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medicinal flowers. vi. absolute stereostructures of two new flavanone glycosides and a phenylbutanoid glycoside from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum l.: their inhibitory activities for rat lens aldose reductase.two new flavanone glycosides, (2s)- and (2r)-eriodictyol 7-o-beta-d-glucopyranosiduronic acids, and a new phenylbutanoid glycoside, (2s, 3s)-1-phenyl-2,3-butanediol 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum l. cultivated in china together with eight flavonoids. the absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. both of the new flavanone glycosides were found to show inhibitory activit ...200212130858
leaf anatomy of a rheophyte, dendranthema yoshinaganthum (asteraceae), and of hybrids between d. yoshinaganthumand a closely related non-rheophyte, d. indicum.the rheophyte dendranthema yoshinaganthum(makino ex kitam.) kitam. is endemic to a region along the naka river in shikoku, japan. resembling other rheophytes that have adapted to environments along rivers, d. yoshinaganthumhas narrow leaves. in the native habitat of d. yoshinaganthumin tokushima, japan, natural hybridization with dendranthema indicum (l.) des moul. has resulted in a species complex with conspicuous variation in leaf shape and, in particular, in leaf width. in this study, d. yosh ...200212579357
mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants cultivated by hmong refugees living in sacramento, california.since the end of the american-vietnamese war in 1975, more than 1.5 million refugees from southeast asia have resettled in the united states. included among these displaced persons were the hmong from laos, a subsistence-based, shifting-cultivation, agricultural society. hmong who resettled in urban areas have viewed vacant lots adjacent to urban dwellings as potential garden sites for production of familiar herbs and vegetables. in the present study exotic culinary and medicinal herbs grown by ...200211939106
medicinal flowers. i. aldose reductase inhibitors and three new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols a, b, and c, from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum l.the methanolic extract from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum l., chrysanthemi indici flos, was found to show inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. by bioassay-guided separation, the active components, such as flavone and flavone glycosides, were isolated from the extract together with three new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols a, b, and c. the structures of kikkanols a, b, and c were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included app ...199910212384
inhibition of xanthine oxidase by some chinese medicinal plants used to treat gout.the enzyme xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid, which plays a crucial role in gout. a total of 122 traditional chinese medicinal plants, selected according to the clinical efficacy and prescription frequency for the treatment of gout and other hyperuricemia-related disorders, have been evaluated for the enzyme inhibitory activity. among the 122 methanol extracts derived from these species, 69 were shown to be inhibitory at 100 microg/ml, wit ...200011025157
effects of chrysanthemum indicum linn. on coronary, vertebral, renal and aortic blood flows of the anesthetized dog.the hemodynamic effects of the water extract of flower of chrysanthemum indicum linn. (cil) and adenosine were examined in anesthetized open-chest dogs by measuring simultaneously and continuously coronary (cbf), vertebral (vbf), renal (rbf) and aortic blood flows (aof). intravenous administration of cil (5-20 mg/kg) as well as adenosine (10-50 micrograms/kg) produced decreases in aortic blood pressure (aop) and rbf, and increases in aof, vbf, cbf and left ventricular dp/dt (lvdp/dt). calculated ...19873579429
antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils.in this study the composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils obtained from origanum onites, mentha piperita, juniperus exalsa, chrysanthemum indicum, lavandula hybrida, rosa damascena, echinophora tenuifolia, foeniculum vulgare were examined. to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of these eight aromatic extracts; their in vitro antimicrobial activities were determined by disk diffusion testing, according to the nccls criteria. escherichia coli (attc 25922), staphyloco ...200212510839
new sesquiterpenoids from chrysanthemum indicum var. tuneful. 19883212093
the sensitizing capacity of compositae plants. i. occupational contact dermatitis from arnica longifolia eaton.three patients with occupational contact dermatitis due to arnica longifolia eaton and arnica montana l. are reported. during cultivation, harvesting of the flower heads, chemical investigation of the sesquiterpene lactone constituents and preparation of therapeutic tinctures, they had frequent contact with the plant materials. patch tests with the two sesquiterpene lactones carabron and helenalin, isolated during investigation from a. longifolia eaton, were positive in all three patients, thoug ...1978148995
[studies on the antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver].the antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver, including salivia miltiorrhiza, hypericum japonicum, scutellaria baicalensis, callicarpa cathayana, chrysanthemum indicum, paeonia latiflora, lysimachia christinae, ligustrum lucidum (l1), patrinia villosa (pv) on hepatic homogenate of rat were tested. it was found that all tested medicines showed inhibition with dose-effect relationship, the inhibitory rate of l1 and pv were lower than th ...199712572505
[chemical constituents in volatile oil from the flos of dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum var. nov].to analyse chemical constituents of volatile oil from dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum var. nov. by gc-ms.200212776497
[studies of volatile oils from the flowers of chrysanthemum nankingense and chrysanthemum indicum].chemical constituents of volatile oils from the flowers of chrysanthemum nankingense and c. indicum were studied by gc-ms. 59, 30 components were identified respectively.199912571912
