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infection of culicoides variipennis, culicoides nubeculosus, culicoides riethi and aedes aegypti with mansonella ozzardi. 19761006770
studies on onchocerca cervicalis railliet and henry 1910: v. the development of onchocerca cervicalis larvae in the vectors.colonies of culicoides nubeculosus and c; variipennis were established at winches farm field station, st. abans. both species of midge were found to be susceptible to infection with onchocerca cervicalis microfilariae. infection was achieved either by engorging through a chick skin membrane on a suspension of microfilariae in blood, or by feeding upon a horse naturally infected with o. cervicalis microfilariae. a large proportion of the microfilariae ingested by the midges penetrated into the ha ...19751127216
the multiplication of african horse-sickness virus in two species of culicoides (diptera, ceratopogonidae).type 9 african horse-sickness virus multiplied to a high titre in both culicoides nubeculosus and c. variipennis after intrathoracic inoculation and in c. variipennis after oral ingestion. the orally infected c. variipennis were able to transmit the virus by biting after 13 days incubation at 26 degrees c but not after 6 days incubation. intrathoracically inoculated c. variipennis were able to transmit the virus after 4 days incubation. it is suggested that c. variipennis can act as a biological ...19751169931
morphology of the antennae of two species of biting midge: culicoides impunctatus (goetghebuer) and culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) (diptera, ceratopogonidae).scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the antennae of culicoides impunctatus and culicoides nubeculosus show that males and females share five sensillum types. sensilla chaetica resemble mechanoreceptors, each innervated by a single neurone whose dendrite terminates distally in a tubular body: the arrangement of sensilla on male antennae suggests that females are located by sound. the antennae have both sharp- and blunt-tipped sensilla trichodea, sharp-tipped sensilla on only the dist ...19921518067
culicoides: biological vectors of akabane virus.akabane virus replicated in culicoides nubeculosus and culicoides variipennis after intrathoracic inoculation and was maintained in both species of midge for at least 9 days post-infection. the virus also replicated to high concentration in c. variipennis after oral infection and was transmitted through a membrane by this species of midge 7-10 days after infection. the experiments described in this paper provided the first definitive evidence that culicoides spp. are able to act as fully compete ...19892609498
insect transmission of capripoxvirus.capripoxvirus was transmitted between sheep using stomoxys calcitrans as a vector. attempts to transmit capripoxvirus between sheep and between goats using biting lice (mallophaga species), sucking lice (damalinia species), sheep head flies (hydrotaea irritans) and midges (culicoides nubeculosus) were unsuccessful, although capripoxvirus was isolated from sheep head flies that had previously fed on infected sheep.19863010413
cloning and characterization of a species-specific repetitive dna sequence from onchocerca armillata.two clones, poa1 and poa5, have been isolated from a genomic dna library prepared from pools of onchocerca armillata adults in the plasmid vector puc12. in dot-blot hybridisations, these two clones do not cross-hybridise significantly with total genomic dna from o. volvulus, o. gutturosa, o. ochengi, o. gibsoni, o. lienalis, bovine, human, culicoides nubeculosus, simulium species or brugia pahangi, but do hybridise with as little as 100 pg of dna from two separate geographic isolates of o. armil ...19883185612
[trypanosomes of estrildidae birds. ii. biological studies].studies on the biology of 4 trypanosomes of estrildidae birds described in a previous paper (chandenier et al., 1988) are related. in culicoides nubeculosus, the complete development is achieved in 7 days. after a phase of intense multiplication of amastigotes in the gut, infective trypomastigotes appear. in cultures, infective stages are obtained in 13 days. transmission to clean birds was attempted: in two out of 8 attempts, a satisfactory level of parasitaemia is obtained. surprisingly trypan ...19883202585
rearing of culicoides nubeculosus (diptera: ceratopogonidae) by natural or artificial feeding in the laboratory.a technique for the mass rearing of culicoides nubeculosus in the laboratory is described. female midges were fed either on fresh or deep-frozen, defibrinated cattle blood (-70 degrees c) through latex membranes, or on anesthetized white mice. feeding rates of up to 90% were obtained on the latex membrane, whereas only 41% of the midges fed on mice. the best oviposition rates of greater than 50% were achieved after feeding either on the latex membrane with fresh cattle blood or on mice. an avera ...19883420792
ingestion of microfilariae from different sources by culicoides nubeculosus (diptera: ceratopogonidae) through an artificial membrane.laboratory-hatched culicoides nubeculosus midges were membrane-fed on cattle blood containing various onchocerca microfilariae which had been isolated from the hides of red deer (cervus elaphus) and from australian and native german cattle. all microfilariae were ingested through the membrane except those of o. tarsicola, which were too large. onchocerca gibsoni and o. lienalis reached the thoracic musculature, but no further development occurred. microfilariae of o. flexuosa developed to the "s ...19883420793
[preliminary findings on the possible role of culicoides nubeculosus in circulating west nile fever virus]. 19695400217
[new filaria of the magpie, eufilaria kalifai n. sp. (lemdaninae) and its development in culicoides nubeculosus].e. kalifai n. sp. (lemdaninae) is described from pica pica galliae captured in france (herault); this species resembles e. longicaudata from north american corvidae as well as e. delicata and e. bartlettae from european turdidae but is distinguished principally by the large size of the microfilaria (180-220 microns). the life is completed using culicoides nubeculosus as intermediate host. the above four species of eufilaria are very similar but the caudal extremity of the infective stage has fou ...19846721377
the in vitro culture of onchocerca spp.: i. preliminary observations on the development of the second to the third stage larvae.second stage larvae of onchocerca lienalis and o. gutturosa were induced to moult successfully to the third stage in vitro. following development in their vectors simulium ornatum s.l. and culicoides nubeculosus the second stage larvae were kept in a cell free culture system. at least 25% of the second stage larvae of either onchocerca species completed the moult successfully although no feeder layers had been used. in the absence of co2 (5% in air) the number of the second stage larvae moulting ...19957780449
