establishment of cell lines from a tropical grouper, epinephelus awoara (temminck & schlegel), and their susceptibility to grouper irido- and nodaviruses.four tropical marine fish cell lines have been established from the eye, fin, heart and swim bladder of grouper, epinephelus awoara (temminck & schlegel). optimum media and temperature conditions for maximum growth were standardized. the eye and swim bladder cells were mostly epithelial, but the fin and heart cells were mostly fibroblastic. the viability of cells was 95% after 1 year of storage in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees c). besides these four cell lines, previously established grouper bra ...200312962209
[microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of nine species of grouper in genus epinephelus].thirteen microsatellite markers of epinephelus awoara previously discovered by our lab were selected to analyze the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of nine species of grouper (e. awoara, e. merra, e. fario, e. fasciatus, e. lanceolatus, e. akaara, e. septemfasciatus, e. coioides and e. fuscoguttatus) from south china sea. the results showed that the number of total alleles of these 13 microsatellite loci was 84 in these fishes, the mean number of alleles ranged from 2.69 to 5.38, ...200717646150
characterization of yellow grouper epinephelus awoara (serranidae) karyotype by chromosome bandings and fluorescence in situ hybridization.the cytogenetics of yellow grouper epinephelus awoara was studied using multiple cytogenetic markers [giemsa staining, c-banding, ag-nors and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish)]. giemsa staining results showed that the karyotypic formula of e. awoara was 2n = 48a, fn (fundamental number) = 48. faint c-bandings were only detected at the centromeric regions of chromosome pair number 24, being almost indiscernible on the other chromosome pairs. after ag-nor staining, one pair of nucleolar or ...201222471805
the complete mitochondrial genome of epinephelus awoara (perciformes: epinephelus) with phylogenetic consideration.the complete mitochondrial genome of the epinephelus awoara was presented in this study. the mitochondrial genome is 16 798-bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes, and a control region. the gene order and composition of epinephelus awoara mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. the nucleotide compositions of the light strand in descending order is 27.35% of a, 16.53% of c, 28.44% of t, and 27.69% of g. with the exception of the na ...201626370107
analysis of epa and dha in the viscera of marine fish using gas chromatography.the viscera of 10 kinds of marine fishes were collected for fish oil extraction and detection of dha and epa, two most important polyunsaturated fatty acids. the fish oil extraction ratio for the evaluated fishes varied from 0.95% to 10.18% (wt%). pseudosciaena crocea presented the highest fish oil yield, followed by mustelus manazo, hippoglossus and sciaenopsocellatus. a gas chromatography method was then established for analysis of epa/dha. the epa concentration (in methyl ester form) in the f ...201627087076
significance of cooking oil to bioaccessibility of ddts and pbdes in raw and cooked fish: implications for human health risk.the present study examined the bioacessibility of ddts and pbdes in cooked fish (yellow grouper; epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. the bioaccessibility of ddts and pbdes increased from 60% and 26% in raw fish to 83% and 63%, respectively, after addition of oil to raw fish. however, they decreased from 83% to 66% and from 63% to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. human health risk assessment based on bioac ...201728382825
identification of differentially expressed genes in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated yellow grouper epinephelus awoara spleen.a subtracted cdna library from lipopolysaccharide (lps)-stimulated epinephelus awoara spleen was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh). random clones (209) were selected and sequenced. after assembling, 36 contigs and 56 singlets (accession numbers: eb410743-eb410834) were finally obtained, some of which were immune-related genes. a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) analysis of the expression patterns of eight transcripts showed that seven of th ...200717210258
intracellular survival of virulence and low-virulence strains of vibrio parahaemolyticus in epinephelus awoara macrophages and peripheral this study, we examined the virulence factors and pathogenesis of vibrio parahaemolyticus in epinephelus awoara. the chemotactic motility of v. parahaemolyticus for phagocytosis and intracellular survival in fish macrophages was determined using virulence strains and low-virulence strains of v. parahaemolyticus. we found that the intracellular mean number of virulence strains of v. parahaemolyticus ranged from 0-180 min after co-incubation with macrophages and peripheral leukocytes, was relat ...201525730008
[bacterial community characterization of rearing water of marine recirculating aquaculture systems for yellow grouper (epinephelus awoara)].this study was aimed to reveal the bacterial community characteristics of rearing water of marine recirculating aquaculture system for yellow grouper (epinephelus awoara), and compare the differences between bacterial community structure of healthy rearing water and sick rearing water in order to elucidate the relationship between bacterial community and fish disease.201627373073
expression, purification and characterization of yellow grouper epinephelus awoara regulator of g protein signaling 16 protein.regulators of g-protein signaling (rgs) proteins are a family of proteins, which accelerate gtpase-activity intrinsic to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric g-proteins and play crucial roles in the physiological control of g-protein signaling. here, yellow grouper rgs16 protein was expressed in escherichia coli and purified by ni-nta affinity chromatography. the expression level of the fusion protein was up to 30% of the total cellular protein.western blotting analysis showed that a band with t ...201121249447
