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a summary of the prevalence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a captive wapiti population.a total of 87 brains from harvested and collected wapiti and red deer (cervus spp.) were examined grossly and microscopically between 1973 and 1977 in a 2104 ha. preserve. prevalence of infection significantly increased from 26.6% of the sample in 1973 to 64.3% in 1975 (p less than .05). a decline to 47.7% in 1977 (p greater than .05) was not significant. however, the number of clinical cases was significantly higher in 1976-1977 (p less than .02) than previously reported in 1973-1975.1979459045
cerebrospinal nematodiasis caused by parelaphostrongylus tenuis in angora goats in texas.a natural infection of meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) accounted for the death of 11 of 17 (65%) angora goats in a study in south texas during 1975. clinical signs, gross pathology and histopathology in angoras were similar to other abnormal hosts.1979459046
the development of clinical signs and the population significance of neurologic disease in a captive wapiti herd.clinical signs attributable to meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were recorded in three male and three female wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) ranging in age from 5 - 29 months. the study was conducted from september, 1976 to may, 1977 in a 2104-ha preserve. some differences were noted in occurrence, time schedule and sequence of signs but the basic pattern was similar. the mean time between initial sign observed and death was 100 days. the effect of neurologic disease on population ...1978650796
nematodes in terrestrial gastropods from central maine.seventeen-hundred terrestrial gastropods collected in central maine were examined for parelaphostrongylus tenuis and other nematodes. prevalence of nematodes was 4 to 7% in most gastropod species, but was 19% in pallifera spp. cosmocercoides dukae and rhabditis spp. were the most common nematodes recovered. only four p. tenuis larvae (prevalence 0.1%) were found. foci important for transmission of p. tenuis in maine have not yet been found.1977839621
naturally occurring neurologic disease in a fallow deer infected with meningeal worms.neurologic disease resulting from infection with parelaphostrongylus tenuis was diagnosed in a fallow deer (dama dama) from georgia, with clinical signs and histopathologic lesions similar to those reported for other accidental hosts of p. tenuis. early fifth stage parasites were found in the spinal meninges and immature parasites were found in the neural parenchyma, but none were recovered from the brain and cranial meninges.1977839624
meningeal worm-induced neurologic disease in black-tailed deer.neurologic disease attributable to parelaphostrongylus tenuis was diagnosed in five black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) relocated from oregon to tennessee. mortality occurred in the pre-release enclosure and in the release area. infection with p. tenuis was considered the cause of an unsuccessful stocking attempt. in addition, neurologic disease was produced by experimental infection of a black-tailed x white-tailed deer hybrid. clinical and pathologic findings were described for ...1977864846
prevalence and effects of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a captive wapiti population.prevalence of neurologic disease attributed to parelaphostrongylus tenuis was investigated in a population of wapii (cervus elaphus canadensis) enclosed in a 2080 ha. preserve. brains of 44 animals harvested in 1973, 1974 and 1975 were examined grossly and microscopically. prevalence of infection increased each year from 26.6% of the sample in 1973 to 64.3% in 1975. these data suggest that wapiti living close to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) may have a high prevalence of infection, ...1977864848
prevalence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in white-tailed deer in northern new york.the prevalence and distribution of "brainworm" (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were examined in northern new york (usa) from 1986 to 1989. sixty nine (46%) of 151 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) heads examined, contained adult p. tenuis. the proportion of infected individuals was not significantly different between males and females. prevalence was significantly greater in the adult age class as compared to the juvenile age class (p less than 0.01). deer pellet samples were examined for ...19911758024
parelaphostrongylus andersoni (nematoda: protostrongylidae) in white-tailed deer from michigan.dorsal-spined larvae in fecal samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in michigan and pennsylvania were used as a source of larvae to infect a hand-raised white-tailed deer fawn. the fawn receive 200 third-stage larvae and passed dorsal-spined larvae in feces 66 days later. muscleworm (parelaphostrongylus andersoni), and meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were recovered at necropsy. two white-tailed deer and seven wapiti (cervus elaphus) exposed to larvae of ...19902250330
identification of dorsal-spined larvae from free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) in southwestern manitoba, canada.dorsal-spined first-stage larvae recovered from feces of free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus) were passaged through snails (triodopsis multilineata) and two hand-raised white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus). a total of 74 adult parelaphostrongylus tenuis were recovered from the fawns; no other protostrongylid nematodes were recovered. the study indicates that wapiti may be infected with natural infections of meningeal worm and pass larvae suitable for transmission to gastropod interme ...19892716114
recovery of nematode eggs and larvae in deer: evaluation of fecal preservation methods.fresh fecal specimens from deer were examined for nematode eggs (primarily haemonchus and ostertagia), using a flotation technique (sugar, sp gr = 1.27), and then were reexamined for up to 200 days after storage in 2.5, 5, or 10% formalin, absolute methyl alcohol, or 70% ethyl alcohol at room temperature (20 c) or after storage without preservative at 4, 0, or -20 c. for long-term storage, 10% formalin was the best fixative for recovery of eggs (compared with the rate of recovery of eggs from fr ...19863505929
parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of fallow deer and white-tailed deer in kentucky.in august 1983, a study on parasites, diseases, and health status was conducted on sympatric populations of fallow deer (dama dama) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from land between the lakes, lyon and trigg counties, kentucky. five adult deer of each species were studied. white-tailed deer had antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) virus and leptospira interogans serovariety icterohemorrhagiae, and fallow deer had antibodies to bluetongue and ehd viruses. serologic tes ...19853999248
meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection in white-tailed deer in oklahoma. 19724634530
parelaphostrongylus tenuis (dougherty) in maine. i. the parasite in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus, zimmerman). 19734701180
distribution of parelaphostrongylus tenuis (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) in white-tailed deer from oklahoma.the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was found in 75 of 190 (39%) white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) examined in oklahoma from 1977-81. infections were found in deer from southeastern mixed forest, oak-hickory forest, oak-bluestem parkland and oak-hickory parkland, and not in deer from western bluestem prairie, bluestem-grama prairie and grama-buffalo grass ecoregions. factors which may influence the distribution of meningeal worm in oklahoma include distribution and densities ...19827154219
experimental infection of mule deer with parelaphostrongylus tenuis.six adult and three fawn mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were experimentally infected with a range of 75-100 infective larvae of parelaphostrongylus tenuis. five of the six adult deer developed clinical signs of neurologic disease that terminated in paralysis between 35 and 80 days. the sixth deer developed slight signs of neurologic disease for 10 days, but recovered. all three mule deer fawns developed neurologic disease. adult meningeal worms were recovered from the subdural space of the spin ...19807463606
antigens of adults and third-stage larvae of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis (nematoda, metastrongyloidea).we studied the antigens of adults and third-stage larvae of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis, in an attempt to identify potential serodiagnostic molecules for this important infection of wild ungulates. soluble extracts of p. tenuis adult worms and third-stage larvae were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and two-dimensional (2d) electrophoresis and analyzed by immunoblotting using purified rabbit anti-p. tenuis immunoglobulin g (igg) ...19948068755
parelaphostrongylus tenuis in maine moose and the possible influence of faulty baermann procedures.efficacy of cleaning baermann apparati was evaluated to determine if larvae are retained on glassware after evaluating white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) fecal samples containing parelaphostrongylus tenuis. residual p. tenuis larvae were recovered from 7 (11.7%) of 60 baermann apparati cleaned with soap and tap water. of 295 moose (alces alces) fecal samples collected in central and northern maine, only one contained protostrongylid larvae. our data do not support the hypothesis that rec ...19938445780
parelaphostrongylus tenuis (nematoda) and fascioloides magna (trematoda) in moose of southeastern manitoba. 19744817542
prevalence of meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in white-tailed deer from new hampshire.parelaphostrongylus tenuis was found in 79 (62.2%) of 127 white-tailed deer heads (odocoileus virginianus) collected in new hampshire. prevalence of infection was higher in fawns and male deer, but older female deer (5.0 + years) had a higher intensity of infection (3.1) than any other age or sex class. male deer in forest cover type 2 (northern hardwoods-hemlock-white pine) had a significantly greater prevalence of infection than the females in the same habitat (p less than .05). adult females ...1978633521
extracting protostrongylid nematode larvae from ungulate feces.a major weakness of the baermann funnel technique for extracting nematode larvae from feces is the funnel. as many as 67% of parelaphostrongylus tenuis first-stage larvae lodged on the sloping surface of glass baermann funnels. the number of larvae collected after 24 hr was not significantly correlated with total numbers in the samples, whether feces were supported over tissue paper or over window screening. instead, we collected about 8 times as many larvae and achieved a significant relationsh ...19979249697
neurologic disease attributable to infection with parelaphostrongylus tenuis in blackbuck antelope.substantial mortality attributable to infection with parelaphostrongylus tenuis was reported in 2 herds of blackbuck antelope (antelope cervicapra) in southwestern louisiana. both herds had outbreaks in which all affected antelope had neurologic disease and subsequently died. affected antelope were anorectic and weak. they staggered, trembled, isolated themselves from the herd, became recumbent, and, possibly, were blind. in 1 herd, 6 of 27 antelope were affected, and in the second herd, 7 antel ...19968926198
the possible importance of wintering yards in the transmission of parelaphostrongylus tenuis to white-tailed deer and moose.terrestrial gastropods were collected, 15 june to 25 november 1994, from beneath cardboard sheets on deer range in northeastern minnesota (usa) and examined individually for larvae of parelaphostrongylus tenuis, the meningeal worm of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). overall, 10 (0.08%) of 12,096 snails and slugs were infected with a mean (+/- sd) of 3.2 +/- 2.5 p. tenuis larvae. the prevalence of infection in gastropods was greater in a traditional deer wintering yard (seven of 4,401, ...19968627933
meningeal worm evokes a heterogeneous immune response in elk.meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a neurotropic nematode of ungulates in eastern north america. lack of an effective diagnostic test increases the concern of translocating potentially infected ungulates into western north america, where p. tenuis does not occur naturally. in an attempt to identify serodiagnostic molecules, we determined (1) whether elk (cervus elaphus) experimentally infected with p. tenuis produce antibodies against infective larvae or adult worms, and (2) if sera ...19989577781
infrapopulation dynamics of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in white-tailed deer.the prevalence and intensity of parelaphostrongylus tenuis was determined by examining the head and a fecal sample from each of 379 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) of known age that had been killed by vehicles in northeastern minnesota (usa), november 1991 to may 1993. small numbers of adult worms (mean +/- sd, 3.2 +/- 2.2; maximum, 13) were found in the cranium of 311 (82%); but over a third (118 of 311) of the infected deer were not passing larvae in their feces. most occult infecti ...19958583628