mating behavior of culicoides nubeculosus (diptera:ceratopogonidae).the mating behavior of the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) was characterized by a number of distinct stages using laboratory-bred insects (48-h-old males and 24- to 48-h-old females). contact appeared to be required to initiate mating by the male, and most mating attempts involved some degree of female resistance to mate. it is suggested that the female may assess the fitness of the male by the vigor of his response to her unreceptive behavior.19968840697
anatomy and histology of the alimentary tract of the female of the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus meigen (diptera: heleidae=ceratopogonidae). 195613322454
habits and life-cycle of culicoides nubeculosus mg. 195014780117
artificial feeding of culicoides nubeculosus in the laboratory. 195014780207
[culicoides nubeculosus meig (diptera ceratopogonida), possible intermediary host of the filaria onchocerca reticulata dies. in camargue]. 195114859514
culicoides midge trap enhancement with animal odour baits in scotland.examples of the commercial trap mosquito magnet pro (mmp emitting attractant 1-octen-3-ol in carbon dioxide 500 ml/min generated from propane fuel), were run 24 h/day on the isle of skye, scotland, during june-august 2001 and evaluated for catching culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae). from 30 days trapping, the catch averaged 2626 +/- 1358 culicoides females/trap/day (mean +/- se, range 558 +/- 139 to 6088 +/- 3597, for five sets of six consecutive nights), predominantly the pest ...200415641999
toward development of neem-based repellents against the scottish highland biting midge culicoides impunctatus.oil of neem, from the tree azadirachta indica a. juss (meliaceae), was evaluated for repellent and antifeedant activity against culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae), by three complementary methods with serial dilutions. electroantennograms revealed the sensitivity of culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) females to neem > or = 0.10%. culicoides impunctatus goetghebuer females were repelled by > or = 1% in a y-tube olfactometer, using a membrane feeder for wild-caught parous females of c ...200415642014
assessment of alternative mating strategies in anopheles gambiae: does mating occur indoors?mating in anopheles gambiae has been observed only in outdoor swarms. here we evaluate whether mating also occurs indoors. mark-release-recapture of virgin males and females in natural houses showed that mating occurred over a single day even when mosquitoes can leave the house through exit traps and without adaptation to laboratory conditions. in these experiments, insemination rate in the m molecular form of an. gambiae (and an. arabiensis) was higher than that of the s form (15 versus 6%). un ...200818714863
identification, expression and characterisation of a major salivary allergen (cul s 1) of the biting midge culicoides sonorensis relevant for summer eczema in horses.salivary proteins of culicoides biting midges are thought to play a key role in summer eczema (se), a seasonal recurrent allergic dermatitis in horses. the present study describes the identification, expression and clinical relevance of a candidate allergen of the north american midge culicoides sonorensis. immunoblot analysis of midge saliva revealed a 66 kda protein (cul s 1) that was bound by ige from several se-affected (se+) horses. further characterisation by fragmentation, mass spectromet ...200918708061
filarioid nematodes in cattle, sheep and horses in finland.in autumn 2006, finnish meat inspection data revealed lesions in tendons, muscles and ligaments of bovine hind legs leading to partial condemnation of carcasses. in gross pathological examination at finnish food safety authority evira, oulu (now fish and wildlife health) research unit, onchocerca sp. (filarioidea; onchocercidae) nematodes were detected in lesions. due to this, a pilot study was made in order to find out what filarioid nematodes do occur in cattle, horses and sheep in finland.200818558003
adaptive strategies of african horse sickness virus to facilitate vector transmission.african horse sickness virus (ahsv) is an orbivirus that is usually transmitted between its equid hosts by adult culicoides midges. in this article, we review the ways in which ahsv may have adapted to this mode of transmission. the ahsv particle can be modified by the ph or proteolytic enzymes of its immediate environment, altering its ability to infect different cell types. the degree of pathogenesis in the host and vector may also represent adaptations maximising the likelihood of successful ...200919094921
blood parasites in owls with conservation implications for the spotted owl (strix occidentalis).the three subspecies of spotted owl (northern, strix occidentalis caurina; california, s. o. occidentalis; and mexican, s. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the barred owl (s. varia). an unaddressed threat is whether barred owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for spotted owls. although barred owls commonly harbor plasmodium infections, these parasites have not be ...200818509541
efficacy of alphacypermethrin applied to cattle and sheep against the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus.the recent emergence of bluetongue virus (btv) in northern europe, has led to an urgent need to identify methods to control the culicoides biting midges that transmit it. here, an in vitro assay was used to assess the effects of the proprietary pyrethroid insecticide alphacypermethrin applied to cattle and sheep (dysect cattle pour-on, dysect sheep pour-on; ford dodge animal health) against the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) (diptera: ceratopogonidae). hair or wool was collected fr ...200919398160
an investigation on the culicoides species composition at seven sites in southern switzerland.in the past decade, there have been regular outbreaks of bluetongue (bt) in many parts of europe. owing to the presence of bt disease and its vectors in countries adjacent to switzerland, an initial entomological survey was conducted in 2003, which established the presence of several midges of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae). subsequently, a sentinel herd monitoring system was established with the primary entomological aim being the determination and further study of culicoides p ...200919493190
identification of abundant proteins and potential allergens in culicoides nubeculosus salivary glands.ige-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reactions to the bites of insects are a common cause of skin disease in horses. insect bite hypersensitivity (ibh) is most frequently associated with bites of culicoides spp. and occurs in all parts of the world where horses and culicoides coexist. the main allergens that cause ibh are probably some of the abundant proteins in the saliva of culicoides associated with blood feeding. western blots of culicoides proteins separated by 1d gel-electrophoresis detec ...200818068808