medicinal flowers. ii. inhibitors of nitric oxide production and absolute stereostructures of five new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols d, d monoacetate, e, f, and f monoacetate from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum l.the methanolic extract and ethyl acetate-soluble portion from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum l., chrysanthemi indici flos, were found to show inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (no) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. five new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols d, d monoacetate, e, f, and f monoacetate, were isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion. their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, ...200010823701
chrysanthemum allergy iii. identification of the allergens.experimental and chemical studies in guinea pigs on contact allergy caused by chrysanthemum indicum l. (chrysanthemum of the florists) led to the isolation of several sesquiterpene lactones. from the crude extract of dried flowers 12 fractions were obtained of which four gave strong reactions on epicutaneous application to guinea pigs sensitized with an extract of c. indicum l. one of these allergens was identified as a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide type. it is identical to arteglasin ...19761275550
[studies on antihypertensive drugs. xiii. experimental therapy and toxicity of hc-1, an extract from chrysanthemum indicum]. 196214073959
[structural determination of yejuhua lactone, isolated from chrysanthemum indicum l]. 19873604697
[studies on the flavonoids present in chinese drugs. viii. studies on the component of ye-ju-hua, the dry flower of chrysanthemum indicum l]. 196214075906
[serological studies on the behavior of tomato aspermy virus in chrysanthemum indicum l]. 19675632365
[studies on the chemical constituents of chrysanthemum indicum l]. 19873452963
[protective effect of chrysanthemum indicum l extract (ci-2) on myocardial injury in cultured neonatal rat heart cells deprived of oxygen and glucose]. 19816219790
[coulometric titration of acaciin in chrysanthemum indicum]. 19873687454
a first allergenic sesquiterpene lactone from chrysanthemum indicum l.: arteglasin-a. 19751214870
[application of 2d nmr techniques in the structure determination of chrysanthetriol].chrysanthemum indicum l. is a chinese traditional drug used for antifebrile, detoxication and hypotensive purposes. in continuation of our efforts to search for the active principles of this species, a new sesquiterpene compound, named chrysanthetriol was isolated from the more polar fraction of the title plant. chrysanthetriol is a colorless oil, [alpha]d20-31.8 degrees (c 0.3, meoh). hrms showed the molecular formula to be c15h26o3. the structure and stereochemistry of chrysanthtriol was eluci ...19921414384
anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of the extracts from the inflorescence of chrysanthemum indicum linné.chrysanthemum indicum linné (ci) has a long history for the treatment of inflammation, hypertension and respiratory diseases in china. the purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of the inflorescence or bud of ci extracts. the ethanol extract of ci (ciee) was fractionated to a petroleum ether soluble fraction (cipf), an ethyl acetate soluble fraction (cief), a butanol soluble fraction (cibf) and a water soluble fraction (ciwf) success ...200516029939
chrysanthemum allergy. pt. ii: experimental studies on the causative agents.experimental studies on allergic contact dermatitis due to chrysanthemum indicum 1. (chrysanthemum x-morifolium) (chrysanthemum of the florists) have indicated the following results: 1. in 5 patients with allergic contact dermatitis from chrysanthemum oil of turpentine and its sensitizing compounds gave no patch test responses. no relationship between contact allergy due to chrysanthemus and to turpentine oil could be determined. 2. the pyrethrins, constituents with insecticidal activity, derive ...19751090264
[study on spectral properties of chinese herbal medicines additives in cosmetic].chinese herbal medicines as additives in cosmetic can both keep the properties of cosmetic and have maintaining, health protection and remedial effect. some of the chinese herbal medicines can absorb ultraviolet and cure sunburn. this article mainly studies the spectral properties of several kinds of chinese herbal medicine additives in cosmetic by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer, and analyses the ultraviolet absorption of the chinese herbal medicine additives. it was shown that gynost ...200415828351
molecular evidence for multiple polyploidization and lineage recombination in the chrysanthemum indicum polyploid complex (asteraceae).the chrysanthemum indicum polyploid complex comprises morphologically differentiated diploids, tetraploids and hybrids between c. indicum and c. lavandulifolium. the relationships between species and cytotypes within this complex remain poorly understood. random amplified polymorphic dnas (rapds), intersimple sequence repeats (issrs) and chloroplast ssr markers were used to elucidate the genetic diversity and relationships of the c. indicum polyploid complex. molecular analysis of three diploid ...200616918557
stereoselective total synthesis of chrysanthemol.chrysanthemol (1), a trans-eudesmane type sesquiterpene from chrysanthemum indicum l., possesses certain anti-inflammatory activity. its total synthesis was approached from two alternative routes and finally accomplished in ten steps from r-(+)-carvone via alpha-eudesmol (10) as the key intermediate. the overall yield is 2.4% and the spectral data of the synthetic target compound were identical with that of natural chrysanthemol (1). seven intermediary compounds were tested for inhibitory effect ...200111407809
preliminary observation of 131cs distribution in experimental acute myocardial infarction and coronary insufficiency treated with root of salvia miltiorrhiza, flower of chrysanthemum morifolium and chrysanthemum indicum. 19836562297
chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of chrysanthemum indicum.three essential oils from three samples: fresh, air-dried and processed flowers of chrysanthemum indicum, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by gc-ms. the results show that major constituents of the three oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol and bornyl acetate, but the percentage of these compounds varied greatly because of the processing of flowers. the antimicrobial activity of essential oils from air-dried and processed flowers was evaluated against 15 microorganisms including th ...200515588664
indicumenone, a new bisabolane ketodiol from chrysanthemum indicum. 198717268986
effects of the water extract of chrysanthemum indicum linn. on coronary and systemic hemodynamics in the dog.to clarify the pharmacological profile and the mechanism of action of the water extract of flower of chrysanthemum indicum linn. (cil), a crude drug, the effects of cil on coronary and systemic hemodynamics were examined in anesthetized open-chest dogs, and the coronary relaxing action of cil was tested on isolated dog coronary arterial strips. intravenous administration of cil 5-20 mg/kg produced a decrease in aortic blood pressure and increases in coronary blood flow, left ventricular dp/dt an ...19863718087
neuroprotective effects of several korean medicinal plants traditionally used for stroke remedy.the neuroprotective effect of six aqueous extracts and one alcoholic extract prepared from seven medicinal plants that have been recorded as having therapeutic effects for stroke in korean traditional medicine were studied using both in vitro and in vivo cerebral ischemia models. among the extracts tested, the aqueous extracts of acorus gramineus, chrysanthemum indicum, and pinus densiflora and the alcoholic extract of vitis vinifera significantly increased the cell viability of sk-n-sh human ne ...200818598165
extraction of cadmium and tolerance of three annual cut flowers on cd-contaminated soils.to evaluate the production potential and cd removal by three flower crops, viz.: marigold (tagetes erecta), chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indicum) and gladiolus (gladiolus grandiflorus), an experiment was conducted on differentially contaminated soils (dtpa-cd 0.6-68.4 mg kg(-1)). biotoxicity of cd lead to reductions in growth and flower yield of marigold at dtpa-cd >or= 7.9 mg kg(-1) soil, while the productivity of chrysanthemum and gladiolus was sustained up to 21.2 mg kg(-1). dtpa-cd for 50% y ...200817452101
[separation and purification of flavonoids from chrysanthemum indicum with macroporous resin].a method for separation and purification of flavonoids from c. indicum with macroporous resin was studied.200718306742
chrysanthemum indicum linné extract inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing nf-kappab and mapks activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced raw 264.7 macrophages.although the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum linné (asteraceae) have long been used in traditional korean and chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, the underlying mechanism(s) by which these effects are induced remains to be defined. we investigated the effects of a 70% ethanolic extract of c. indicum (cie) on the activities of cellular signaling molecules that mediate inflammatory responses.200919429315
anti-inflammatory activity of chrysanthemum indicum extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation.although chrysanthemum indicum linné (compositae) has long been used in traditional korean, chinese, japanese medicine to treat various immune-related diseases the underlying mechanism(s) by which these effects are induced remains to be defined in vivo model system. we investigated the effects of 70% ethanolic extract from chrysanthemum indicum linné (cie) on skin inflammation in mice.200919429354
[beneficial effect of total flavonoids of chrysanthemum indicum on adjuvant arthritis by induction of apoptosis of synovial fibroblasts].to investigate the effect on the extract of total flavonoids of chrysanthemum indicum (tfc) on adjuvant arthritis synovial cells.200819260326
[studies on chemical constituents of dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum].to study chemical constituents of dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum.200919445120
induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human hcc mhcc97h cells with chrysanthemum indicum extract.to investigate the effects of chrysanthemum indicum extract (cie) on inhibition of proliferation and on apoptosis, and the underlying mechanisms, in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) mhcc97h cell line.200919777612
[studies on chemical constituents from flowers of chrysanthemum indicum].to study the chemical constituents of the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum.200818826144
[pre-treatment in determining total polysaccharide in flos chrysanthemum indicum by response surface design].to study pre-treatment in determining total polysaccharide in flos chrysanthemi indici.200919873776
distinct effect of chrysanthemum indicum linné extracts on isoproterenol-induced growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.chrysanthemum indicum linné (asteraceae) is a common chinese herbal medicine that has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, hypertension and neoplastic diseases in china. however, the mechanism that account for the inhibitory activity of chrysanthemum indicum linné against cancer cells is poorly understood. we investigated the effect of chrysanthemum indicum linné extracts (cile) on isoproterenol (iso) induced growth of human hepatocellar carcinoma (hcc) cells in correlation ...200919885587
[comparative analysis on the configuration of vegetative organs of medicinal chrysanthemum from different original locations and species].compared the difference of the configuration of vegetative organs of medicinal chrysanthemum in the same habitats but from various original locations and species, in order to provide scientific basis for the study of introduction, differentiation within the species, breeding and genetic diversity.201021548357