parelaphostrongylus tenuis (nematoda) in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in central iowa.heads of hunter-killed white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were obtained from a tri-county area in central iowa in december 1991 and examined for the presence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis (dougherty, 1945). adults of p. tenuis were found in 45% of 42 deer heads; the mean intensity of infection was 3.6 (range: 1-16). prevalence of infection was significantly greater in female deer > 13 mo of age in comparison to males of similar age (54 vs. 17%). mean intensity of infection was significan ...19938437050
a practical method for cleaning baermann glassware.when using the baermann technique to detect larvae of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in deer feces, it is difficult to ensure that no larvae remain on glassware between samples. of several cleaning methods tested here, emersion in 95% ethanol after flushing with hot or cold water was the most effective and practical.19957563434
the potential for false-positive diagnosis of protostrongyliasis by extraction of larvae from feces.the potential of protostrongylid first-stage larvae (l1) to survive passage through the alimentary canal of non-infected mammals was investigated. parelaphostrongylus tenuis l1 were collected from feces of an experimentally infected white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). we utilized two red deer (cervus elaphus) and four laboratory rats (rattus norvegicus) which were each fed the l1 of p. tenuis. larvae were recovered, intact and alive, from the fecal samples of all six animals. larvae of p ...199910574541
clinical challenge. parelaphostrongylus tenuis (meningeal worm) infection of the cranial spinal cord and brain stem. 19979279416
parelaphostrongyliasis in white-tailed deer in missouri.the heads of 137 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were collected on the opening day of the 1996 missouri (usa) fire-arms deer season and surveyed for the presence of meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis). eighteen percent of the deer examined were infected. mean intensity of infection was 2.0 (range 1-7). there were no significant differences of infection or mean intensity when deer were classified and compared according to sex or age class.200010941746
immunodiagnosis of experimental parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in elk.elk infected with the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis (protostrongylidae), do not consistently excrete larvae in feces, making the current method of diagnosing live animals using the baermann fecal technique unreliable. serological diagnosis could prove more useful in diagnosing field-infected animals but depends on the identification and availability of good quality antigen. to mimic field infections, 2 elk were inoculated with 6 infective l3 larvae of p. tenuis, and another 2 with 2 ...200211858642
lesions of spinal cord parelaphostrongylosis in sheep. sequential changes following intramedullary larval migration.spinal cord nematodiasis epidemiologically, clinically, and histologically consistent with parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection was noted in two flocks of sheep. spinal cords from two sheep with active infection and one from a partially recovered animal were studied in an effort to determine the sequence of lesions following larval invasion of the central nervous system. in the former two sheep, migration of larvae within the spinal cord induced asymmetrically irregular tracks of disrupted and n ...19853984158
an aspartyl protease inhibitor orthologue expressed by parelaphostrongylus tenuis is immunogenic in an atypical host.parelaphostrongylus tenuis is a neurotropic nematode common in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) of eastern north america. this parasite is the causative agent of a debilitating neurologic disease in atypical hosts, including domestic livestock. in order to identify proteins of potential significance in the host-parasite relationship, a cdna library was produced from adult p. tenuis mrna. screening the library with antisera from infected red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) and immunized a ...200212093670
identification of antigens with potential for immunodiagnosis of parelaphostrongylus tenuis and elaphostrongylus cervi infections in red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus) were infected experimentally with parelaphostrongylus tenuis in new brunswick, canada, and with elaphostrongylus cervi in new zealand. excretory-secretory (e-s) antigens from adult p. tenuis were evaluated for their serodiagnostic potential in identifying p. tenuis and heterologous e. cervi infections in a western blot. the antigen recognition profile of sera from animals infected with p. tenuis varied between individuals and with duration of infections, whereas ...200212099432
parelaphostrongylus tenuis in captive reindeer and sable antelope.parelaphostrongylus tenuis caused neurologic disease in 6 reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) and 2 sable antelope (hippotragus niger) that were housed at the national zoological park conservation and research center in front royal, va. progressive hindlimb ataxia and weakness were seen in all affected animals. the parasite was recovered from the subdural space of one reindeer and was seen histologically within the neuropil of another reindeer and a sable antelope. in the other reindeer and sa ...19863957771
ataxia and hypermetria caused by parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in llamas. 19873818432
deaths from exertional myopathy at the national zoological park from 1975 to 1985.a retrospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of deaths from exertional myopathy (em) in the hoofstock collection at the national zoological park (nzp) from 1975 to 1985. the diagnosis of em was based on history, clinical signs, clinicopathological findings, gross and microscopic lesions. only bovids, cervids, and equids were included in the study. data were derived from the medical and pathological records of the nzp. there were 10 cases of em during this period, but only seven ...19873625907
intraocular nematodiasis caused by parelaphostrongylus tenuis in an eland antelope (taurotragus oryx).a 10-mo-old female eland (taurotragus oryx) at the wilds exhibited recalcitrant, progressive unilateral uveitis for a 5-wk period, despite constant medical treatment. unilateral enucleation was performed because of blindness and animal discomfort evidenced by continuous blepharospasm. histopathologic examination of the eye demonstrated intraocular larvae morphologically consistent with parelaphostrongylus tenuis, the first known case of intraocular p. tenuis migration. this animal subsequently w ...200312885139
parelaphostrongylus tenuis in new brunswick: the parasite in terrestrial gastropods. 19863503149