collection and analysis of salivary proteins from the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus (diptera: ceratopogonidae).salivary proteins of hematophagous culicoides spp. are thought to play an important role in pathogen transmission and skin hypersensitivity. analysis of these proteins, however, has been problematic due to the difficulty in obtaining adequate amounts of secreted culicoides saliva. in the current study, a collection method for midge saliva was developed. over a 3-d period, 3- to 5-d-old male and female culicoides nubeculosus meigen (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were repeatedly placed onto the collec ...200717427692
equine insect bite hypersensitivity: immunoblot analysis of ige and igg subclass responses to culicoides nubeculosus salivary gland extract.insect bite hypersensitivity (ibh) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by ige-mediated reactions to bites of culicoides and sometimes simulium spp. the allergens causing ibh are probably salivary gland proteins from these insects, but they have not yet been identified. the aim of our study was to identify the number and molecular weight of salivary gland extract (sge) proteins derived from culicoides nubeculosus which are able to bind ige antibodies (ab) from the sera of ibh-affected hors ...200616797724
increased interleukin-1beta mrna expression in skin biopsies of horses with culicoides hypersensitivity following challenge with culicoides nubeculosus extract.interleukin-1beta (il-1beta) is a primary cytokine of the skin that has a pivotal role in keratinocyte differentiation, epidermal wound healing and host defense. pathological increase of cutaneous il-1beta is associated with edema formation, epidermal hyperproliferation and atopic dermatitis in humans. however, in horses the role of cutaneous il-1beta in edema formation and allergic skin disease has not been characterised so far. particularly in culicoides hypersensitivity (chs), intradermal inj ...200616797083
a morphological investigation of culicoides spp. biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) from the caribbean.features of the antennae, maxillary palps, and mouthparts of the females of seven species of culicoides spp. biting midges collected from a montane rainforest site in trinidad, west indies, were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. comparisons were made with two british species, culicoides impunctatus and culicoides nubeculosus. species-specific differences were demonstrated in the camber and pitch of mandibular teeth, the size and shape of the subapical labral sensilla, the size a ...200415266740
cloning and sequencing of a cdna expressing a ribosomal p0 peptide from culicoides nubeculosus (diptera).insect bite dermal hypersensitivity (ibh) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of culicoides spp. and sometimes simulium spp. the aim of the investigation presented here was to identify allergens causing ibh. a cdna library expressing recombinant culicoides nubeculosus proteins was screened using affinity-purified serum from an ibh-affected horse. screening of the library resulted in identification of one immunoreactive clone. the sequence of the cdna insert was determined and rev ...200415113658
attempted mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by biting insects.the mosquitoes anopheles stephensi liston and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae), the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans linnaeus (diptera: muscidae) and the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus meigen (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were allowed to feed on either lumpy skin disease (lsd) infected animals or through a membrane on a bloodmeal containing lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). these arthropods were then allowed to refeed on susceptible cattle at various intervals after the infective f ...200312941014
sulfidoleukotriene generation from peripheral blood leukocytes of horses affected with insect bite dermal hypersensitivity.sulfidoleukotrienes (slt) generated in vitro after incubation of equine peripheral blood leukocytes (pbl) with different inducing agents were determined in 18 healthy and 16 insect bite dermal hypersensitivity (idh)-affected horses. pbl from these 32 horses were stimulated with concanavalin a, parascaris equorum, culicoides nubeculosus and simulium extracts, and with a six-grass mix. the cells of all but four horses generated slt after incubation with concanavalin a; these four horses did also n ...199910587309
[the breeding of culicoides nubeculosus (diptera: ceratopogonidae)].the authors give their own procedure for rearing during 25 years the diptera ceratopogonidae culicoides nubeculosus. the only purpose of this technical note is to transmit a method.19989772718
involvement of chitinases of bacillus thuringiensis during pathogenesis in insects.bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis ips78 and b. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai hd133 both secreted exochitinase activity when grown in a medium containing chitin. allosamidin, a specific chitinase inhibitor, inhibited activity from both strains, with ic50 values of about 50 microm with colloidal chitin as substrate and between 1 and 10 microm with 4-methylumbelliferyl-diacetylchitobioside and 4-methylumbelliferyl-triacetylchitotrioside as substrates. the involvement of these chitinolytic ac ...19989720040
enhanced infectivity of modified bluetongue virus particles for two insect cell lines and for two culicoides vector species.previous studies (mertens et al., virology 157, 375-386, 1987) have shown that removal of the outer capsid layer from bluetongue virus (btv) significantly reduces (approximately x 10(-4)) the infectivity of the resultant core particle for mammalian cells (bhk 21 cells). in contrast, the studies reported here, using a cell line (kc cells) derived from a species of culicoides that can act as a vector for btv (culicoides variipennis), demonstrated a much higher infectivity of core particles than th ...19968610450
onchocerciasis in british cattle: a study of the transmission of onchocerca sp. in north wales.the transmission of bovine onchocerca spp. in britain was investigated by studying the ceratopogonidae and simuliidae which attacked bait cattle between april and october at two sites in north wales, where either onchocerca lienalis and o. gutturosa (cynwyd), or o. lienalis alone (pentrefoelas) occurred. based on the relative abundance of each species, their seasonal variation in abundance and preferential feeding sites on cattle, the presence of onchocerca sp. infective larvae and the developme ...19938354857
[two filariae of the genus eufilaria in turdus merula; development in culicoides nubeculosus (author's transl)].turdus merula from nevers (france) is infected by two species of microfilariae which both evolve in eight days (26 degrees c) in culicoides nubeculosus. we determine as eufilaria delicata supperer, 1958, the females with the longest microfilariae, the male with slightly unequal spicules and the largest infective larvae. we consider the species with the shorter microfilariae, males with more markedly unequal spicules and a relatively short infective larva as e. bartlettae n. sp. the female of thi ...19807224536
assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and uv-light/suction trap for collecting culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae), vectors of orbiviruses.abstract:201121707980
[parahaemoproteus desseri n. sp.; gametogony and schizogony in the natural host: psittacula roseata from thailand, experimental sporogony in culicoides nubeculosus (author's transl)].the gametogony and the tissue schizogony of parahaemoproteus desseri are described in the natural host: psittacula roseata; the schizonts develop in muscle fibres; they are large (up to 900 micrometer) and often sausage shaped with pseudo-septa. experimental sporogony was studied in laboratory bred culicoides nubeculosus (ceratopogonidae). oocysts are small and give rise to a small number of sporozoites. the morphological characteristics of the schizonts of our parahaemoproteus are very similar ...19816789756
multiplication of bluetongue virus in culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) simultaneously infected with the virus and the microfilariae of onchocerca cervicalis (railliet & henry). 19806257192
[culicoides nubeculosus, an experimental vector of a new trypanosome from psittaciforms: trypanosoma barkeri n. sp].two out of four psittacula roseata from thaïland harboured a trypanosome: t. bakeri n. sp. laboratory reared culicoides nubeculosus were fed on one of them. the trypanosomes developed well in this arthropod and metatrypomastigotes were observed five days after the blood meal. the inoculation of crushed culicoides into one of the trypanosome-free psittacula gave rise to a parasitaemia after a prepatent period of eleven days. this provides more evidence that culicoides can act as vectors of avian ...19826129825
studies on onchocerca cervicalis railliet and henry 1910: iv. behaviour of the vector culicoides nubeculosus in relation to the transmission of onchocerca cervicalis. 19744448891
distribution of microfilariae of onchocerca lienalis and onchocerca gutturosa in the skin of cattle in germany and their development in simulium ornatum and culicoides nubeculosus following artificial infestation.onchocerca microfilariae were isolated form the umbilicus and neck of 438 cow hides at the abattoir in tübingen, f.r.g. the overall onchocerca infection rate was 40.4%. the presence of onchocerca lienalis and o. gutturosa microfilariae, which are difficult to distinguish by morphological criteria, was retrospectively demonstrated after artifically infesting simulium ornatum and culicoides nubeculosus and identifying the infective larvae recovered. nine of 16 samples of umbilical microfilariae fe ...19902399652
a mass attack by the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus (mg.) (dipteria, ceratopogonidae) on grazing cattle in denmark. a new aspect of sewage discharge.a consequence of sewage discharge into a shallow marsh pool was large-scale hatching of the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus from the recipient and mass attacks by this blood-sucking insect on grazing cattle. culicoides nubeculosus is a great nuisance due to the painful bite and in denmark it is a potential vector of pathogenic agents. in the future, these aspects of sewage discharge must be borne in mind.19751161452
biting midges (culicoides, diptera) transmit haemoproteus parasites of owls: evidence from sporogony and molecular phylogeny.haemoproteus parasites are widespread, and several species cause diseases both in birds and blood-sucking insects. these pathogens are transmitted by dipterans belonging to the ceratopogonidae and hippoboscidae, however certain vector species remain unknown for the majority of haemoproteus spp. owls are often infected by haemoproteus parasites, but experimental studies on vectors of these infections are lacking. the aim of this study was to investigate sporogonic development of two widespread ha ...201526041656
insect bite hypersensitivity in the horse: comparison of ige-binding proteins in salivary gland extracts from simulium vittatum and culicoides nubeculosus.insect bite hypersensitivity (ibh) is an ige-mediated allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of insects such as culicoides or simulium spp. the aim of the present study was to compare the ige-binding pattern of sera of ibh-affected horses to culicoides nubeculosus and simulium vittatum salivary gland extracts (sge). individual ige responses to proteins of s. vittatum and c. nubeculosus sges were evaluated in 15 ibh-affected and three healthy horses on immunoblots. fourteen out of the 15 i ...200919836841
first detection of leishmania infantum (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) in culicoides spp. (diptera: ceratopogonidae).culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) species are known to be the vectors of bluetongue virus and african horses sickness virus (ahsv) in different areas of the world. nevertheless, other researchers have hypothesized that these arthropods could be involved in the transmission of other pathogens such as schmallenberg virus, plasmodium and leishmania parasites. identification of the culicoides' potential vector competence is crucial in understanding the worldwide culicoides/leishmania life cycle.201424460752
identification of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.phlebotomine sand flies are incriminated in the transmission of several human and veterinary pathogens. to elucidate their role as vectors, proper species identification is crucial. since traditional morphological determination is based on minute and often dubious characteristics on their head and genitalia, which require certain expertise and may be damaged in the field-collected material, there is a demand for rapid, simple and cost-effective molecular approaches.201424423215
effect of age and multiple mating on the mating behavior of culicoides nubeculosus (diptera: ceratopogonidae).the mating behavior of the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) may be divided into a number of stages, including resistance behavior of the female before copulation. a previous study indicated that resistance behavior is a method through which the female assesses the fitness of the male, allowing some degree of mate choice. our study used behavioral and electrophysiological techniques to investigate whether insect age and the reproductive status of the females influenced mating behavior ...19989835692
proteomic profile of the bradysia odoriphaga in response to the microbial secondary metabolite benzothiazole.benzothiazole, a microbial secondary metabolite, has been demonstrated to possess fumigant activity against sclerotinia sclerotiorum, ditylenchus destructor and bradysia odoriphaga. however, to facilitate the development of novel microbial pesticides, the mode of action of benzothiazole needs to be elucidated. here, we employed itraq-based quantitative proteomics analysis to investigate the effects of benzothiazole on the proteomic expression of b. odoriphaga. in response to benzothiazole, 92 of ...201627883048
