winter vomiting disease caused by calicivirus.the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of an outbreak of winter vomiting disease among london schoolchildren are described. evidence is presented to support the view that this epidemic was caused by a human calicivirus, a virus not previously shown to be associated with this disease in man.1979229128
asymptomatic human calicivirus infection in a day care center.human caliciviruses (hcvs) are little known, recently recognized viruses associated with gastroenteritis. we identified hcv infection in an outbreak of gastroenteritis which occurred in one room of a day care center (dcc) participating in a longitudinal study of diarrhea. utilizing an enzyme-linked immunoassay and immunosorbent electron microscopy to detect hcv, we tested specimens from all children in attendance during the period of the illness outbreak and during prior and subsequent weeks. hc ...19902159612
human calicivirus-associated diarrhea in children attending day care centers.we investigated human calicivirus (hcv)-associated diarrhea in children attending day care centers by using stool specimens collected in 1981-1983. we used a screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) derived from reagents prepared against the sapporo strain of hcv and confirmed positive results with a blocking elisa and immunosorbent electron microscopy. hcv was detected in 11 (2.9%) of 375 diarrheal stools and in none of 86 stools from asymptomatic contacts. this incidence rate was ha ...19892535867
antigenic relationships between human caliciviruses and norwalk virus.we investigated antigenic relationships between human calicivirus (hcv) strains and norwalk virus by using immune electron microscopy (iem) and radioimmunoassay (ria). three serologically distinct hcv strains, uk1, uk2, and japan, were demonstrated by iem, as was evidence for two additional strains, uk3 and uk4. although hcv strains and norwalk virus were distinct by iem, 12 of 20 patients with gastroenteritis due to hcv uk4 and two of eight with gastroenteritis due to uk2 showed seroconversions ...19872821127
an outbreak of gastroenteritis in a home for the elderly associated with astrovirus type 1 and human calicivirus.we describe an outbreak of gastroenteritis, which lasted for 22 days in a residential home for the elderly. the outbreak was biphasic and affected 34/42 (80%) residents and 13/29 (44%) members of the staff. calicivirus was associated with cases of illness during the first 9 days of the outbreak, and astrovirus type 1 with cases arising between days 16 to 22. although the symptoms were generally mild, the resources required and the inconvenience caused were considerable.19872826678
humoral immunity in infants with gastroenteritis caused by human assess the serum immune response in infants with gastroenteritis caused by human calicivirus (hcv), we tested a total of 165 serum specimens for antibodies to hcv by a radioimmunoassay blocking (ria-bl) test. the specificity of the ria-bl test for antibody to hcv was established as follows: paired sera from patients with hcv gastroenteritis revealed significant rises in antibody to hcv, whereas there was no significant change in ria-bl titer to hcv in paired sera collected from the same indiv ...19852993432
[epidemiology, etiology and laboratory diagnosis of infectious diarrhea diseases in the tropics].diarrhoeal diseases belong to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in tropical countries, especially in infants and small children. about one billion episodes are estimated for this group of age with 4.6 million fatalities. many causes are discussed to explain the high incidence: bottle feeding of infants, protein malnutrition, unsafe drinking water and unsafe disposal of excrements and sewage, unsufficient consciousness of personal and domestic hygiene, lack of knowledge on the origin ...19853000920
prevalence of antibody to human calicivirus in japan and southeast asia determined by radioimmunoassay.three hundred ninety single sera from adults in japan, indonesia, singapore, and papua new guinea were tested for antibodies to human calicivirus (hcv) by a radioimmunoassay blocking test. a high prevalence of antibodies was observed in samples collected in japan and southeast asia. of 240 serum specimens collected from five districts in japan, 209 (87.1%) were positive for hcv antibodies. no striking difference in the prevalence of the antibody was seen among those districts. in sera collected ...19853001130
seroepidemiological survey of the prevalence of antibodies to a strain of human calicivirus.batches of pooled immune globulins and sera were tested by immune electron microscopy (iem) for the presence of antibodies to a strain of human calicivirus (hcv, uk1). the results show that this strain of hcv is prevalent throughout many parts of the world and that the majority of the population experience infection by the age of 12 years. the survey carried out in the united kingdom indicates that the presence of maternal antibody correlates with some degree of protection during the first few w ...19873035073
immunobiology of norwalk virus.clinical immunity to norwalk virus in inoculated human volunteers appears to be unusual for gastroenteritis viruses, as certain individuals are repeatedly ill on long-term virus rechallenge and others remain persistently well. in these volunteers there is a paradoxical inverse correlation between the prechallenge serum (and jejunal fluid) norwalk antibody level (measured by radioimmunoassay) and resistance to illness, suggesting that non-immunological factors, perhaps genetic, may be important i ...19873036440
detection of human calicivirus antigen and antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) were developed to detect human calicivirus (hcv) antigen and antibody to hcv. the elisas were specific for hcv and as sensitive as a previously developed radioimmunoassay. these elisas were used to search for evidence of hcv infection in the united states, where hcv gastroenteritis has rarely been reported. one hundred sixty-three stool samples collected from children hospitalized with diarrhea were examined; one sample was positive in the elisa. typic ...19883182991
prevalence of antibody to human calicivirus in general population of northern japan.serum specimens from children and adults living in saporo, japan, were tested for antibody against human calicivirus by immune electron microscopy (iem), using virus-rich faecal extracts as the source of antigen. of 83 serum specimens tested, 49 (59%) were positive for calicivirus antibody. age-related prevalence of antibody to calicivirus was as follows: 23% (3/13) in the 0-5-month-old group, 30% (6/20) in the 6-23-month-old group, 65% (13/20) in the 2-5-year-old group, and 90% in school childr ...19816270278