essential oil of chrysanthemum indicum.the steam distilled oils both from flowers and leaves, as well as from total aerial parts of chrysanthemum indicum l. (small-flowered form), were obtained and analyzed by gc and gc/ms. their main components are borneol, chrysanthenone and bornyl acetate.198317405060
[effects of total flavonoids of chrysanthemum indicum on free radical in adjuvant arthritic rats].to investigate the effects of total flavonoids of chrysanthemum indicum (tfc) on metabolism of free radical and immunoregulatory effects in adjuvant arthritis (aa) rats.201020423002
[chemical constituents from flowers of chrysanthemum indicum].to investigate the chemical constituents of the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum.201020545195
chemical variations of the essential oils in flower heads of chrysanthemum indicum l. from china.the volatile compositions of hydrodistilled essential oils in the flower heads of chrysanthemum indicum l. from eight populations in china were analyzed by gc/ms. a total of 169 compounds representing 88.79-99.53% of the oils were identified, and some remarkable differences were found in the constituent percentages of the eight populations. the predominant components of the essential oils were 1,8-cineole (0.62-7.34%), (+)-(1r,4r)-camphor (0.17-27.56%), caryophyllene oxide (0.54-5.8%), β-phellan ...201021162008
chrysanthemum indicum ethanolic extract inhibits invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of mmp/timp balance as therapeutic target.hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) is an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome largely due to metastasis and postsurgical recurrence. thus, the inhibition of invasion and metastasis is of great importance in its therapies. medicinal plants or ethnopharmacology used in folklore medicine continue to be an important source of discovery and development of novel or potential therapeutic agents for treatment of cancer. chrysanthemum indicum, one of the medicinal plants or ethnopharmacology, is being use ...201020043102
mechanisms involved in the antinociception of petroleum ether fraction from the etoh extract of chrysanthemum indicum in mice.the petroleum ether fraction (pef) from the etoh extract of flowers and buds of chrysanthemum indicum was evaluated on antinociception in mice using chemical and thermal models of nociception. pef administered orally at doses of 188 and 376mg/kg produced significant inhibitions on chemical nociception induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid, subplantar formalin or capsaicin injections and on thermal nociception in the tail-flick test and the hot plate test. in the pentobarbital sodium-induced sle ...201021112199
protective effect of chrysanthemum indicum linne against 1-methyl-4-phenylpridinium ion and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytotoxicity in cellular model of parkinson's disease.chrysanthemum indicum linn. (ci) has been used in oriental medicine for several centuries. in the present study, the effect of ci extract was evaluated against 1-methyl-4-phenylpridinium ion (mpp(+))-induced damage in sh-sy5y cells and lipopolysaccharide (lps)-stimulated bv-2 microglial cells. cell viability, oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species, expression of bcl-2/bax, and poly (adp-ribose) polymerase (parp) proteolysis were evaluated using sh-sy5y cells. production of inos, prostaglandin ...201121219959
[effect of chrysanthemum indicum on ventricular remodeling in rats].to explore the effects and mechanism of chrysanthemum indicum on experimental ventricular remodeling induced by isoprenaline (iso) and l-thyroxine (l-thy).201021137368
protective effect of glycine max and chrysanthemum indicum extracts against cisplatin-induced renal epithelial cell death.although cisplatin is one of the most efficient chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumors, frequently observed nephrotoxicity has limited its use in several patients. materials and methods: the protective effect of glycine max (gm) and chrysanthemum indicum (cm) extracts on cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human proximal tubular hk-2 cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (mtt), hoechst 33342, and propidium iodide assays. reactive oxygen ...201121406484
[chemical constituents from flowers of chrysanthemum indicum].thirteen compounds were isolated from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum by chromatographic techniques. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods as acacetin-7-0-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), luteolin (2), luteolin-7-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), acaciin (4), acacetin 7-0-(6"-0-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-sophoroside (5), 3-0-caffeoylquinic acid (6), syringaresinol 0-beta-d-glucopyranoside (7), 5,7-dihydroxychromone (8), uracil (9), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (10), 4-0-beta-d-glucop ...201021438395
protective effect of a chrysanthemum indicum containing formulation in cadmium-induced ototoxicity.chungshinchongyitang (cscyt) is an herbal drug formula containing chrysanthemum indicum and 13 other herbs used for treating auditory diseases. irreversible hearing loss is a characteristic effect of a number of heavy metals. cadmium (cd(2+)) is an environmental contaminant that causes a variety of adverse effects. in the present study, we investigate the protective effects of cscyt against cd(2+) induced ototoxicity in vitro and ex vivo. the findings of this study show that cscyt prevents the d ...201121598424
effect of total flavonoids of chrysanthemum indicum on the apoptosis of synoviocytes in joint of adjuvant arthritis rats.chrysanthemum is a traditional chinese medicine used in china to treat inflammatory diseases. the total flavonoids chrysanthemum indicum (tfc) were extracted from the dried bud of chrysanthemum indicum. our previous study had demonstrated that tfc was a new class of effective anti-inflammation, analgesia and immunoloregulation agents. in this study, we established an adjuvant arthritis (aa) model by injection of freund's complete adjuvant (fca) to investigate the effect of tfc on the apoptosis o ...200818711767