a fossil biting midge (diptera: ceratopogonidae) from early eocene indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator.the life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. one of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old indian amber. camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, p ...201627698490
can insecticide-treated netting provide protection for equids from culicoides biting midges in the united kingdom?biting midges of the genus culicoides latreille, 1809 (diptera: ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to equines and are responsible for the biological transmission of african horse sickness virus (ahsv). while currently restricted in distribution to sub-saharan africa, ahsv has a history of emergence into southern europe and causes one of the most lethal diseases of horses and other species of equidae. in the event of an outbreak of ahsv, the use of insecticide treated nets (itns ...201526607993
[the sexual activity of culicoides nubeculosus (mg.) (diptera, ceratopogonidae) (author's transl)].the sexual activity of c. nubeculosus has been studied in relation to the age of males and females. the criteria chosen were stoutness of spermatheca and frequency of mating, respectively. a unit n. m. h. (number of matings/male/hour) has been determined. sexual activity reaches its maximum on 2nd day of imaginal life and is then slowly decreasing. this maximum activity on 2nd day rapidly decreases in the hours following blood meal, down to a rate which then remains nearly constant.19816111916
in vitro analysis of expression vectors for dna vaccination of horses: the effect of a kozak sequence.one of the prerequisite for developing dna vaccines for horses are vectors that are efficiently expressed in horse cells. we have analysed the ectopic expression of the human serum albumin gene in primary horse cells from different tissues. the vectors used are of pcdna and puc origin and include the cytomegalovirus (cmv) promoter. the puc vectors contain cmv intron a whereas the pcdna vectors do not. insertion of intron a diminished the expression from the pcdna vectors whereas insertion of a k ...200818983656
maternal transfer of ige and subsequent development of ige responses in the horse (equus callabus).immunoglobulin e (ige) mediates the immune response to parasites, but can also cause allergies. in humans maternal ige is not transferred to cord blood and high levels of cord blood ige are associated with subsequent allergy. in horses, both maternal igg and ige are transferred via colostrum; the ige levels in the mare's serum, the colostrum and the foal's serum are correlated but the consequences of ige transfer to foals are not known. by about 6 weeks of age the levels of ige in foal serum hav ...200919081642
the salivary transcriptome of anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae) larvae: a microarray-based analysis.in spite of the many recent developments in the field of vector sialomics, the salivary glands of larval mosquitoes have been largely unexplored. we used whole-transcriptome microarray analysis to create a gene-expression profile of the salivary gland tissue of fourth-instar anopheles gambiae larvae, and compare it to the gene-expression profile of a matching group of whole larvae. we identified a total of 221 probes with expression values that were (a) significantly enriched in the salivary gla ...200919328852
characterisation of potential novel allergens in the fish parasite anisakis simplex.the parasitic nematode anisakis simplex occurs in fish stocks in temperate seas. a. simplex contamination of fish products is unsavoury and a health concern considering human infection with live larvae (anisakiasis) and allergic reactions to anisakid proteins in seafood. protein extracts of a. simplex produce complex band patterns in gel electrophoresis and ige-immunostaining. in the present study potential allergens have been characterised using sera from a. simplex-sensitised patients and prot ...027110489
towards the pcr-based identification of palaearctic culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae): results from an international ring trial targeting four species of the subgenus avaritia.biting midges of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses. to understand the role of culicoides in the transmission of these viruses, it is essential to correctly identify the species involved. within the western palaearctic region, the main suspected vector species, c. obsoletus, c. scoticus, c. dewulfi and c. chiopterus, have similar wing patterns, which makes it difficult to separate and identify them correctly.201424884950
speculations on biting midges and other bloodsucking arthropods as alternative vectors of leishmania.sand flies remain the only proven vectors of leishmania spp. but recent implementation of pcr techniques has led to increasing speculation about "alternative vectors", including biting midges. here, we summarize that pcr has considerable limits for studing the role of bloodsucking arthropods in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. the leishmania life cycle in the sand fly includes a complex series of interactions which are in many cases species-specific, the early phase of the infection is, howeve ...201424884857
immune gene discovery by expressed sequence tag (est) analysis of hemocytes in the ridgetail white prawn exopalaemon carinicauda.the ridgetail white prawn exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the most important commercial species in eastern china. however, little information of immune genes in e. carinicauda has been reported. to identify distinctive genes associated with immunity, an expressed sequence tag (est) library was constructed from hemocytes of e. carinicauda. a total of 3411 clones were sequenced, yielding 2853 ests and the average sequence length is 436 bp. the cluster and assembly analysis yielded 1053 unique se ...201223092732
identification and isolation of cdna clones encoding the abundant secreted proteins in the saliva proteome of culicoides nubeculosus.culicoides spp. are vectors of several infectious diseases of veterinary importance and a major cause of allergy in horses and other livestock. their saliva contains a number of proteins which enable blood feeding, enhance disease transmission and act as allergens. we report the construction of a novel cdna library from culicoides nubeculosus linked to the analysis of abundant salivary gland proteins by mass spectrometry. fifty-four novel proteins sequences are described including those of the e ...200919523070