the polypeptide of a human calicivirus.viral particles morphologically resembling animals caliciviruses in the faeces of a patient with acute gastroenteritis were purified, radiolabeled with [125i], and analyzed by sds-page. a single major structural protein with a mol. mass 62,000 daltons was identified by immunoprecipitation technique. the finding is consistent with human calicivirus-like particles associated with gastroenteritis being a member of the family caliciviridae.19836651531
microtiter solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of human calicivirus in stools.a microtiter solid-phase radioimmunoassay (ria) was developed for detection of human calicivirus in stool specimens. seventy-eight stool specimens were tested by ria. all 17 specimens positive for human calicivirus by electron microscopy (em) were also positive by ria. in addition, of 21 specimens obtained from an outbreak of caliciviral gastroenteritis, 11 were positive by ria but negative by em. of 20 specimens positive for rotavirus by em and 20 nondiarrheic specimens with no virus, 2 and 1, ...19836833476
enzyme immunoassay using baculovirus-expressed human calicivirus (mexico) for the measurement of igg responses and determining its seroprevalence in london, uk.the use of an enzyme immunoassay (eia) employing a baculovirus-expressed recombinant human calicivirus (mexico virus, mxv) for the detection of igg-specific antibodies is described. mxv appeared to be related antigenically to a strain of small round structured virus, srsv/uk4/leeds/91, which had previously been shown by solid phase immune electron microscopy (spiem) to be related to snow mountain agent (sma). one other outbreak which occurred in san anita, usa in 1980 and was due to consumption ...19957561789
development of an elisa to detect mx virus, a human calicivirus in the snow mountain agent virus is a snow mountain agent (sma) genogroup human calicivirus (hucv) identified in a mexican child with diarrhoea. an elisa using hyperimmune antisera to the recombinant mx virus (rmx) capsid was developed to detect sma genogroup hucvs in stool specimens. the rmx elisa detected the prototype mx virus, sma, and hawaii agent (ha), but not norwalk virus (nv) or sapporo virus. twenty-three diarrhoea stool specimens from children attending day care centres in norfolk, virginia, were positive by ...19957595381
expression, self-assembly, and antigenicity of a snow mountain agent-like calicivirus capsid protein.virus-like particles were produced in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus containing the capsid gene of mx virus, a mexican strain of human calicivirus. these recombinant mx (rmx) particles were morphologically similar to recombinant norwalk virus (rnv) particles as observed under an electron microscope and contained a single capsid protein with a molecular weight of 57,000, which was slightly smaller than that of rnv. this protein was immunoprecipitated by sera from volunteers ...19957650166
molecular characterization of a human calicivirus with sequence relationships closer to animal caliciviruses than other known human caliciviruses.cdna clones were produced from a morphologically typical human calicivirus (hucv) in stool specimens collected in 1982 during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in sapporo, japan. the cdna clones were generated separately in two laboratories by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using primers 35 and 36 derived from norwalk virus. the rt-pcr product from six specimens was of the predicted size, had a continuous protein encoding frame on the positive strand, and contained glps an ...19957775942
molecular characterization of hawaii virus and other norwalk-like viruses: evidence for genetic polymorphism among human caliciviruses.hawaii virus (hv), from a 1971 family outbreak of gastroenteritis, is serotypically distinct from norwalk virus (nv), recently identified as a human calicivirus by molecular analysis. about 2600 consecutive nucleotides of the hv genome (including those encoding the viral capsid protein) and part of the polymerase region of three other viruses (mdv1, mdv6 and sv7) were sequenced. comparison of the amino acid sequence of the capsid protein of hv with nv and other human caliciviruses (toronto virus ...19948077710
epidemiological study of norwalk virus infections in japan and southeast asia by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with norwalk virus capsid protein produced by the baculovirus expression this study, we investigated norwalk virus (nv) antigen and antibody to recombinant nv (rnv) in human populations in japan and southeast asia by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas). baculovirus-expressed recombinant nv (rnv) capsid protein was used for preparing antisera to rnv or used as an antigen for detecting antibody to rnv. the elisas were specific for nv and had sensitivities equivalent to or higher than those of the previously developed radioimmunoassays. in 159 stool samples o ...19948126165
seroprevalence studies using a recombinant norwalk virus protein enzyme immunoassay.a recombinant norwalk virus (nv) protein enzyme immunoassay was used to study the age of acquisition of nv igg in various populations. in london, england, there was little evidence of infection during the first 2 years of life. however, the prevalence of nv igg rose steadily throughout the period that children attend school, reaching a peak of 70% in the group aged 11-16 years. high levels of maternal antibody were detected in infants aged < 3 months. comparison of the acquisition of antibodies ...19948158109
efficacy of a recombinant norwalk virus protein enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of infections with norwalk virus and other human "candidate" caliciviruses.a recombinant norwalk virus antigen enzyme immunoassay (rnv eia) for the detection fo norwalk virus (nv) antibodies was evaluated using sera from volunteers and patients infected with norwalk, hawaii, snow mountain agent, small round structured viruses (srsv), and human calicivirus (hucv) strains. the results for nv antibodies correlated well with previous results obtained using a nv radioimmunoassay. the test rnv eia was found to be highly specific for nv. the results of tests on sera obtained ...19938263497
antigenic mapping of the recombinant norwalk virus capsid protein using monoclonal antibodies.norwalk virus (nv) is the prototype strain of a group of noncultivatable caliciviruses that infect humans and cause outbreaks of epidemic acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. the nv virion is composed of 180 copies of a single structural protein that, when expressed in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus, assembles into empty recombinant norwalk virus-like particles (rnv vlps) which are morphologically and antigenically similar to native nv. we have begun to dissect the antigenic ...19968599210