reversal of multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells by curcuma wenyujin and chrysanthemum indicum.the emergence of multidrug resistance (mdr) is a big challenge to cancer chemotherapy. plant-derived agents have great potential to prevent onset or delay progression of the carcinogenic process, and enhance the efficacy of mainstream antitumor agents. in this study, fractionated extracts of curcuma wenyujin and chrysanthemum indicum were tested for their potential to modulate the mdr phenotype and function of p-gp in mcf-7/adr and a549/taxol cells in vitro. fractions c. wenyujin c10, e10 from c ...201121306883
neuroprotection of chrysanthemum indicum linne against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by anti-inflammatory effect in gerbils.in this study, we tried to verify the neuroprotective effect of chrysanthemum indicum linne (cil) extract, which has been used as a botanical drug in east asia, against ischemic damage and to explore the underlying mechanism involving the anti-inflammatory approach. a gerbil was given cil extract for 7 consecutive days followed by bilateral carotid artery occlusion to make a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. then, we found that cil extracts protected pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal ca1 r ...201627073380
extraction, purification and elicitor activities of polysaccharides from chrysanthemum indicum.polysaccharides isolated from chrysanthemum indicum were studied for their pathogen-derived resistance against sclerotium rolfsii sacc in atractylodis maceocephalae koidz. the total sugar content and monosaccharide analysis were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy performed for simple structure information. the activities of cat and pod as protective enzymes in a. maceocephalae leaves were evaluated. the purified polysaccharides exhibited s ...201626562553
3,5-diarylpyrazole derivatives obtained by ammonolysis of the total flavonoids from chrysanthemum indicum extract show potential for the treatment of alzheimer's disease.four new 3,5-diarylpyrazole analogues (1-4) were isolated from an extract of the flowers of chrysanthemun indicum using a combination of ammonolysis of the total flavonoid extract and an aβ aggregation inhibitory activity guided purification procedure. all four compounds (1-4) showed moderate to potent activity against aβ aggregation with ec50 values of 4.3, 15.8, 1.3, and 2.9 μm, respectively. moreover, compound 3 showed low cytotoxicity and significant neuroprotective activity against aβ-induc ...201526099993
chrysindins a-d, polyacetylenes from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum.four new polyacetylenes, namely chrysindins a-d ( 1- 4), together with 6 known polyacetylenes, were isolated from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum. their structures were established on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. chrysindins a ( 1) and b ( 2) bear a novel carbon skeleton.201121604239
[analysis of hplc and nirs fingerprints of chrysanthemum indicum of different processing methods].this paper studied the hplc and nirs fingerprints of chrysanthemum with different processing methods, including directly drying, drying after steamed, and drying after fried. the method of discriminant analysis of tq software was used to analysis the nirs fingerprint of chrysanthemum with three different processing methods, and the results were consistent with hplc fingerprint similarity analysis. nirs and hplc fingerprints were of different characteristics, and the combination of the two method ...201526975109
dermatologic evaluation of cosmetic formulations containing chrysanthemum indicum extract.chrysanthemum indicum, an oriental medicinal plant, has been shown to display a variety of pharmacological activities including antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects.201626786567
the anti-osteoporosis and antioxidant activities of chemical constituents from chrysanthemum indicum flowers.two new compounds, chrysinoneside a (1) and (-)-trans-chrysanthenol-6-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), along with 17 known compounds (3-19) were isolated from chrysanthemum indicum flowers. the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of various fractions were determined. the etoac fraction had the highest total phenolic content (525.84 ± 23.51 mg gae/g dr) and the total flavonoid content (63.49 ± 3.32 mg qe/g dr). the etoac and water fractions showed the greatest peroxyl radical-scavenging capacity and ...201525597611
larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against anopheles subpictus & culex tritaeniorhynchus.background & objectives: mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. the present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of annona squamosa l., chrysanthemum indicum l., and tridax procumbens l. agai ...201121808141
development of an lc-ms/ms method for determining the pharmacokinetics of clonidine following oral administration of zhenju antihypertensive compound.zhenju antihypertensive compound (zjahc) is a combined chinese-western medicine formula including clonidine (clo), hydrochlorothiazide (hct), rutin, chrysanthemum indicum extract and pearl powder. compared with clo preparations, zjahc shows improved activities and decreased adverse effects. it is believed that the side effects of clo are caused by its high peak plasma concentration. hence, study of the influence of zjahc on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of clonidine seems essential. in present s ...201525516086
toxicities of fipronil enantiomers to the honeybee apis mellifera l. and enantiomeric compositions of fipronil in honey plant flowers.fipronil is a chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide that is effective for control of a wide range of agricultural and domestic pests at low application rates. wide application of fipronil also causes poisoning of some nontarget insects, such as honeybees. in the present study, toxicities of fipronil enantiomers and racemate to the honeybee apis mellifera l. were determined to examine whether using formulations of single or enriched fipronil enantiomer is a possible option to reduce risks to bees. co ...201020821427