terrestrial gastropod hosts of parelaphostrongylus tenuis at the national zoological park's conservation and research center, virginia.terrestrial gastropods at the national zoological park's conservation and research center (crc) near front royal, virginia, were surveyed from june 1985 to may 1986, to assess their role in transmission of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis. a total of 670 gastropods representing 9 families and 18 species was collected. the slug deroceras laeve accounted for 50.4% of the specimens collected. parelaphostrongylus tenuis infections were found in 15 gastropods (2.2% prevalence) represent ...19873437346
meningeal worm in a reintroduced elk population in kentucky.meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been implicated in the failure of several elk (cervus elaphus) restoration attempts in the eastern united states. however, limited post-release monitoring and a paucity of published literature prevents a clear understanding of this parasite's role in past failures. during winters of 1997-2001, the kentucky department of fish and wildlife resources translocated 1,044 elk from western states to eastern kentucky (usa) in an effort to restore a free-ra ...200314567220
prevalence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a sample of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer from a tri-county area in northeastern wisconsin.heads from 78 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were donated for study during the 1985 wisconsin gun hunting season. the intra-cranial nervous tissue was examined for parelaphostrongylus tenuis. prevalences were calculated for the total sample and for the portion of the sample which had no intra-cranial trauma. the prevalences thus calculated were 58% and 75%, respectively.19883193574
distribution of meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in south dakota.heads of hunter-harvested deer (odocoileus sp.) and elk (cervus elaphus) were collected from meat processing plants throughout south dakota (usa) from 1997 through 1999 to determine distribution of meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in eastern and western south dakota. a total of 2,848 white-tailed deer (wtd) were examined for p. tenuis, of which 578 (20.3%) were infected with the parasite. of 578 deer infected, 570 (98.6%) were harvested east of the missouri river. our results indicate ...200415137501
establishment of adult parelaphostrongylus tenuis, patent infections, and acquired immunity after experimental infection of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).experimental parelaphostrongylus tenuis infections were established in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and an atypical host, red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus). groups of deer were fed 10, 25, or 100 third-stage larvae (l3) of p. tenuis and received a single equivalent challenge exposure at varying intervals. infections were monitored up to 6 yr in white-tailed deer and up to 2.8 yr in red deer. the prepatent period in white-tailed deer varied from 91 to 1,072 days (381 +/- 374) and in ...200415165045
gastropod intermediate hosts of parelaphostrongylus tenuis (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) from northwestern indiana.thirteen species of terrestrial gastropods from the kingsbury state fish and wildlife area, indiana, were examined for the presence of third-stage larvae (l3s) of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis, during the summers of 1987 and 1988. three (deroceras laeve, discus cronkhitei, and unidentified species of cochlicopa [= cionella]) were infected. prevalence of infection was low, 1.1% and 2.7% in 1987 and 1988, respectively. the highest prevalence was 5.5% in cochlicopa spp.; however, m ...19892760764
an update on the distribution of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in the southeastern united states.an update is presented on the distribution of the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern united states. the parasite is widely distributed and common in all or much of arkansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, north carolina, tennessee, virginia and west virginia. it is also common in the northern half of alabama and georgia. in contrast, it is rare or absent along the atlantic and gulf coastal plains of alabama, georgia, miss ...19912067060
mortality of rocky mountain elk in michigan due to meningeal worm.mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). elk were reintroduced into michigan (usa) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (>or=12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. we monitored 100 radio-collared ...200515827219
gastropod availability and habitat utilization by wapiti and white-tailed deer sympatric on range enzootic for meningeal worm.gastropod occurrence and the utilization of habitat by sympatric populations of wapiti (cervus elephus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) on range enzootic for meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were studied on cookson hills wildlife management area (wma) in eastern oklahoma. visual observations and fecal pellet group transect data indicated that wapiti spent the majority of their time in open fields and meadows where we recovered the least numbers of gastropods. although d ...19912023333
cathepsin b homologue at the interface between a parasitic nematode and its intermediate host.parelaphostrongylus tenuis is a parasitic nematode that causes a debilitating neurologic disease in many north american cervids and domestic livestock species. we produced a pcr-based cdna library from infective larvae (l3) in order to identify molecules that mediate parasitism. a dominant 1,250-bp amplicon encoded a homologue of cathepsin b cysteine proteases. the sequence incorporated a c29g substitution in the putative active site. antibodies generated against a recombinant form detected the ...200616428779
protein glycosylation in parelaphostrongylus tenuis--first description of the galalpha1-3gal sequence in a nematode.the white-tailed deer is the definitive host of the parasitic nematode parelaphostrongylus tenuis. this parasite also infects a wide variety of domesticated livestock, causing a debilitating neurologic disease. glycoconjugates are becoming increasingly implicated in nematode strategies to maintain persistent infections in immunologically competent hosts. in this study, we have carried out detailed mass spectrometric analysis together with classical biochemical techniques, including western blott ...200616704967
acquired cervical scoliosis attributed to parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in an alpaca.a 2-year-old alpaca was evaluated because of acute onset of cervical scoliosis.200616910858