characterization of toronto virus capsid protein expressed in baculovirus.toronto virus (tv), previously called "minireovirus", a human calicivirus classified as genogroup 2 and phylogenetic type p2-a, was originally described in association with diarrhea in children. the second open reading frame, encoding the capsid protein of tv24, was expressed in a baculovirus recombinant. the recombinant baculovirus produced a protein (rtv) with an apparent molecular mass of 58 kda that self-assembled into virus-like particles approximately 30 nm in diameter with a density of 1. ...19968678832
study on occurrence of human calicivirus (mexico strain) as cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of calicivirus-associated diarrhoea in the united kingdom, 1983-1995.the use of a recently developed eia using antisera raised against purified baculovirus expressed recombinant mexico virus (rmx) capsid protein is described for screening for human calicivirus in stools. the results show that mx-like viruses have been circulating in the uk periodically since 1983 and were an occasional cause of sporadic cases of diarrhoea in infants and outbreaks of infection among elderly patients in hospitals and old people's homes. further evidence is presented that some strai ...19968801289
completion of the norwalk virus genome sequence.norwalk virus (nv) is the prototype human calicivirus, and causes epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. the sequence and predicted genome organization of nv and a nv-like virus [southampton virus (shv)] suggested they are similar viruses at the nucleotide and amino acid level, although shv was reported to be antigenically distinct from nv. a recent review described the discovery of an additional 12 nucleotides at the 5' end of shv and prompted us to investigate the possibility of addition ...19968883366
detection and analysis of a small round-structured virus strain in oysters implicated in an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis.outbreaks of shellfish-transmitted viral disease occur periodically, but frequently the causative agent is not identified. in november 1993, during investigation of a multistate outbreak of acute gastroenteritis, incriminated lots of oysters were collected. oyster tissues (stomachs and digestive diverticula) were processed for virus extraction and nucleic acid purification. human calicivirus sequences were sought by reverse transcriptase pcr using different primer sets. amplicons were obtained f ...19968900022
outbreaks of gastroenteritis in elderly nursing homes and retirement facilities associated with human caliciviruses.eleven outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis, eight of which were in nursing homes or retirement facilities, were reported in virginia during the winter of 1993-1994. serum samples (four outbreaks) and stool samples (two outbreaks) from involved people were tested for human calicivirus (hucv) infection by enzyme immune assays (eias) using recombinant norwalk virus (rnv) and mexico virus (rmx) capsid antigens and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). of the 31 pairs of acute and ...19968950691
the epidemiology of human calicivirus/sapporo/82/japan.based on genome analysis of the rna-dependent rna polymerase region, it has been proposed that human caliciviruses (hucv) can be classified into at least three genogroups: genogroup i is represented by norwalk virus (nv), genogroup ii by snow mountain agent (sma) and genogroup iii by hucv/sapporo/82/japan (hucv/sa/82/j) virus. hucv/sa/82/j strain is genetically unique and more closely related to animal caliciviruses than are other known hucvs, such as nv and sma. hucv/sa/82/j strain was detected ...19969015123
incidence of human calicivirus and rotavirus infection in patients with gastroenteritis in south africa.human caliciviruses (hucvs) are reportedly responsible for 2.5-4% of nonbacterial sporadic gastroenteritis. the incidence of hucv infection in south africa is unknown. stool specimens from 1,296 south african patients with sporadic gastroenteritis were screened for the presence of hucvs using electron microscopy, recombinant enzyme immunoassays for norwalk (nv) and mexican (mx) viruses, and the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). rt-pcr products were sequenced to ascertain ...19979093943
parkville virus: a novel genetic variant of human calicivirus in the sapporo virus clade, associated with an outbreak of gastroenteritis in adults.this report describes the characterization of parkville virus, the etiologic agent of an outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis, that has the morphology of a calicivirus and genetic properties that distinguish it from previously identified strains in the sapporo/manchester virus clade. sequence analysis of the parkville virus genome showed it contained the rna-dependent rna polymerase motifs glpsg and ygdd characteristic of members of the family caliciviridae with an organization identical to tha ...19979179765
[calicivirus infection of the hare and human calicivirus].the calicivirus outbreak in hares which occurred in center west of france in the fall of 1996 illustrates the pathogenic role of caliciviruses in animals and in humans. a comparison of these different viruses, based on the rna nucleic sequences is presented. the aspect of interspecies transmission is also discussed.19979244573
human calicivirus genogroup ii capsid sequence diversity revealed by analyses of the prototype snow mountain agent.the snow mountain agent (sma) is the prototype genogroup ii and serotype 3 human calicivirus responsible for epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. we have cloned the region of the sma genome that encodes the single capsid protein. the predicted amino acid sequence of the capsid protein is distinct from other calicivirus strains that have been termed sma-like based on sequence similarity between the rna polymerase regions and iem reactivity. in a previous report, a high sequence similarity ...19979267456
sequence analysis of the gene encoding the capsid protein of the snow mountain human calicivirus.snow mountain virus (smv) is the reference strain for serotype 3 as determined by immune electron microscopy of the human caliciviruses that are associated with epidemic gastroenteritis. in order to establish the genetic relationship of its capsid protein with those from other human caliciviriuses, the sequence of the open reading frame 2 (orf2) encoding the smv capsid protein was determined. the smv orf2 sequence was 1626 nucleotides in length and the deduced protein of 542 amino acids had a ca ...19979354262
prevalence of antibodies to the hawaii strain of human calicivirus as measured by a recombinant protein based immunoassay.the evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay using recombinant hawaii virus-like particles (rhv-lps) with a panel of sera which had been screened previously for antibodies to norwalk virus (nv) and mexico virus (mxv) is described. the assay was also applied to study the epidemiology of hawaii virus. adult volunteers challenged with the prototype (genogroup ii, human calicivirus) hv developed significant igg responses (16-32 fold rises) following challenge whereas adults challenged or naturally infect ...19989496372