the type of ploidy of chrysanthemum is not black or white: a comparison of a molecular approach to published cytological methods.polyploidy is a widespread phenomenon among higher plants and a major factor shaping the structure and evolution of plant genomes. the important ornamental chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indicum hybrid) possesses a hexaploid genome with 54 chromosomes and was classified based on its evolutionary origin and cytological methods as an allopolyploid. however, it is questionable whether cytological methods are sufficient to determine the type of ploidy, and there are more informative methods available ...201425295046
analgesic activity of the aqueous fraction from the ethanolic extract of chrysanthemum indicum in mice.the aqueous fraction (af) of an ethanolic extract from chrysanthemum indicum was evaluated for analgesic activity in mice using chemical and thermal models of nociception. given orally, af at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg produced significant inhibitions on chemical nociception induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid, subplantar formalin/capsaicin injections and on thermal nociception in the tail-flick test and in the hot plate test. in the pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time test and the ope ...201121812331
the protective effects of the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of chrysanthemum indicum against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice via modulating toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of chrysanthemum indicum linné. (cfe) has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. the aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of cfe on acute lung injury (ali) induced by lipopolysaccharide (lps) in mice. ali was induced by intratracheal instillation of lps into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. results revealed that pretreatment with cfe abated lps-induced lung ...201425214712
Reversal effects of traditional Chinese herbs on multidrug resistance in cancer cells.Multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to be a major obstacle for successful anticancer therapy. In this work, fractions from 17 clinically used antitumour traditional Chinese medicinal herbs were tested for their potential to restore the sensitivity of MCF-7/ADR and A549/Taxol cells to a known antineoplastic agent. The effects of these fractions were evaluated by MTT method and an assay of the cellular accumulation of doxorubicin. Fractions from the PB group (herbs with the ability to promote blo ...201121848372
supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from chrysanthemum indicum enhances anti-tumor effect and reduces toxicity of bleomycin in tumor-bearing mice.bleomycin (blm), a family of anti-tumor drugs, was reported to exhibit severe side effects limiting its usage in clinical treatment. therefore, finding adjuvants that enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the detrimental effect of blm is a prerequisite. chrysanthemum indicum, an edible flower, possesses abundant bioactivities; the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of c. indicum (ciscfe) have strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and lung protective effects. ho ...201728245556
cloning and characterization of chimyb in chrysanthemum indicum with an emphasis on salinity stress tolerance.v-myb avianmyeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (myb) transcription factors are key regulators of stress responsive gene expression in plants. in this study, the myb gene, chimyb (genbank accession no. kt948997), was isolated from chrysanthemum indicum, and was functionally characterized with an emphasis on salinity stress tolerance. the full chimyb cdna sequence (948 bp) encoded a typical r2r3 myb transcription factor that contained 315 amino acid residues and two myb domains. the temporal exp ...201627706784
experimental study on anti-inflammatory activity of a tcm recipe consisting of the supercritical fluid co(2) extract of chrysanthemum indicum, patchouli oil and zedoary turmeric oil in vivo.ethnopharmacological relevance: chrysanthemum indicum (compositae) linné, pogostemon cablin (blanco) benth and curcuma wenyujin (zingiberaceae) y. h. chen et c. ling are three of the extensively used herbal remedies among traditional chinese medicines for the purpose of anti-inflammation. a traditional chinese medicine (tcm) recipe named cpz consisting extracts of the above three herbs, has shown noteworthy anti-influenza activity, which is closely related to its anti-inflammatory feature. aim o ...201121920423
the complete chloroplast genome sequence of chrysanthemum indicum.chrysanthemum indicum, an important medicinal plant of asteraceae, had a long history in use for medicine in china. in this study, the complete chloroplast genome of c. indicum was sequenced by a 454 sequencing platform, and the structure of the obtained chloroplast genome was also analyzed. the complete chloroplast genome of c. indicum was 150 972 bp in length and had a pair of inverted repeats (ir, 24 956 bp) separated by a large (lsc, 82 741 bp) and small single copy (ssc, 18 319 bp) regions. ...201626709874
new experimental hosts of tobacco streak virus and absence of true seed transmission in leguminous hosts.of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to tobacco streak virus (tsv) on sap inoculation. both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (chaulai sag), celosia cristata (cocks comb), beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (palak/indian spinach), calendula offici ...201123637490
chrysanthemum indicum attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro.chrysanthemum indicum linné has been used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases in east asia. the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of c. indicum ethanol extract (cile) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. an hplc-photodiode array method was used for fingerprint analysis of the cile and ten major constituents were quantitatively analyzed. the protective effect of cile on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed using both in vitr ...201525924514