verminous encephalitis in a horse produced by nematodes in the family protostrongylidae.parasitic granulomatous eosinophilic inflammation was observed in the central nervous system (cns) of a 6-month-old arabian colt from new york state. inflammation was associated with eggs, larvae, and adult nematodes in the cerebellum. nematodes had histological characteristics of the superfamily metastrongyloidea. the presence of dorsal-spined larvae in the cns was further indicative of infection with a nematode in the family protostrongylidae. infections were most compatible with parelaphostro ...200717197637
evidence of parelaphostrongylus tenuis infections in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) in southern ontario.the antemortem detection of a parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in a free-ranging wild elk (cervus elaphus) in southern ontario is documented. postmortems on other free-ranging elk that died during 2000-2005 indicated that 59% (17/29) were infected with p. tenuis, based on presence of lesions in the brain.200718050795
construction of a complementary dna library for parelaphostrongylus tenuis and identification of a potentially sero-diagnostic recombinant antigen.newly developed serological tests for diagnosing parelaphostrongylosis in cervids, using the excretory-secretory products (es) of the infective larvae of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas), have demonstrable superiority over the traditional method of larval recovery and microscopic identification. to generate a source of elisa antigen by genetic engineering, we created a complementary dna (cdna) expression library by the reverse transcription of mrna of p. ...200818576849
clinical parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in two captive american bison (bison bison).2 juvenile (17 and 19 months of age) male american bison (bison bison) were examined because of acute bilateral hind limb weakness and ataxia; 1 animal also had urinary incontinence.200818828725
surveys for disease agents in introduced elk in arkansas and kentucky.surveys for disease agents were conducted in introduced free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in arkansas and kentucky. elk had been captured in colorado and nebraska and released in arkansas during 1981-1985. from 1997 through 2002 elk were captured in arizona, kansas, north dakota, new mexico, oregon, and utah and released in southeastern kentucky. specimens were collected from 170 hunter-killed elk in arkansas during 1998-2006, and 44 elk in kentucky during 2001-2004. significant findings ...201020090032
survey for meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) and ear mites in white-tailed deer from northern idaho.during the fall hunting season of 1990, 95 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) heads were collected from hunters in boundary and bonner counties in northern idaho (usa), an area currently occupied by woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou). the heads were examined for adult and larval meningeal worms (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) by physical examination of the brain surfaces, and the baermann technique, respectively, and for ear mites by examination of ear scrapings. meningeal worms o ...19911758042
mortality of fallow deer (dama dama) experimentally-infected with meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis.six fallow deer (dama dama) fawns died after receiving 25 to 150 infective larvae of parelaphostrongylus tenuis. fawns given higher doses usually died sooner (6 to 23 days) than those given lower doses (54 to 67 days). early deaths were associated with severe acute peritonitis resulting from perforation of the intestinal wall; later deaths were associated with paralysis and inability to rise. numerous adult p. tenuis were found within neural tissues of the brain and spinal cord in the three fawn ...19921548808
naturally occurring cerebrospinal parelaphostronglylosis.an isolated case and an outbreak of parelaphostrongylosis in goats are described. signs included tetraparesis, hemiparesis, tetraplegia, spastic gait, scoliosis, vestibular strabismus, blindness, and death. five cases were necropsied and nematodes were seen in the brain and spinal cord of four of these. intact adult nematodes from two cases were identified as parelaphostrongylus tenuis, the meningeal worm of white-tailed deer. cerebrospinal fluid analysis from affected goats showed a moderately ...19761253609
cerebrospinal parelaphostronglylosis in llamas.four of 11 llamas (lama guanicoe) from a ranch near houston, texas developed clinical signs of a neurologic disease. tissues from 2 of the 4 llamas were submitted for microscopic examination. lesions in the central nervous system of both llamas appeared to have been caused by a migrating parasite. an adult nematode having morphologic features of the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was found in the brain of one llama. the findings suggest that the neurologic disease in the llamas were ...1978739583
meningeal worm in experimentally-infected bighorn and domestic sheep.in the first (july 1989) of two experiments, each of three bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and three domestic sheep, respectively, was exposed to 25, 150, or 300 infective third-stage larvae (l3) of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis. two bighorn sheep had temporary mild paresis and lumbar weakness; one developed paralysis and died suddenly 32 days after exposure. adult p. tenuis were found deep within the brain and spinal cord of the one latter sheep. a generalized inflammatory resp ...19969359060
parelaphostrongylus tenuis on wassaw island, georgia: a result of translocating white-tailed deer.meningeal worms (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) were found in each of five white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) examined from wassaw island, chatham county, georgia, in september 1993. this represents the first reported occurrence of the parasite on a southeastern barrier island and extends its geographic distribution approximately 140 km beyond the nearest known infected mainland deer population. according to an anecdotal account, six white-tailed deer were imported from pennsylvania and rel ...19969359075
extracting protostrongylus spp. larvae from bighorn sheep feces.first-stage larvae of protostrongylus spp. were more numerous in the core of bighorn sheep (ovis canadiensis canadiensis) pellets than near the surface. as a result, only 22% could be extracted from whole pellets and the numbers collected did not reflect the total number of larvae present in samples. crushing semi-dried pellets yielded seven times as many larvae and numbers collected were correlated with totals present. the use of tissue, in addition to a screen filter in a beaker extraction met ...19979391973
retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates.formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from elk (cervus elaphus), goats, and camelids with case histories and lesions suggestive of parelaphostrongylus tenuis were examined by histology to characterize lesions that could aid in definitively diagnosing p. tenuis infection. additionally, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr) using parelaphostrongylus-specific primers to determine how pcr results corresponded with histological findings. histo ...201425274743
eosinophilic encephalomyelitis in horses caused by protostrongylid parasites.four thoroughbred horses showing lameness, ataxia, circling, depression, recumbency, and seizures, were submitted. the horses had grossly weak to dark red appearances and foci in the central nervous system. multifocal to coalescing eosinophilic necrotizing encephalomyelitis was observed histologically in the cns as well as intact or degenerated nematodes. nematodes had polymyarian-coelomyarian musculature, a smooth thin cuticle, and intestines lined by multinucleated cells with microvilli. these ...201728385012
parelaphostrongylus tenuis cerebrospinal nematodiasis in a horse with cervical scoliosis and meningomyelitis.there are reports of horses with acute onset acquired cervical scoliosis and cutaneous analgesia. the underlying dorsal gray column myelitis that produces these neurologic signs has been only presumptively attributed to migration of parelaphostrongylus tenuis within the spinal cord. despite previous confirmation brain by polymerase chain reaction testing, of p. tenuis within the brain of horses by polymerase chain reaction testing, genetic testing has failed to definitively identify the presence ...201728317172
gastrointestinal ulceration and pulmonary aspergillosis in a llama treated for parelaphostrongylosis.a 9-year-old llama examined because of hind limb paresis was found to have parelaphostrongylosis. despite treatment with ivermectin, fenbendazole, cimetidine, and ceftiofur, the llama developed gastrointestinal ulceration and pulmonary aspergillosis and was euthanatized. parelaphostrongylus tenuis is a parasite of white-tailed deer, but ruminants can serve as aberrant or dead-end hosts after accidentally ingesting snails or slugs carrying third-stage larvae of the parasite. gastrointestinal ulce ...19989589133
factors affecting parelaphostrongylus tenuis in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from maine.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) collected in maine (usa) from november 1988 to december 1989 were examined for parelaphostrongylus tenuis. relationships of deer age class, sex, collection year, and deer density to prevalence and intensity of p. tenuis infections were analyzed. prevalence increased with deer age (p < 0.001) and interaction of deer age class and collection year (p < 0.001). prevalence did not vary by year in deer > or = 1 yr old (85%, n = 519), but was higher in fawns i ...19938487376
meningeal worm in deer from western nebraska.one hundred seventy-eight white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and 275 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) collected from locker plants in the western 2/3 of nebraska (usa) in november 1997 were examined for the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis). parelaphostrongylus tenuis was identified in 17 (10%) of 168 white-tailed deer and in one (<1%) of 273 mule deer. this is the first naturally occurring infection of p. tenuis recorded in a mule deer.200010813621
the use of ivermectin in the treatment and prevention of infection with parelaphostrongylus tenuis (dougherty) (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus zimmermann). 19853841163
parelaphostrongylus tenuis in new brunswick: the parasite in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and moose (alces alces).research was initiated in 1983 to investigate the ecology of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in new brunswick. the objectives were to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection in white-tailed deer, and to determine whether or not moose feces contained first stage larvae, signifying the completion of the life cycle of p. tenuis in this host. forty-nine percent of deer pellet samples were positive and 60% of deer heads contained adults of p. tenuis. none of the moose pellet samples contained ...19873682097
parelaphostrongylus tenuis and other parasitic diseases of the ruminant nervous system.there are many parasites that affect the ruminant central nervous system. clinical signs can vary dramatically based on the location and mobility of the parasite. clinical disease can occur due to the physical presence of the parasite and the resulting host immune response or the toxin produced by the parasite. differentiating the cause of disease is particularly important because prognosis,treatment, and subsequent control measures vary dramatically depending on the disease process. this articl ...200415203232
meningeal worm is a long-lived parasitic nematode in white-tailed deer.a natural infection of the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis, persisted for at least 3.7 yr in a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). the deer was 5-7 yr old and was shedding dorsal-spined nematode larvae at the time of quarantine. larvae were extracted from all fecal samples collected up to 730 days post-quarantine (dpq) and thereafter only at 862 dpq and at necropsy (1,350 dpq). live adults of p. tenuis, one male and one female, were recovered from the cranium at necropsy. pare ...200212038147
low-dose meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infections in moose (alces alces).parelaphostrongylosis has a rapid onset and is lethal in neonatal moose (alces alces) when large numbers of third-stage parelaphostrongylus tenuis larvae (l3) are given experimentally. little is known, however, about the severity and prognosis of infections acquired naturally by accidentally ingesting terrestrial gastropods which are rarely infected and have few larvae. to investigate the relationship between infecting dose, age of moose, and severity of disease, five calves were given low doses ...200212528448
detection of anti-parelaphostrongylus tenuis antibodies in experimentally infected and free-ranging moose (alces alces).confirming parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in moose (alces alces) and other susceptible hosts is difficult. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed using the excretory-secretory (es) products of third-stage p. tenuis larvae (es-elisa) and the test applied to serum samples obtained from seven moose calves (5-9.5 mo old) given infective larvae (l3) in doses approximating those likely to be received in nature (3-30 l3). anti-p. tenuis immunoglobulin g antibodies were detecte ...200212528449