in vitro isolation and characterization of a calicivirus causing a vesicular disease of the hands and feet.we report that a calicivirus of oceanic origin, san miguel sea lion virus serotype 5 (smsv-5), is a human pathogen. this biotype was isolated originally from blisters on the flippers of northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) and replicates readily in primate and human cell lines. it infects a phylogenetically diverse array of hosts (poikilotherms to primates) and induces type-specific neutralizing antibodies in exposed humans. group antibody against a pooled antigen of smsv-5 and two other ser ...19989502467
detection of norwalk virus and other genogroup 1 human caliciviruses by a monoclonal antibody, recombinant-antigen-based immunoglobulin m capture enzyme immunoassay.sera obtained from two groups of adult volunteers infected with norwalk virus (nv) and two groups of patients involved in two natural outbreaks were tested for nv-reactive immunoglobulin m (igm) by use of a monoclonal antibody, recombinant-antigen-based igm capture enzyme immunoassay (eia). no nv-reactive igm was detected in the preinoculation sera of 15 volunteers, and 14 of 15 showed nv-reactive antibodies postinfection with nv. all of the volunteers showed igg seroconversion to nv. in the out ...19989542938
molecular characterization of morphologically typical human calicivirus sapporo.human calicivirus sapporo (sv) has typical calicivirus morphology and causes acute gastroenteritis in children. the nucleotide sequence of 3.2 kb of the 3' end of sv was determined from a cloned cdna. the 3' end of the sv genome is predicted to encode the rna-dependent rna polymerase region, the capsid protein and two small open reading frames. the nonstructural and capsid protein coding sequences in the sv genome are fused in a single open reading frame. the organization of these proteins in th ...19979672617
characterization of a recombinant human calicivirus capsid protein expressed in mammalian cells.the capsid protein of the hawaii strain of human calicivirus was expressed in the transient mva/bacteriophage t7 polymerase hybrid expression system in order to examine its processing in mammalian cells. selected amino acid modifications (an insertion, deletion, and substitution) at the predicted amino terminus of the capsid protein as well as the presence or absence of the orf3 gene were examined for their effect on capsid expression. the protein was expressed efficiently in cell lines derived ...19989725666
prevalence of human calicivirus infections in kenya as determined by enzyme immunoassays for three genogroups of the epidemiological survey on human calicivirus (hucv) infections and associated gastroenteritis in infants was conducted to clarify the prevalence of hucv infections in infants and adults in kenya. enzyme immunoassays (eias) for three genogroups of hucvs, norwalk virus (nv), mexico virus (mxv), and sapporo virus (sv), were used to detect antigen or antibody. we tested 1,431 stool samples obtained from children younger than 6 years old with acute gastroenteritis who visited outpatient clinics in ...19989774557
[human calicivirus (srsv) gastroenteritis]. 199910337759
human calicivirus-associated sporadic gastroenteritis in finnish children less than two years of age followed prospectively during a rotavirus vaccine trial.human caliciviruses (hucv) cause outbreaks of gastroenteritis, but their role in sporadic diarrhea in young children is not well-established.199910353514
prevalence of group a rotavirus, human calicivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus type 40 and 41 infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in dijon, a rotaviruses, human caliciviruses, astroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 were detected by enzyme immunoassay or reverse transcription-pcr in 61, 14, 6, and 3% of stool specimens from 414 children consulting for gastroenteritis between 1995 and 1998. these data highlight the importance of caliciviruses in infantile gastroenteritis. among these, norwalk-like viruses belonging to genogroup ii were predominant.199910449507
seroepidemiological study of genogroup i and ii calicivirus infections in south and southern africa.diarrhoea is associated with the daily death of between 180 and 200 children under the age of 5 years in south africa. until recently, many cases and outbreaks of diarrhoea were not associated with a known aetiologic agent. previous studies using baculovirus-expressed norwalk virus (nv) and mexico virus (mxv) capsid antigens have shown that human calicivirus infection is common in south africa. in this study, our surveillance was extended to different populations, as well as to four other southe ...199910459161
x-ray crystallographic structure of the norwalk virus capsid.norwalk virus, a noncultivatable human calicivirus, is the major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in humans. the first x-ray structure of a calicivirus capsid, which consists of 180 copies of a single protein, has been determined by phase extension from a low-resolution electron microscopy structure. the capsid protein has a protruding (p) domain connected by a flexible hinge to a shell (s) domain that has a classical eight-stranded beta-sandwich motif. the structure of the p domain is unlike t ...199910514371
seroprevalence against norwalk-like human caliciviruses in beijing, china.serum specimens from 1,109 individuals at different ages in beijing, china, were collected between april 1996 and march 1997 and tested for igg antibodies against human caliciviruses using enzyme immune assays (eias). baculovirus-expressed recombinant norwalk virus (rnv) and mexican virus (rmxv) capsid proteins were used as antigens. the seroprevalence was 89% for rnv and 91% for rmxv. similar seroprevalence between the two antigens was observed in individual age groups and both genders. infants ...200010568770
characterization of a novel human calicivirus that may be a naturally occurring recombinant.we identified a norwalk-like calicivirus (cv) whose genome likely was derived from naturally occurring recombination. this strain (arg320) was detected by the eia developed against recombinant mexico virus (rmxv) capsids, but the viral rna polymerase sequence was closer to lordsdale virus, in a separate genetic cluster of norwalk-like viruses. a 3.3 kb cdna from the rna polymerase region to the 3' end of the genome of arg320 was cloned and sequenced. the sequence demonstrated that the capsid reg ...199910664391
the new genotypic human calicivirus isolated in seoul.a new type of human calicivirus (hucv) showing the classic cup-shaped surface morphology was identified in the stool sample from a child with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea (sk virus). genomic rna was extracted directly from the stool sample, and the nucleotide sequence of 3.2 kb of the 3' end of sk virus was determined from cdna. this region spanned sequences from the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) region in the open reading frame 1 (orf1) to the 3' poly a tail. the non- ...200010762055