protective effect of super-critical carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of chrysanthemum indicum linnén against ultraviolet-induced photo-aging in mice.it is known that solar ultraviolet (uv) radiation to human skin causes photo-aging, including increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and reduction in skin elasticity. uv radiation induces damage to skin mainly by superfluous reactive oxygen species and chronic low-grade inflammation, which eventually up-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). in this study, the super-critical carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of chrysanthemum indicum linnén (ciscfe), wh ...201525849065
[study on different extracts of chrysanthemum indicum by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].according to the macro-fingerprint characteristic of infrared spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and second-derivative infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the extracts of chrysanthemum indicum l. by different solvents. it was speculated preliminarily that the main component of petroleum ether extract was long chain fatty acids (esters) and terpenes of small molecules, ethyl acetate extract contains terpenes and flavonoids mainly, ethanol and 95% ethanol extract was main ...201223427540
Gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis of volatile organic compounds by ion-molecule reactions using the electron-deficient reagent ion CCl3(+).When using tetrachloromethane as the reagent gas in gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry equipped with hybrid ionization source, the cation CCl(3)(+) was generated in high abundance and further gas-phase experiments showed that such an electron-deficient reagent ion CCl(3)(+) could undergo interesting ion-molecule reactions with various volatile organic compounds, which not only present some informative gas-phase reactions, but also facilitate qualitative analysis of diverse volatile co ...201121952897
[analysis of mineral elements in different organs of chrysanthemum indicum l. based on icp-aes].icp-aes technique was used to analyse the mineral elements in different organs of chrysanthemum indicum l. the results show that: (1) the content of k in root, stem, leaves and flower was the highest among macroelements, and can respectively reach to 15.84, 17.74, 31.52 and 37.55 mg x g(-1), while the content of fe was the highest in microelements in root, stem, leaves and flower, and can respectively reach to 3 219.90, 433.36, 1 519.46, and 1 426.63 microg x g(-1). (2) the accumulation of k, p, ...201223285896
identification of floral scent in chrysanthemum cultivars and wild relatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.the objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. the volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. in total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.5 ...201525816078
anxiolytic-like effects of chrysanthemum indicum aqueous extract in mice: possible involvement of gabaa receptors and 5-ht1a receptors.chrysanthemum indicum linne is an ancient herbal medicine used to treat bone and muscle deterioration, ocular infl ammation, headache, and anxiety in korea, china, and japan. furthermore, tea derived from chrysanthemum indicum linne has been used to treat anxiety by facilitating relaxation and curing insomnia. however, no reports exist on the anxiolytic-like effects of chrysanthemum indicum linne water extract (cwe) in mice. in the present study, we investigated the anxiolytic-like effects of cw ...201224009829
[compounds from fraction with cardiovascular activity of chrysanthemum indicum].in order to investigate the chemical constituents from the fraction with cardiovascular activtiy of chrysanthemum indicum, the isolation and purification of compounds from this active fraction were performed, and the chemical structures were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison of the spectral data with those reported in the literature. as a result, twelve compounds were obtained and identified as (2s) -eriodictyol-7-o-beta-d-glucuronide (1), (2s) -eriodictyol-7-o-beta-d-glucoside (2), ...201222741463
[study on the chemical constituents of the essential oils from chrysanthemum indicum collected in jinyun mountains, chongqing].to analyse the chemical constituents of essential oils from chrysanthemum indicum collected in jinyun mountains.201222734415
three new germacrane-type sesquiterpene stereoisomers from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum.from the flowers of chrysanthemum indicum, three new germacrane-type sesquiterpene stereoisomers (1β,3α,5β-trihydroxyl-7-isopropenyl-germacren-4(15), 10(14)-diene (1), 1β,3β,5α-trihydroxyl-7-isopropenyl-germacren-4(15), 10(14)-diene (2), 1β,3β,5β-trihydroxyl-7-isopropenyl-germacren-4(15), 10(14)-diene (3)) were isolated, whose structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. the absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by a single crystal x-ray diffraction ...201223022535
salicylic acid-induced changes in physiological parameters and genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in artemisia vulgaris and dendranthema nankingense during aphid feeding.phloem-feeding aphids cause serious damage to plants. the mechanisms of plant-aphid interactions are only partially understood and involve multiple pathways, including phytohormones. in order to investigate whether salicylic acid (sa) is involved and how it plays a part in the defense response to the aphid macrosiphoniella sanbourni, physiological changes and gene expression profiles in response to aphid inoculation with or without sa pretreatment were compared between the aphid-resistant artemi ...201626909993
dual effect of chrysanthemum indicum extract to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and inhibit osteoclast formation and resorption in vitro.the risk of bone-related diseases increases due to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. the goal in the development of antiosteoporotic treatments is an agent that will improve bone through simultaneous osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition without undesirable side effects. to achieve this goal, numerous studies have been performed to identify novel approaches using natural oriental herbs to treat bone metabolic disease ...201425530776