cloning of ige-binding proteins from simulium vittatum and their potential significance as allergens for equine insect bite hypersensitivity.insect bite hypersensitivity (ibh) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of culicoides and sometimes simulium spp. the aim of this investigation was to identify simulium allergens associated with ibh. a phage surface display cdna library expressing recombinant simulium vittatum salivary gland proteins was screened using sera of ibh-affected horses sensitized to s. vittatum salivary gland proteins as shown in immunoblot, resulting in the identification of seven cdnas encoding ige-bi ...200919836085
insecticidal effects of deltamethrin in laboratory and field populations of culicoides species: how effective are host-contact reduction methods in india?bluetongue virus (btv) is transmitted by culicoides biting midges and causes bluetongue (bt), a clinical disease observed primarily in sheep. bt has a detrimental effect on subsistence farmers in india, where hyperendemic outbreaks impact on smallholdings in the southern states of the country. in this study, we establish a reliable method for testing the toxic effects of deltamethrin on culicoides and then compare deltamethrin with traditional control methods used by farmers in india.201728143560
characterization of two cryptic species, culicoides stigma and c.parroti (diptera: ceratopogonidae), based on barcode regions and morphology.biting midges of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are insect vectors of economically important veterinary diseases such as african horse sickness, bluetongue, and schmallenberg virus. the identification of culicoides based on morphological features can be difficult. three species of biting midges, culicoides nubeculosus, c. stigma, and c. parroti have emerged in the laboratory from mud collected around watering troughs on a farm in northern france. emerging culicoides were charact ...201324581354
treatment of horses with cypermethrin against the biting flies culicoides nubeculosus, aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus.an in vitro assay was used to assess the efficacy of the proprietary pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin applied to horses (deosect spray, 5.0%, w/v fort dodge animal health) against the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) (diptera: ceratopogonidae) and the mosquitoes aedes aegypti linneaus and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae). hair was collected from the back, belly and legs of the horses immediately prior to treatment and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after treatment, and a ...201020074858
cloning and expression of recombinant equine interleukin-3 and its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes.interleukin-3 is a growth and differentiation factor for various hematopoietic cells. il-3 also enhances stimulus-dependent release of mediators and cytokine production by mature basophils. function of il-3 has not been studied in horses because of lack of horse-specific reagents. our aim was to produce recombinant equine il-3 and test its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes (pbl). equine il-3 was cloned, expressed in e. coli and purified. p ...201525530476
intradermal testing of horses with and without insect bite hypersensitivity in the netherlands using an extract of native culicoides species.intradermal tests using a culicoides nubeculosus extract have proven unreliable for diagnosis of equine insect bite hypersensitivity (ibh) in the netherlands. the aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an extract derived from the dutch species c. obsoletus and c. pulicaris. thirteen pairs of horses were tested, each pair consisting of one horse with ibh and the other a healthy control. each horse was injected intradermally with 0.1 ml of three concentrations of culicoides whol ...200920178501
evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for characterization of culicoides nubeculosus biting midges.matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) has shown promise in species identification of insect species. we evaluated its potential to consistently characterize laboratory-reared biting midges of the species culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) (diptera: ceratopogonidae). twenty-one reproducible potential biomarker masses for c. nubeculosus were identified under different experimental treatments. these treatments included the homogenization of insects ...201021118284
nonspecific patterns of vector, host and avian malaria parasite associations in a central african rainforest.malaria parasites use vertebrate hosts for asexual multiplication and culicidae mosquitoes for sexual and asexual development, yet the literature on avian malaria remains biased towards examining the asexual stages of the life cycle in birds. to fully understand parasite evolution and mechanism of malaria transmission, knowledge of all three components of the vector-host-parasite system is essential. little is known about avian parasite-vector associations in african rainforests where numerous s ...201021134011
skin-infiltrating t cells and cytokine expression in icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity: a possible role for regulatory t cells.equine insect bite hypersensitivity (ibh) is a seasonally recurrent, pruritic skin disorder caused by an ige-mediated reaction to salivary proteins of biting flies, predominantly of the genus culicoides. the aim of this study was to define t cell subsets and cytokine profile in the skin of ibh-affected icelandic horses with particular focus on the balance between t helper (th) 1, th2 and t regulatory (treg) cells. distribution and number of cd4+, cd8+ and forkhead box p3 (foxp3)+ t cells were ch ...201021168921
entomopathogenic fungus as a biological control for an important vector of livestock disease: the culicoides biting midge.the recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge culicoides nubeculosus meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (beauveria bassiana, isaria fumosorosea and lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against ...201121264343
taxonomic assessment of culicoides brunnicans, c. santonicus and c. vexans (diptera: ceratopogonidae) in france: implications in systematics.culicoides brunnicans edwards, 1939, culicoides santonicus, callot et al., 1966, and culicoides vexans (staeger, 1839) belong to the vexans group of the subgenus oecacta. these species had never been studied by molecular methods and their distribution in western europe overlapped. c. brunnicans and c. santonicus are two closely related species and their diagnoses are based on the wing pattern only. an integrative taxonomic approach was conducted on females of the vexans group, culicoides furens ...201526005070
in vivo and in vitro propagation and transmission of toggenburg orbivirus.the toggenburg orbivirus (tov), a recently discovered virus related to bluetongue virus (btv), has been identified in goats in switzerland, italy and germany. isolation of tov in vitro has not yet been achieved and the transmission mechanisms are still unknown. in the experimental infection of pregnant goats described here, tov could not be detected in secretion/excretion samples or fetal blood. material from the goat experiment was used as inoculum for propagating the virus in vitro. to enhance ...201121458013