sapporo virus: history and recent findings.morphologically distinct caliciviruses of human origin were first found in stools of children with gastroenteritis in 1976. sapporo virus, or human calicivirus sapporo, with typical surface morphology was first detected during a gastroenteritis outbreak in a home for infants in sapporo, japan, in 1977. since then, morphologically and antigenically identical virus has been detected frequently in the same institution in association with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. sapporo virus is widely distrib ...200010804142
diagnosis of human caliciviruses by use of enzyme immunoassays.the application of molecular technologies, such as the expression of viral proteins in baculovirus, has provided a powerful approach to the diagnosis of human calicivirus (hucv) infections. the baculovirus-expressed hucv capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like particles, providing excellent reagents for immunologic assays, such as enzyme immunoassays (eias). following the expression of the capsid protein of norwalk virus, the capsid proteins of 8 other hucv strains have been expressed in b ...200010804148
[first detection of human calicivirus infection in hungary].human caliciviruses (hucvs) are important pathogens all over the world. they cause acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in all age-groups. the aim of the study was to detect hucv infection in hungary. stool samples examined were received from a food-borne outbreak in nursery and elementary school in szeged and algyó areas november 1998. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) method was successfully used for the detection of hucvs in all stool samples received. this is ...200011026056
molecular detection of human calicivirus in young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in melbourne, australia, during 1999.reverse transcription-pcr and sequence analysis identified calciviruses in 32 of 60 stool specimens (negative for other enteric pathogens) obtained from children admitted to our hospital with acute gastroenteritis. the overall annual incidence rate for calcivirus was 9% (32 of 354 children). molecular analysis identified 30 "norwalk-like virus" genogroup ii (predominantly lordsdale cluster) and 2 "sapporo-like virus" strains.200111427606
sequence diversity of human caliciviruses recovered from children with diarrhea in mendoza, argentina, 1995-1998.human caliciviruses were detected by eia and/or rt-pcr in stool specimens from children with diarrhea treated at out- or in-patient facilities between 1995 and 1998 in mendoza, argentina. mexico virus-like strains detected by primers nv36/51 were transiently prevalent in 1995/1996. significantly more human caliciviruses were detected when primers were designed from contemporaneously circulating strains. nucleotide sequences of a highly conserved region in the rna polymerase gene of 10 selected h ...200211992592
molecular epidemiology of human calicivirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in hungary, 1998 to 2000.between november 1998 and november 2000, 196 stool specimens from 21 outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis occurring in 11 of the 19 counties of hungary were collected and tested for human caliciviruses. human caliciviruses were detected and characterized by a type-common enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (eia) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) followed by cloning and sequencing. twenty (95%) and 14 (67%) outbreaks were positive by eia and rt-pcr, respectivel ...200212226827
molecular detection of human calicivirus among spanish children with acute gastroenteritis.a survey was conducted among spanish children with gastroenteritis treated in an emergency room. reverse transcription-pcr with specimens negative for other enteric pathogens was used. the minimum incidence of human calicivirus infection was 7.7%, with lordsdale as the predominant genotype. the clinical features and severity of calicivirus and rotavirus were similar.200212354900
inactivation of feline calicivirus and adenovirus type 40 by uv radiation.little information regarding the effectiveness of uv radiation on the inactivation of caliciviruses and enteric adenoviruses is available. analysis of human calicivirus resistance to disinfectants is hampered by the lack of animal or cell culture methods that can determine the viruses' infectivity. the inactivation kinetics of enteric adenovirus type 40 (ad40), coliphage ms-2, and feline calicivirus (fcv), closely related to the human caliciviruses based on nucleic acid organization and capsid a ...200312514044
norwalk virus nonstructural protein p48 forms a complex with the snare regulator vap-a and prevents cell surface expression of vesicular stomatitis virus g protein.norwalk virus (nv), a reference strain of human calicivirus in the norovirus genus of the family caliciviridae, contains a positive-strand rna genome with three open reading frames. orf1 encodes a 1,789-amino-acid polyprotein that is processed into nonstructural proteins that include an ntpase, vpg, protease, and rna-dependent rna polymerase. the n-terminal protein p48 of orf1 shows no significant sequence similarity to viral or cellular proteins, and its function in the human calicivirus replic ...200314557663
evolution of human calicivirus rna in vivo: accumulation of mutations in the protruding p2 domain of the capsid leads to structural changes and possibly a new the present study we report on evolution of calicivirus rna from a patient with chronic diarrhea (i.e., lasting >2 years) and viral shedding. partial sequencing of open reading frame 1 (orf1) from 12 consecutive isolates revealed shedding of a genogroup ii virus with relatively few nucleotide changes during a 1-year period. the entire capsid gene (orf2) was also sequenced from the same isolates and found to contain 1,647 nucleotides encoding a protein of 548 amino acids with similarities to t ...200314645568
sequence heterogeneity among human picobirnaviruses detected in a gastroenteritis outbreak.human picobirnaviruses characterised in this study were serendipitously detected in a non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreak when specimens were examined for the presence of human rotaviruses using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. of ten stool samples sent for virological examination, two, three, and one specimens were positive for human caliciviruses, picobirnaviruses, and both viruses, respectively. partial sequences of the rna-dependent rna polymerase gene were determined for three picobir ...200314648286
