cultivation.this study evaluated the potential use of elephant grass biomass, a highly productive species, for cellulase and xylanase production by the cellulolytic mutant penicillium echinulatum 9a02s1 in submerged cultivation, using untreated biomass, biomass pretreated with different concentrations of naoh, h2so4 or nh4oh, or biomass pretreated with h2o at 121 °c. for filter paper activity, all cultivation carried out with pretreated elephant grass under the evaluated conditions showed superior activity ...201627164962
potential development of compressed bio-methane gas production from pig farms and elephant grass silage for transportation in thailand.this research project evaluated biogas production using anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and elephant grass silage in large scale to delivered transportation directly for cars. anaerobic co-digestion was estimated in three full-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (cstrs) at 40°c. in the form of compressed bio-methane gas (cbg) production was 14,400m(3)/day (ch4 60-70%) amount of cbg was 9600m(3)/day. the procedure was enhanced by using molecular sieve, activated carbon for removal of mo ...201424472747
treatment of petroleum drill cuttings using bioaugmentation and biostimulation supplemented with phytoremediation.this study sought to compare the effectiveness of bioaugmentation and biostimulation, as well as the combination of both techniques, supplemented with phytoremediation, in the decontamination of petroleum drill cuttings. drill cuttings with relatively low concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (tph) and metals were mixed with soil in the ratio 5:1 and treated with three different combinations of the bioremediation options. option a entailed bioaugmentation supplemented with phytoremediati ...201627128694
122 ovarian follicular dynamics in cross-bred ewes during the rainy season under tropical conditions.small ruminants are an important livestock species on many island nations of the eastern caribbean region and serve as a vital source of food and income. this study was designed to characterise follicular development during the inter-ovulatory interval (interval between 2 consecutive ovulations) under tropical conditions. non-lactating, 2- to 4-year-old crossbred barbados-black belly×white virgin island ewes weighing a mean 30.4kg with mean body condition score 2.9 (score 1-5) were used during s ...201628278919
land use intensification effects in soil arthropod community of an entisol in pernambuco state, brazil.the interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in pernambuco state, brazil. the soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. the land uses studied were ...201425431792
xylanase production by trichoderma reesei rut c-30 on rice straw.xylanase production of trichoderma reesei rut c-30 was examined at different initial ph values (4.8, 5.9, and 7.0) on rice straw in shake flasks, and in a fermentor, for the best ph condition. enzyme performance was tested on ammonia-treated dwarf elephant grass. the maximum xylanase activities, 92 and 122 iu/ml, were obtained at ph 4.8 in the shake flasks and fermentor, respectively, in which good growth of the fungus was observed during the first 24 h and consumption of proteins dissolved from ...200312721409
comparative study on the growth and yield of pleurotus ostreatus mushroom on different lignocellulosic by-products.eight lignocellulosic by-products were evaluated as substrates for cultivation of the oyster mushroom, pleurotus ostreatus ( jacq. ex. fr) kummer. the yields of mushroom on the different substrates were 183.1, 151.8, 111.5, 87.8, 49.5, 23.3, 13.0 and 0.0 g for composted sawdust of triplochiton scleroxylon, rice straw, banana leaves, maize stover, corn husk, rice husk, fresh sawdust, and elephant grass, respectively. the biological efficiency (be) followed the same pattern and ranged from 61.0% f ...200312715251
use of elephant grass for energy production in campos dos goytacazes-rj, brazil.elephant grass is a tropical forage plant widely distributed throughout brazil. it was first exclusively used in the livestock sector as cattle feed. the grass is characterized by its high productivity and photosynthetic capacity and is considered as an alternative source of renewable energy. here, we estimated the general combining ability of the parents and specific combining ability of the hybrids based on morpho-agronomic biomass-quality traits. the experiment was conducted in a randomized b ...201425526210
supplementation with ca salts of soybean oil interacts with concentrate level in grazing dairy cows: milk production and milk composition.in this study, we investigated the associative effects of concentrate levels and ca salts of soybean oil (csso) supplementation on milk production, milk composition, and milk fatty acids of mid-lactation dairy cows grazing on tropical pasture. twenty-four jersey × holstein cows were used in a randomized block design and assigned to four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. factors evaluated were concentrate levels (low, 3 kg/day vs. high, 7 kg/day of concentrate) and csso supplementa ...201627562303
supplementation with ca salts of soybean oil interacts with concentrate level in grazing dairy cows: intake, ingestive behavior, and ruminal parameters.in this study, we investigated the associative effects of concentrate levels and ca salts of soybean oil (csso) supplementation on performance and ruminal parameters of mid-lactation dairy cows grazing on tropical pasture. twenty-four jersey × holstein cows were used in a randomized block design and assigned to four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. factors evaluated were concentrate levels (low, 3 kg/day vs. high, 7 kg/day of concentrate) and csso supplementation (without csso vs ...201627577598
selenium volatilization in vegetated agricultural drainage sediment from the san luis drain, central california.the presence of large amounts of se-laden agricultural drainage sediment in the san luis drain, central california, poses a serious toxic threat to wildlife in the surrounding environment. effective management of the drainage sediment becomes a practical challenge because the sediment is polluted with high levels of se, b, and salts. this two-year field study was conducted to identify the best plant species that are salt and b tolerant and that have a superior ability of volatilizing se from dra ...200516018890
mango tree pruning hay in substitution of elephant grass in cattle diet.this experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of substitution (0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 %) of elephant grass by hay of mango tree pruning (hmtp) on intake and digestibility in cattle and on the in vitro gas production. moreover, the effect of tannin in hmtp on the gas production and in vitro degradability of the dry matter was evaluated, using polyethylene glycol (peg). the intake and digestibility were evaluated in a double 4 × 4 square latin design, using eight holstei ...201323212837
effects of inclusion levels of banana (musa spp.) peelings on feed degradability and rumen environment of cattle fed basal elephant grass.the effect of feeding varying banana peeling (bp) levels on rumen environment and feed degradation characteristics was evaluated using three rumen fistulated steers in four treatments. the steers were fed bp at 0, 20, 40, and 60% levels of the daily ration with basal elephant grass (eg) to constitute four diets. maize bran, cotton seed cake, and gliricidia sepium were offered to make the diets iso-nitrogenous. the nylon bag technique was used to measure bp and eg dry matter (dm), crude protein ( ...201626898690
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