parelaphostrongylus tenuis in captive pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana) in nebraska.lesions in four captive pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana) naturally infected with parelaphostrongylus tenuis in eastern nebraska (usa) are described in this report. animals were bright and alert with hind limb ataxia that progressed to sternal or lateral recumbency between july 28 and october 17, 1998. animals were euthanized due to disease progression despite therapy. multifocal decubital ulcers over bony prominences occurred in two animals and chronic unilateral otitis media was prese ...200212528452
evaluation of excretory-secretory products and somatic worm antigens for the serodiagnosis of experimental parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in white-tailed deer.three different antigen preparations of parelaphostrongylus tenuis were assessed for their effectiveness in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to diagnose experimental infection of white-tailed deer (wtd). the antigen preparations were the excretory-secretory products of third-stage larvae (es-l3), somatic antigens of third-stage larvae (sl3), and somatic antigens of the adult stage (sa) of p. tenuis. the relative sensitivities of the antigen preparations in indirect elisa wer ...199912968733
cathepsin b-like and hemoglobin-type cysteine proteases: stage-specific gene expression in angiostrongy cantonensis.three cysteine protease genes, cathepsin b-like enzyme gene 1, 2 (ac-cathb-1, ac-cathb-2) and hemoglobin-type cysteine protease gene (ac-hem) were isolated and described from angiostrongylus cantonensis adult. the deduced amino acid sequence of ac-cathb-1 and ac-cathb-2 contain all of the conserved regions of cathepsin b. ac-cathb-2 is similar to a host intrusion-related cysteine protease b from parelaphostrongylus tenuis, and the ac-hem shares high similarity to legumain from haemonchus contort ...201222668746
distribution and ecology of meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis (nematoda), in northcentral north america.meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis), a common nematode parasite in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and pathogenic for several species of ungulates in eastern north america, is not known to occur in the west. heads of 1,902 white-tailed deer were examined for adult meningeal worm to determine geographic distribution of the parasite in saskatchewan and manitoba (canada) and north dakota (usa). finding the parasite in a deer in eastern saskatchewan near the manitoba border establ ...200312910761
application of monoclonal antibodies in functional and comparative investigations of heavy-chain immunoglobulins in new world camelids.of the three immunoglobulin g (igg) isotypes described to occur in camelids, igg2 and igg3 are distinct in that they do not incorporate light chains. these heavy-chain antibodies (hcabs) constitute approximately 50% of the igg in llama serum and as much as 75% of the igg in camel serum. we have produced isotype-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) in order to investigate the roles of hcabs in camelid immunity. seventeen stable hybridomas were cloned, and three mabs that were specific for ...200515753251
meningeal worm in free-ranging deer in nebraska.the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was found in 22 (7%) of 300 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) (257 adults, 43 fawns) examined from nebraska (usa) during november 1996. none of 53 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) (47 adults and 6 fawns) examined were infected. twenty-two white-tailed deer from 18 counties in eastern nebraska were infected with parelaphostrongylus tenuis. this is the first record of p. tenuis in white-tailed deer from this state.199910073356
nova scotia moose mystery--a moose sickness related to cobalt- and vitamin b12 deficiency.a wasting, debilitating disease with uncertain aetiology affecting moose (alces alces americana) in eastern north america has been reported repeatedly ever since the 1910s. despite the intensive studies during 1930-1960s the cause of the sickness could not be established. in the 1960s a parasitic nematode (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was reported as constituting a probable explanation for the sickness, although several clinical and pathological signs remained unexplained. in sweden, a moose dise ...200414654277
molecular confirmation of parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in a horse with verminous encephalitis. 201020581347
surgical extraction of an intraocular infection of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a horse.a 4-year-old hanoverian gelding was evaluated because of a mobile worm-like structure in the right eye.201020632794
necropsy findings in 62 opportunistically collected free-ranging moose (alces alces) from minnesota, usa (2003-13).the minnesota, us moose population has declined dramatically since the 1990s. all 54 carcasses of moose that died of unknown cause or were euthanized by gun shot by tribal or department of natural resources personnel because of perceived signs of illness between 2003 and 2013 and eight carcasses of moose that died from vehicular accidents between 2009 and 2013 were submitted to the minnesota veterinary diagnostic laboratory and included in our study. the majority of the animals were underweight ...201525390764
associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern south dakota, usa.few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm ( parelaphostrongylus tenuis ) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central north america. we used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer ( odocoileus virginianus ) across eastern south dakota, us. the highest-ranked binomial regression model ...201727690195
elaeophora in the meninges of a malayan sambar (rusa unicolor equina).an adult nematode was grossly identified in the meninges of a malayan sambar (rusa unicolor equina), with numerous microfilariae associated with encephalitis and vasculitis on histopathology. the nematode was confirmed to be elaeophora schneideri by sequencing a portion of the 18s rrna gene. our report highlights the potential for aberrant migration of e. schneideri in exotic deer species and the use of advanced testing to specifically identify this metazoan parasite, avoiding misidentification ...201627664097
doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the cns during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis.meningeal worms (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the cns, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of p. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at the ...201526371853