[preliminary study of human calicivirus infection in guangzhou].to investigate of human calicivirus (hucv) infection in the children of guangzhou, the capital of guangdong province at china, and conduct preliminary study of the prevalence of the virus.200415041544
[investigation of an outbreak of acute diarrhea caused by human calicivirus].to survey a diarrhea outbreak in guangan city and analyze the cause of the disease.200315340570
calicivirus infection in pediatric small intestine transplant recipients: pathological considerations.human calicivirus (hucv), a common cause of mild gastroenteritis in the general population, produces a prolonged diarrheal illness in pediatric recipients of small intestinal transplant (it). by use of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect the viral rna polymerase gene in stool and tissue from gastrointestinal biopsies, 5 pediatric it recipients with high-volume diarrhea were diagnosed with hucv enteritis. histopathologic findings of biopsies obtained at different gastrointes ...200415492991
characteristics of human calicivirus enteritis in intestinal transplant recipients.the human caliciviruses, which include norwalk-like viruses (or noroviruses) and sapporo viruses, commonly cause epidemic and endemic viral gastroenteritis of short duration in healthy individuals. however, the impact of human calicivirus in immunosuppressed populations has not been established. the authors report five pediatric patients who developed human calicivirus enteritis after intestinal transplantation.200515735487
prevalence and genetic characterization of caliciviruses among children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in the united states.human calicivirus was the first recognized viral agent causing gastroenteritis in humans. norovirus (nv) and sapovirus (sv), two genera within the caliciviridae family, cause epidemic and endemic acute gastroenteritis in children and adults. the role of these viruses as a cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis in young children requiring hospitalization is not well established. the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of caliciviruses among children hospitalized ...200415737920
surveillance of human calicivirus in spain. 200516110598
bile-salt-stimulated lipase and mucins from milk of 'secretor' mothers inhibit the binding of norwalk virus capsids to their carbohydrate ligands.breast-feeding-associated protection against calicivirus diarrhoea is associated with the presence of high levels of 2-linked oligosaccharides in mother's milk, and human calicivirus strains including the nv (norwalk virus) use gut 2-linked fucosylated glycans as receptors, suggesting the presence of decoy receptors in milk. our aim was to analyse the ability of human milk to inhibit the attachment of rnv vlps (recombinant nv-like particles) to their carbohydrate ligands and to characterize pote ...200616266293
novel recombinant norovirus causing outbreaks of gastroenteritis in santiago, chile.capsid and polymerase (rdrp) genes of 13 norovirus outbreak strains from chile were compared. the genes sequences were discordant for five strains, and recombination was confirmed for two of them by amplification of a 1,360-bp gene segment containing a fragment of both genes. these strains belonged to a novel genogroup by rdrp sequence and to genogroup gii/3 by capsid sequence. determining the clinical and epidemiological impact of human calicivirus recombination will require future studies.200616757638
[molecular epidemiological study of human calicivirus infection in diarrhea children in autumn and winter at a hospital in guangzhou].to investigate the epidemiological features of human calicivirus( hucv) infection in children with diarrhea in a hospital in guangzhou.200616864088
enhanced reverse transcription-pcr assay for detection of norovirus genogroup i.we have developed a one-tube reverse transcription (rt)-pcr method using the real-time taqman pcr system for the detection of norovirus genogroup i (nv ggi). by introduction of a novel probe based on locked nucleic acid technology, we enhanced the sensitivity of the assay compared to those of conventional taqman probes. the sensitivity of the nv ggi rt-pcr was determined by probit analysis with defined rna standards and quantified norovirus isolates to 711 copies/ml (95% detection limit). in ord ...200616891482
detection of calicivirus from fecal samples from children with acute gastroenteritis in the west central region of brazil.the objective of this study was to describe the circulation of caliciviruses in the west central region of brazil and its correlation with children's gender and age, as well as with the year and months of the sample collection. reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the human calicivirus genome in 1006 fecal samples that were collected in goiânia (n = 696) and brasília (n = 310). viral rna was detected in 8.6% of the samples. no significant difference in viral pr ...200617160278
[epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by human calicivirus in lulong county].to survey an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in lulong county and analyze the cause of the disease.200717971930
phylogenetic analysis of norovirus isolates involved in some canadian gastroenteritis outbreaks in 2004 and 2005.noroviruses are recognized as the most common cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. in this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of noroviral isolates in canada from 2004 to 2005 by sequencing the rna polymerase gene and capsid n-terminal/shell (n/s) domain. norovirus genogroups i and ii were thus found to have co-circulated in canada during the studied period, with a higher incidence of genogroup ii (95.7%). the gii-4 or lordsdale subgroup was the predominant genotype, s ...200718026205
amplification by long rt-pcr of near full-length norovirus genomes.a long rt-pcr method was developed to amplify the norovirus genome. starting from rna extracted directly from clinical samples and using broadly reactive primers, it can generate near full-length amplicons that allow for easy determination of the near complete genomic sequence. two norovirus isolates from toronto, canada, in 2002 and 2005 were sequenced. this approach will facilitate molecular epidemiology studies of noroviruses.200818355931
human bocavirus in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis: a case-control study.human bocavirus (hbov) was recently discovered in children with respiratory tract disease and gastroenteritis. the causative role of hbov in human gastroenteritis remains uncertain, and, to our knowledge, no previous case-control study has studied the relationship between hbov and gastroenteritis.200818532891