laboratory and field-based tests of deltamethrin insecticides against adult culicoides biting midges.bluetongue virus (btv) is an economically important arbovirus of ruminants transmitted by culicoides biting midges. vector control using residual spraying or application to livestock is recommended by many authorities to reduce btv transmission; however, the impact of these measures in terms of both inflicting mortality on culicoides and subsequently upon btv transmission is unclear. this study consisted of a standardized world health organization laboratory assay to determine the susceptibility ...201121485373
An insight into the sialome of Simulium guianense (DIPTERA:SIMULIIDAE), the main vector of River Blindness Disease in Brazil.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the composition and function of the saliva in black flies such as Simulium guianense, the main vector of river blindness disease in Brazil. The complex salivary potion of hematophagous arthropods counteracts their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity. RESULTS: Transcriptome analysis revealed ubiquitous salivary protein families - such as the Antigen-5, Yellow, Kunitz domain, and serine proteases--in the S. guianense sialotranscriptome. Insec ...201122182526
sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of european culicoides biting midges.most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of culicoides latreille biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and schmallenberg viruses. the longevity of laboratory-reared culicoides nubeculosus (meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28‚ÄČ°c) and ...201525155520
evaluation of ige levels against culicoides nubeculosus allergens in belgian warmblood horses. 201222558784
schmallenberg virus in culicoides latreille (diptera: ceratopogonidae) populations in france during 2011-2012 outbreak.following the emergence of the schmallenberg virus (sbv) in 2011 in germany and its rapid spread in europe, culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) collected through the french surveillance network were analysed in order to record the presence of virus genome into species diversity collected, to assess the minimum infectious rates (mir) and the virus circulation dynamics in culicoides populations. two vector activity periods were selected (2011, august to october, 53 sites and 2012, june to octobe ...201728815930
mathematical modelling and evaluation of the different routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus.abstract: lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a severe viral disease of cattle. circumstantial evidence suggests that the virus is transmitted mechanically by blood-feeding arthropods. we compared the importance of transmission via direct and indirect contact in field conditions by using mathematical tools. we analyzed a dataset collected during the lsd outbreak in 2006 in a large dairy herd, which included ten separated cattle groups. outbreak dynamics and risk factors for lsd were assessed by a transm ...201222236452
major histocompatibility complex and other allergy-related candidate genes associated with insect bite hypersensitivity in icelandic horses.insect bite hypersensitivity (ibh) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of insects. ibh is a multifactorial disease with contribution of genetic and environmental factors. candidate gene association analysis of ibh was performed in a group of 89 icelandic horses all born in iceland and imported to europe. horses were classified in ibh-affected and non-affected based on clinical signs and history of recurrent dermatitis, and on the results of an in vitro sulfidoleukotriene (slt)-re ...201223275235
sergentomyia schwetzi is not a competent vector for leishmania donovani and other leishmania species pathogenic to humans.sand fly species of the genus sergentomyia are proven vectors of reptilian leishmania that are non-pathogenic to humans. however, a consideration of the role of sergentomyia spp. in the circulation of mammalian leishmaniasis appears repeatedly in the literature and the possibility of leishmania transmission to humans remains unclear. here we studied the susceptibility of colonized sergentomyia schwetzi to leishmania donovani and two other leishmania species pathogenic to humans: l. infantum and ...201323786805
can sergentomyia (diptera, psychodidae) play a role in the transmission of mammal-infecting leishmania?leishmaniases are parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus leishmania. the parasites, which infect various wild and domestic mammals, including humans, are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to the phlebotomus genus in the old world and to several genera (including lutzomyia, psychodopygus and nyssomyia) in the new world. in this paper, we consider the genus sergentomyia as divided into seven subgenera, mainly based on spermathecal morphology: sergentomyia, si ...201627921993
how do species, population and active ingredient influence insecticide susceptibility in culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) of veterinary importance?culicoides biting midges are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock and equines. insecticides are often employed against culicoides as a part of vector control measures, but systematic assessments of their efficacy have rarely been attempted. the objective of the present study is to determine baseline susceptibility of multiple culicoides vector species and populations in europe and africa to the most commonly used insecticide active ingredients. six active ingr ...201526310789
turnover rate of ns3 proteins modulates bluetongue virus replication kinetics in a host-specific manner.bluetongue virus (btv) is an arbovirus transmitted to livestock by midges of the culicoides family and is the etiological agent of a hemorrhagic disease in sheep and other ruminants. in mammalian cells, btv particles are released primarily by virus-induced cell lysis, while in insect cells they bud from the plasma membrane and establish a persistent infection. btv possesses a ten-segmented double-stranded rna genome, and ns3 proteins are encoded by segment 10 (seg-10). the viral nonstructural pr ...201526246581
salivary gland transcriptomes and proteomes of phlebotomus tobbi and phlebotomus sergenti, vectors of leishmaniasis.phlebotomus tobbi is a vector of leishmania infantum, and p. sergenti is a vector of leishmania tropica. le. infantum and le. tropica typically cause visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively, but le. infantum strains transmitted by p. tobbi can cause cutaneous disease. to better understand the components and possible implications of sand fly saliva in leishmaniasis, the transcriptomes of the salivary glands (sgs) of these two sand fly species were sequenced, characterized and compared.201222629480