serological diagnosis of parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in white-tailed deer and identification of a potentially unique parasite antigen.serological diagnosis of parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection should offer many advantages over the currently used method of fecal analysis that relies on a patent infection. toward this end, we investigated the presence of p. tenuis-specific antibodies in experimentally infected white-tailed deer (wtd) and of unique p. tenuis antigens that may be exploited for serodiagnosis. wtd infected with 6, 20 or 100-150 p. tenuis third-stage larvae (l3) had anti-parasite antibodies from as early as 21 day ...199910207376
climate and habitat influence prevalence of meningeal worm infection in north dakota, usa.the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a parasite of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and is also a significant pathogen of moose (alces alces) and other ungulates. changes in climate or habitat may facilitate range expansion or increase the prevalence of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer, resulting in increased exposure to susceptible ungulates. we examined 3,730 white-tailed deer during 2002-05 to determine the prevalence and range of meningeal worm infection ...201525973622
naturally occurring parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated choriomeningitis in a guinea pig with neurologic signs.an adult male guinea pig (cavia porcellus) with a 1-month history of hind limb paresis, torticollis, and seizures was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. gross examination was unremarkable, but histologic examination revealed multifocal eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic choriomeningitis and cross sections of nematode parasites within the leptomeninges of the midbrain and diencephalon. morphologic features of the nematode were consistent with a metastrongyle, and the parasite was identified a ...201323238578
meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) as a cause of mortality in the restored elk (cervus canadensis) population in missouri.meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is an important cause of mortality of elk (cervus canadensis) in populations in the eastern us and has been implicated in the failure of several restoration attempts. from 2011 to 2013, the missouri department of conservation translocated 108 adult and yearling elk from kentucky (us) to southern missouri (us) to establish a free-ranging population. from release in spring 2011 through august 2015, we monitored 167 elk (adult, yearling, and calf) to dete ...201728820300
influence of ecologic factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection in south dakota, usa.the meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus; wtd) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central north america; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central north america. we used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infectio ...201525588013
predicting shifts in parasite distribution with climate change: a multitrophic level approach.climate change likely will lead to increasingly favourable environmental conditions for many parasites. however, predictions regarding parasitism's impacts often fail to account for the likely variability in host distribution and how this may alter parasite occurrence. here, we investigate potential distributional shifts in the meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylosis tenuis, a protostrongylid nematode commonly found in white-tailed deer in north america, whose life cycle also involves a free-livin ...201323666800
cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in camelids in the northeastern united states.aberrant migration of parelaphostrongylus tenuis in camelids results in neurologic deficits, recumbency, and sometimes death. an antemortem diagnosis of p. tenuis in camelids is typically based upon the presence of characteristic asymmetric neurologic deficits, known exposure to white-tailed deer, cerebrospinal fluid (csf) eosinophilia, and response to treatment. the diagnostic accuracy of csf eosinophil percentage for the diagnosis of p. tenuis in camelids has not been critically examined. the ...201323345270
parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated meningoencephalitis in a sika deer (cervus nippon).an adult, female, free-ranging, sika deer (cervus nippon yakushimae) from wicomico county, maryland, usa, was found circling and having no fear of humans. the animal was euthanized and submitted for a postmortem exam. there were no gross lesions and the deer was negative for rabies. microscopic examination revealed lymphoplasmacytic, neutrophilic, and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with intralesional adult nematodes, larvae, and eggs consistent with nematodes in the family protostrongylidae. p ...201020090046
landscape influence on spatial patterns of meningeal worm and liver fluke infection in white-tailed deer.parasites that primarily infect white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), such as liver flukes (fascioloides magna) and meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis), can cause morbidity and mortality when incidentally infecting moose (alces alces). ecological factors are expected to influence spatial variation in infection risk by affecting the survival of free-living life stages outside the host and the abundance of intermediate gastropod hosts. here, we investigate how ecology influenced the ...201525498206
single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) analysis as a new diagnostic tool to distinguish dorsal-spined larvae of the elaphostrongylinae (nematoda: protostrongylidae) from cervids.single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) was used to genetically differentiate morphologically indistinguishable first-stage larvae (l(1)) of the six species of elaphostrongyline nematodes. a partial fragment (317-336bp) of the first internal transcribed spacer (pits-1) plus 5' flanking region (76bp of the 18s gene) of the nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna) was amplified from individual l(1) of known identity and subjected to sscp. the results showed that the four species of elaphostrongylines f ...200616185812
analysis of heavy-chain antibody responses and resistance to parelaphostrongylus tenuis in experimentally infected alpacas.the parasitic nematode parelaphostrongylus tenuis is an important cause of neurologic disease of camelids in central and eastern north america. the aim of this study was to determine whether alpacas develop resistance to disease caused by p. tenuis in response to a previous infection or a combination of controlled infection and immunization. alpacas were immunized with a homogenate of third-stage larvae (l3) and simultaneously implanted subcutaneously with diffusion chambers containing 20 live l ...201222593238
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