structured surveillance of infectious intestinal disease in pre-school children in the community: 'the nappy study'.the incidence and causes of infectious intestinal disease (iid) in children aged <5 years presenting to general practitioners (gps) were estimated. during a 12-month period, soiled nappies were collected from children presenting with symptoms suggestive of iid in a network of 65 gps located across england. molecular methods were used to detect a range of enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and parasites. genotyping was performed on rotavirus and norovirus isolates. a total of 583 nappi ...200919017426
norovirus infection as a cause of diarrhea-associated benign infantile seizures.background: norovirus and rotavirus cause outbreaks of diarrheal disease worldwide. this prospective observational study was undertaken to investigate the clinical characteristics and complications, with a focus on convulsive disorders, of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus and rotavirus in hospitalized pediatric patients in northern taiwan. methods: children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in chang gung children's hospital from august 2004 through january 2007 were enrolled in the stud ...200919239351
kinetics of transmission, infectivity, and genome stability of two novel mouse norovirus isolates in breeding mice.murine noroviruses are a recently discovered group of viruses found within mouse research colonies in many animal facilities worldwide. in this study, we used 2 novel mouse norovirus (mnv) wildtype isolates to examine the kinetics of transmission and tissue distribution in breeding units of nod.cb17-prkdc(scid)/j and backcrossed nod.cb17-prkdc(scid)/j x nod/shiltj (n1) mice. viral shedding in feces and dissemination to tissues of infected offspring mice were monitored by rt-pcr over a 6-wk perio ...200919295052
mixed viral infections causing acute gastroenteritis in children in a waterborne outbreak.we examined stool specimens for viral pathogens from 50 children referred to hospital due to acute gastroenteritis (age) resulting from consuming drinking water contaminated with sewage in a finnish community using pcr methods. rotavirus was detected in 33 (66%), human calicivirus in 31 (62%), and both in 40% of cases. of the caliciviruses, 20/31 (65%) were noroviruses and 11 (35%) sapoviruses. furthermore, aichi virus was detected in 25 (50%), adenovirus in six (12%) and bocavirus in four (8%) ...201020092670
human caliciviruses detected in mexican children admitted to hospital during 1998-2000, with severe acute gastroenteritis not due to other enteropathogens.few studies exist regarding the frequency of human caliciviruses as single etiologic agents in sporadic cases, or in outbreaks occurring in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. in this study, a total of 1,129 children of <5 years of age and hospitalized due to acute diarrhea were enrolled from three main hospitals in mexico city during a period of 3 years (march 1998 to december 2000). after analyzing all fecal samples for several enteropathogens, 396 stools that remained negative we ...201020166189
epidemiological study of human calicivirus infection in children with gastroenteritis in lanzhou from 2001 to 2007.stool specimens were collected from 1,195 young children with acute diarrhea in lanzhou, china, from 2001 to 2007. rt-pcr was used to detect human calicivirus (hucv). one hundred seventeen specimens were found positive for hucv. the infection rate was noticeably higher during 2006-2007 compared to the other years studied. ninety-six specimens were sequenced to determine the genotypes of hucv. eighty-six were norovirus and 10 were sapovirus, while gii/4 was the predominant strain of nv, followed ...201020180141
comparison of the replication properties of murine and human calicivirus rna-dependent rna polymerases.the human caliciviruses (cv), norovirus (nov) and sapovirus (sav), are major causes of outbreak gastroenteritis worldwide. to date, the investigation of human nov and sav replication cycles has been impeded as neither is culturable. consequently, the recently discovered murine nov (mnv) has been adopted as a surrogate replication model for the human cvs. in this study, we sought to compare the biochemical properties of the mnv rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) with related human nov and sav-rd ...201020960046
prevention of nosocomial transmission of norovirus by strategic infection control measures.nosocomial outbreaks of norovirus infection pose a great challenge to the infection control team.201121460507
[molecular and epidemiological study on viral diarrhea among infants in lanzhou].to study the epidemiologic characteristics of viral diarrhea in children under 5 years old in lanzhou, understand the four major virus in children of distribution.201121789851
[calicivirus].caliciviruses represented by norovirus and sapovirus exist not only in human but also in other animal species. clinical manifestations are gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, vesicles and hemorrhagic skin diseases and others symptoms depended on the viruses. inapparent symptom of calicivirus infection is also recognized. calicivirus is stable in the environment and found sometimes in contaminated food or water sources. in addition to intragenomic mutation, intragenomic recombination is the ...201122916566
[molecular characteristics of noroviruses causing outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in huzhou].to study the molecular characteristics of noroviruses causing outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in huzhou.201122734229
[detection and typing of caliciviruses from patients with acute diarrhea in hangzhou area, 2009 - 2010].to investigate the molecular-epidemiologic characteristics and genotypes of human calicivirus (hucvs) in acute diarrhea patients in hangzhou from 2009 to 2010.201122333088
simultaneous separation and detection of hepatitis a virus and norovirus in produce.two sample preparation methods based on electrostatic binding were tested to simultaneously separate different viral particles from different food surfaces (lettuce, strawberry, raspberries and green onions). both methods were evaluated using a multiplex real-time pcr assay designed for detection of hepatitis a virus and norovirus gi and gii. single and multiplex detection limits were determined as 10(1) viral particles for hav and norovirus gii, and 10(2) viral particles for norovirus gi using ...201020223543
molecular characterization of murine norovirus isolates from south korea.the recently discovered murine norovirus (mnv) is an important surrogate virus for studying the human norovirus (nov) because of its ability to replicate in conventional cell cultures using mouse macrophage cell lines. in addition, the impact of mnv is significant due to the high prevalence of mnv in commonly used laboratory animals in biomedical research. the prevalence and molecular characteristics of mnv could differ in various regions of the world. therefore, the objectives of this study wer ...201019799947