physical mapping of rdna in dendranthema nankingense and its close related species by fluorescent in situ hybridization.distribution of 18s-26s rdna on the chromosomes of dendranthema nankingense and its two close-related species d. nankingense and d. lavendulifolium was studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization with a jhd 2-15a dna clone. six rdna loci were found in d. nankingense, eight in d. lavendulifolium, and twelve in d. indicum. the rdna loci number and pattern were applied to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of the three closely related species.200212378275
akt-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract of chrysanthemum indicum var. albescens.wild chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indicum) is one of well-known medicinal plants traditionally used in korea and china. as a variant of wild chrysanthemum, white wild chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indicum var. albescens) is also ethnopharmacologically applied to treat various symptoms such as inflammatory diseases.201728274893
the protective effect of chrysanthemum indicum extract against ankylosing spondylitis in mouse models.in traditional chinese and korean homeopathic medicine, chrysanthemum indicum linné (asteraceae) is a time-honored herb, prescribed for the resolution of symptoms associated with inflammatory and hypertensive conditions as well as those affecting the lungs and its associated structures. the goal of this work is to investigate the defensive role of chrysanthemum indicum extract in fighting ankylosing spondylitis (as) using mouse models, through which the manifestation and extent of the disease pr ...201728261616
anti-inflammatory components of chrysanthemum indicum flowers.one new octulosonic acid derivative, chrysannol a (1), along with 17 known compounds (2-18), were isolated from chrysanthemum indicum flowers. their structures were determined from 1d nmr, 2d nmr, hr-esi-ms spectral data, and comparisons with previous reports. the effects of these compounds on lipopolysaccharide (lps)-induced nitric oxide (no) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-α) production by raw 264.7 cells were investigated. compound 8 showed the highest inhibition of no production of 46.0 ...201525497988
luteolin inhibited the gene expression, production and secretion of muc5ac mucin via regulation of nuclear factor kappa b signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells.luteolin, a flavonoidal compound derived from lonicera japonica thunb. and chrysanthemum indicum l., has been reported to show anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic effects. in this study, we investigated whether luteolin significantly affects the secretion, production and gene expression of airway mucin. confluent nci-h292 cells were pretreated with luteolin for 30 min and then stimulated with egf (epidermal growth factor) or pma (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) for 24 h or t ...201525285988
rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from chrysanthemum indicum l and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study.the present work reports a simple, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) using chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. the formation of agnps was confirmed by color change, and it was further characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (435 nm). the phytochemical screening of c. indicum revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides, suggesting that these compounds act as reducing and stabilizing ...201424426782
in vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. the successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. in this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. the combined inhibitory effects of pla ...201222849553
antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from malaiyur and javadhu hills of south india.the emergence and spread of plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (cq), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials. the present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from the malaiyur and javadhu hills of south india against blood stage cq-sensiti ...201121643655
biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using floral extract of chrysanthemum indicum l.--potential for malaria vector control.mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. the use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. in the present study, silver nanoparticles (ag nps) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal ...201525637241
ni (ii) adsorption onto chrysanthemum indicum: influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.the study explores the adsorption potential of chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. c. indicum flowers in raw (cif-i) and biochar (cif-ii) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution ph, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial ni(ii) ion concentrations. surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by bruna ...201627185382
lupeol is one of active components in the extract of chrysanthemum indicum linne that inhibits lmp1-induced nf-κb activation.we have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of chrysanthemum indicum linne (cie) strongly reduces epstein-barr virus (ebv)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (lcl) survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (lmp1)-induced nf-κb activation. to identify an active compound(s) in cie that inhibits lmp1-induced nf-κb activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. the ch2cl2 fraction of cie strongly reduced lmp1-induced nf-κb activation and ...201324303085
anti-inflammatory effect of supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of chrysanthemum indicum linnén.the aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of c. indicum (ciscfe). the anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. the results indicated that ciscfe significantly atte ...201324223056
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