the haemosporidian parasites of bats with description of sprattiella alecto gen. nov., sp. nov.four species of haemoproteidae were found in pteropus alecto temminck, 1837 in queensland, australia: i) johnsprentia copemani, landau et al., 2012; ii) sprattiella alecto gen. nov., sp. nov., characterised by schizonts in the renal vessels; iii) hepatocystis levinei, landau et al., 1985, originally described from pteropus poliocephalus temminck, 1825 and, experimentally from culicoides nubeculosus and found in this new host and for which features of the hepatic schizonts are reported; iv) gamet ...022550624
the biting midge culicoides sonorensis (diptera: ceratopogonidae) is capable of developing late stage infections of leishmania enriettii.despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. biting midges of the genus forcipomyia (lasiohelea) have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the l. enriettii complex in australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date.201526367424
haemoproteus tartakovskyi (haemoproteidae): complete sporogony in culicoides nubeculosus (ceratopogonidae), with implications for avian haemoproteid experimental research.numerous recent studies have addressed the molecular characterization, distribution and genetic diversity of haemoproteus spp. (haemoproteidae). some species of these blood parasites cause severe disease in birds, and heavy infections are often lethal in biting midges (ceratopogonidae) and other blood-sucking insects. however, information about the vectors of haemoproteids is scarce. this presents an obstacle for better understanding the mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the epidemiol ...201626616347
development of leishmania parasites in culicoides nubeculosus (diptera: ceratopogonidae) and implications for screening vector competence.biting midges of the genus forcipomyia (diptera: ceratopogonidae) have recently been implicated as vectors of kinetoplastid parasites in the leishmania enrietti complex. this study assesses susceptibility of one of the few successfully colonized ceratopogonidae, culicoides nubeculosus meigen, to infection with leishmania parasites infecting humans. while leishmania infantum initially developed in the midgut of c. nubeculosus until 2 d postfeeding, parasite populations on day 3 were considerably ...201223025175
cloning, production and characterization of antigen 5 like proteins from simulium vittatum and culicoides nubeculosus, the first cross-reactive allergen associated with equine insect bite hypersensitivity.insect bite hypersensitivity (ibh) is an ige-mediated seasonal dermatitis of the horses associated with bites of simulium (black fly) and culicoides (midge) species. although cross-reactivity between simulium and culicoides salivary gland extracts has been demonstrated, the molecular nature of the allergens responsible for the observed cross-reactivity remains to be elucidated. in this report we demonstrate for the first time in veterinary medicine that a homologous allergen, present in the sali ...201020537727
selective cloning, characterization, and production of the culicoides nubeculosus salivary gland allergen repertoire associated with equine insect bite hypersensitivity.salivary gland proteins of culicoides spp. have been suggested to be among the main allergens inducing ige-mediated insect bite hypersensitivity (ibh), an allergic dermatitis of the horse. the aim of our study was to identify, produce and characterize ige-binding salivary gland proteins of culicoides nubeculosus relevant for ibh by phage surface display technology. a cdna library constructed with mrna derived from c. nubeculosus salivary glands was displayed on the surface of filamentous phage m ...201021071100
evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of ceratopogonid and culicid larvae.matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) was evaluated for the rapid identification of ceratopogonid larvae. optimal sample preparation as evaluated with laboratory-reared biting midges culicoides nubeculosus was the homogenization of gut-less larvae in 10% formic acid, and analysis of 0.2 mg/ml crude protein homogenate mixed with sa matrix at a ratio of 1:1.5. using 5 larvae each of 4 ceratopogonid species (c. nubeculosus, c. obsoletus, c. deco ...201323171762
hyaluronidase activity in saliva of european culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae).biting midges of the genus culicoides transmit pathogens of veterinary importance such as bluetongue virus (reoviridae: orbivirus). the saliva of culicoides is known to contain bioactive molecules including peptides and proteins with vasodilatory and immunomodulative properties. in this study, we detected activity of enzyme hyaluronidase in six culicoides species that commonly occur in europe and that are putative vectors of arboviruses. hyaluronidase was present in all species studied, although ...201526487248
the geographical distribution and first molecular analysis of culicoides latreille (diptera: ceratopogonidae) species in the southern and southeastern turkey during the 2012 outbreak of bovine ephemeral fever.this study investigated the geographical distribution and molecular analysis of culicoides species in the southern and southeastern turkey during the 2012 outbreak of bovine ephemeral fever (bef). the midge specimens caught by onderstepoort-type light traps from livestock farms were tested for molecular evidence of existence of viral genome. blood specimens were collected from clinically bef-suspected acute febrile cattle. total nucleic acid samples obtained from field specimens were checked aga ...201425199552
some new records of culicoides species (diptera: ceratopogonidae) from iran.biting midges of the genus culicoides act as vectors for important diseases affecting humans and both wild and domestic animals. collection of adult culicoides specimens in the near vicinity of vertebrate hosts is the major part of any bluetongue surveillance plan. there are old records of culicoides species dated from 1963, 1968 and 1975. therefore, it was decided to collect different ceratopogonids members using a light trap.201628032099
allergens in veterinary medicine.allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. for intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific ige; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. only a few studies provi ...201526280544
an insight into the sialome of blood-feeding nematocera.within the diptera and outside the suborder brachycera, the blood-feeding habit occurred at least twice, producing the present day sand flies, and the culicomorpha, including the mosquitoes (culicidae), black flies (simulidae), biting midges (ceratopogonidae) and frog feeding flies (corethrellidae). alternatives to this scenario are also discussed. successful blood-feeding requires adaptations to antagonize the vertebrate's mechanisms of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, pa ...201020728537
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