[investigation of human calicivirus (hucv) diarrhea among infantile and young children in china, 1999--2005].human calicivirus (hucv) has been well known as an important pathogen of outbreak and sporadic acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. to investigate epidemiological feature and genetic diversity of hucv among children in china, fecal specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age with acute diarrhea at 13 hospitals in different provinces across china. the study was performed year-round from january 1999 to june 2005. fecal specimens were tested for bacteria and rotavirus firs ...200717886714
viral gastroenteritis and genetic characterization of recombinant norovirus circulating in eastern russia.from november 2003 to march 2004 a total of 100 fecal specimens from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in the city of birobidzhan, eastern russia were tested for the presence of diarrheal viruses by rt-multiplex pcr. of these, 74 fecal specimens were positive for diarrheal viruses and this represented 74%. among the diarrheal viruses detected, group a rotavirus was the most prevalent (67%; 67 of 100), followed by norovirus (4%; 4 of 100), group c rotavirus (1%, 1 of 100), sapovirus ...200616812951
round-robin comparison of methods for the detection of human enteric viruses in lettuce.five methods that detect human enteric virus contamination in lettuce were compared. to mimic multiple contaminations as observed after sewage contamination, artificial contamination was with human calicivirus and poliovirus and animal calicivirus strains at different concentrations. nucleic acid extractions were done at the same time in the same laboratory to reduce assay-to-assay variability. results showed that the two critical steps are the washing step and removal of inhibitors. the more re ...200415508651
[genotype of human calicivirus from infants with diarrhea in guangzhou city in 2001].to understand the characteristics of human calicivirus (hucv) infection in infants with diarrhea in guangzhou city and to study genotype of the virus.200314728892
a large, prolonged outbreak of human calicivirus infection linked to an aged-care facility.this report investigates an outbreak of acute gastrointestinal illness, microbiologically and epidemiologically linked to an aged-care facility and seeks to determine if there was a point source of infection. a register of cases that included onset date and time of illness and symptoms was maintained by nursing staff. faecal specimens were tested for conventional gastrointestinal pathogens and for human calicivirus (hucv). there were 81 cases reported. specimens were received for testing from 25 ...200212206380
natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study.we investigated the natural history of human calicivirus infection in the community. clinical information was obtained from 99 subjects infected with norwalk-like viruses (nlv) and 40 subjects infected with sapporo-like viruses (slv) in a prospective, community-based cohort study. nlv infection was common in all age groups, whereas slv infection was mainly restricted to children aged <5 years. symptoms lasted for a median of 5 and 6 days for nlv and slv infections, respectively. disease was char ...200212115089
human caliciviruses in europe.caliciviruses are single-stranded rna viruses, which are divided into four genera based on their morphology and genomic structure. viruses from two genera, the norwalk like viruses and sapporo like viruses, are a common cause of acute, nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. although the first human calicivirus discovered nearly 30 years ago, much of the epidemiological and biological character of these viruses is only now beginning to unfold. investigation has been difficult due to a number of ...200211856616
[outbreak of human calicivirus infection in a hospital department].human caliciviruses (hucv)--such as norwalk-like and sapporo-like viruses--members of the family caliciviridae, are a major cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in persons of all ages worldwide. they are important pathogens in food- and waterborne diseases in which the transmission can often be traced to fecally contaminated water or foods, and spread by person-to-person contact, vomitus or airborne droplets. hucv-associated outbreaks involving large numbers of people usually occur in se ...200111301905
expression and characterization of sapporo-like human calicivirus capsid proteins in baculovirus.sapporo-like caliciviruses reveal typical calicivirus morphology and cause acute gastroenteritis. this study describes the expression in baculovirus of capsid proteins of two sapporo-like calicivirus strains (hou/86 and hou/90). eight different constructs of the capsid genes were compared for production of the proteins. constructs containing short (9 or 19 nt) upstream sequences failed to produce capsid proteins but extension of the upstream sequence to 73 nt resulted in production of capsid pro ...199910204699
epidemiological study of prevalence of genogroup ii human calicivirus (mexico virus) infections in japan and southeast asia as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.mexico virus (mxv) is a genogroup ii human calicivirus (hucv). we conducted an epidemiological study to determine the prevalence of mxv infection in infants and adults in japan and southeast asia by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) developed by using baculovirus-expressed recombinant mxv (rmxv) capsids. of 155 stool specimens obtained from children younger than 10 years old with acute clinical gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) associated with small, round-structured viruses in j ...19989705378
expression and self-assembly of recombinant capsid protein from the antigenically distinct hawaii human calicivirus.the norwalk and hawaii viruses are antigenically distinct members of the family caliciviridae and are considered to be important etiologic agents of epidemic gastroenteritis, with most studies focusing on the role of norwalk virus. to further investigate the importance of hawaii virus, hawaii virus-like particles (vlps) were produced by expression of its capsid protein in the baculovirus system and these vlps were used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that was efficient in ...19979196224
dot blot hybridization with a cdna probe derived from the human calicivirus sapporo 1982 strain.a dot blot hybridization assay was developed for detection of human calicivirus/sapporo/82/j (hucv/sa/82) or strains closely related to hucv/sa/82 in stool specimens. the cdna derived from the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) region of hucv/sa/82 was used as a positive probe and the pbr322 dna as a negative control probe. both probes were labeled with digoxigenin and the products of hybridization reaction were detected with an anti-digoxigenin antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. this ass ...19968920827
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