a first-order-like state transition for recombinant protein folding.normally, proteins will aggregate and precipitate by direct folding processes. in this study, we report that quasi-static processes can restore both the structure and bio-function of two kinds of fish recombinant growth hormones (plecoglossus altivelis and epinephelus awoara). the conformational changes and the particle-size-distribution (psd) of each refolding intermediate can be monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy (cd) and dynamic light scattering (dls), respectively. conformation ana ...200312956608
detection of species-specific long vntrs in mitochondrial control region and their application to identifying sympatric hong kong grouper (epinephelus akaara) and yellow grouper (epinephelus awoara).length variation and heteroplasmy were observed in pcr products of the first half of mtdna control region of both hong kong grouper (epinephelus akaara) and yellow grouper (epinephelus awoara). dna sequencing unveiled the phenomena were caused by the presence of species-specific long variable number tandem repeats (vntrs). this is the first report on the mtdna vntrs and their heteroplasmy in groupers. moreover, these vntrs are also the longest such structure found in teleost fish. thereafter, we ...201121429126
complete mitochondrial genome of yellow grouper epinephelus awoara (perciformes, epinephelidae).in this paper, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of epinephelus awoara has been determined. the mt genome (16,802 bp) had the canonical mt gene content and arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes, and 2 non-coding regions. the overall base composition of the heavy-strand is 28.47% a, 27.29% t, 16.54% g, and 27.70% c, with an at content of 56.76%. it shared 92.6%, 85.5%, 86.1%, 84.9%, and 85.7% identities with that of epinephelus akaara, epinephelus bruneu ...201222943451
primary male development of two sequentially hermaphroditic groupers, epinephelus akaara and epinephelus awoara (perciformes: epinephelidae).gonad ontogeny of the hong kong grouper epinephelus akaara (a bi-directional sex changer) and the yellow grouper epinephelus awoara (a protogynous hermaphrodite) was examined for the first time from post-larval phase until first sexual maturation, by histology. approximately 20 specimens of each species were collected randomly every 2-7 weeks from rearing tanks with natural sea water and temperature between june 2013 and june 2014. the paired gonadal primordia (gp) were observed at 6 weeks after ...201626935897
comparative genomic of the baff and baff-like genes and immune response to bacteria of miiuy croaker (miichthys miiuy).as a member of the tumor necrosis factor (tnf) family, b cell activating factor (baff), also known as tnf ligand superfamily member 13b (tnf13b), playing a critical role in enhancing immune responses. baff is a central cytokine for b-cell survival, proliferation, maturation and immunoglobulin secretion. in the present study, we describe the identification of the miiuy croaker baff (designed mmbaff) and baff-like (designed mmbaff-like) genes. the cdna of mmbaff contains an open reading frame (orf ...201525542380
molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of b-cell activating factor (baff) in yellow grouper, epinephelus awoara.b cell activating factor (baff), a ligand belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (tnf) family is critical to b cell survival, proliferation, maturation and immunoglobulin secretion. in this study, the yellow grouper (epinephelus awoara) baff (designated eabaff) gene was cloned using rt-pcr and race (rapid amplification of cdna ends) techniques. the full-length eabaff was 1442bp and contained an open reading frame of 780bp encoding a putative protein of 259 amino acids. amino acids sequence compa ...201424491489
isolation and gene expression of yellow grouper ferritin heavy chain subunit after lipopolysaccharide treatment.ferritin is a ubiquitous and conserved iron storage protein that plays a central role in iron metabolism. the ferritin heavy chain subunit (ferh) homolog was isolated from yellow grouper (epinephelus awoara) spleen using suppression subtractive hybridization and race-pcr. the nucleotide sequence of ferh full-length cdna was 1173 bp and contained an open reading frame of 534 bp, encoding a putative protein of 177 amino acids. the encoded protein shows 78-94% identity with homologs. based on phylo ...201222210544
structural restoration of inactive recombinant fish growth hormones by chemical chaperonin and solvent restraint approaches.recombinant proteins may undergo conformational distortion, leading to aggregation and loss of function, when they are expressed in heterologous systems. the structural and functional restoration of such inactive proteins is highly desirable. we have over-expressed recombinant growth hormones from the fish ayu (plecoglossus altivelis) and yellow grouper (epinephelus awoara) by a pet expression system. both recombinant proteins accumulate as insoluble form in escherichia coli. we refolded these i ...200212034864
nucleic acids digestion by enzymes in the stomach of snakehead (channa argus) and banded grouper (epinephelus awoara).dietary nucleic acids (nas) were important nutrients. however, the digestion of nas in stomach has not been studied. in this study, the digestion of nas by enzymes from fish stomach was investigated. the snakehead pepsins (sp) which were the main enzymes in stomach were extracted and purified. the purity of sp was evaluated by sds-page and hplc. the snakehead pepsin 2 (sp2) which was the main component in the extracts was used for investigating the protein and nas digestion activity. sp2 could d ...201727531133
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