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blood parasites of sheep in the netherlands. i. anaplasma mesaeterum sp.n. (rickettsiales, anaplasmataceae).on two occasions an anaplasm was isolated from sheep on the dutch island of ameland. the organism proved to be highly pathogenic for splenectomised sheep; a non-splenectomised animal recovered spontaneously after the packed cell volume had decreased by 40%. treatment with oxytetracycline was effective. its pathogenicity for goats appeared to be low, and the organism was apparently not infective to splenectomised cattle. this anaplasm differs from anaplasma ovis in that less than 30% of the organ ...1979419513
susceptibility of two rocky mountain bighorn sheep to experimental infection with anaplasma ovis.in north america, the role of wild ruminants in the epidemiology of anaplasmosis has not been clearly defined. such information is particularly meager in regard to bighorn sheep. we report the susceptibility of two rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to experimental infection with a well characterized field isolate of anaplasma ovis obtained from domestic sheep in idaho. both bighorn sheep developed infection resulting in severe clinical disease, with relatively high parasi ...19921548791
development of anaplasma ovis (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) in male dermacentor andersoni (acari: ixodidae) transferred from infected to susceptible sheep.the development of anaplasma ovis was studied in dermacentor andersoni males transferred from infected to susceptible sheep. laboratory-reared male d. andersoni were allowed to feed for 6 d on a sheep with ascending a. ovis parasitemia. the ticks were removed and held at room temperature in a humidity chamber for 6 d, after which they were allowed to feed on five susceptible sheep for 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 d. gut and salivary glands were collected from ticks during the 21-d experiment and examined wi ...19921552534
an anaplasma centrale dna probe that differentiates between anaplasma ovis and anaplasma marginale dna.an anaplasma centrale genomic library was constructed in puc13. two clones pac5 and pac137 hybridising to a. centrale and a. marginale dna were isolated from this library. one of these, pac5, also hybridised to dna from a. ovis. the total insert of pac5 was subcloned into pbr322. this subclone, pac5-12, could detect 1 ng a. centrale, 0.5 ng a. marginale and 3.9 ng a. ovis dna. the hybridisation pattern obtained with pac5-12 on digests of a. centrale, a. marginale and a. ovis dna suggests that th ...19911897134
[ticks and hemoparasitic diseases in cattle in senegal. iv. the southern sudan area].the authors report on the results of an investigation on ticks and hemoparasitoses of cattle, sheep and goats in the south sudanian area of senegal. systematic routine dipping against ticks of cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats was set during 15 months, with a view to determine the population dynamics together with an acurate localization of the different species concerned. the following parasites were collected from these ruminants: amblyomma variegatum, boophilus geigyi, hyalomma truncatum, h. m. r ...19902218038
cloned dna probes identify anaplasma ovis in goats and reveal a high prevalence of infection.anaplasma organisms are observed in erythrocytes from goats with anemia and weight loss in kenya. three anaplasmas have been isolated in nature, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma marginale, and anaplasma centrale. the two recognized species, a. ovis and a. marginale, are known to infect goats. since only a. ovis causes clinical disease in goats, the anaplasma species in goats in kenya were identified. to detect a. ovis, a 9.6-kilobase-pair section of genomic dna was cloned into pbr322 (pao12a) and was u ...19892592538
effect of chemotherapy on semen characteristics of balami rams infected with anaplasma ovis.six intact balami rams were experimentally infected with anaplasma ovis. another six were infected one month after splenectomy and six others served as controls. clinical manifestations of the disease, first observed between 5 to 7 days post-infection, were more severe and prolonged in the splenectomised-infected than in the intact-infected group. there was progressive deterioration in semen quality, which was also significantly more severe and prolonged in the splenectomised than in the intact- ...19883188380
the significance of eperythrozoon ovis in ill-thrift in sheep in the eastern cape coastal areas of south africa.ill-thrift in sheep in the coastal region of the eastern cape is described. it is shown to be a complex problem attributable to many causes, most of which can be eliminated by supplementary feeding, drenching, vaccination, dipping and management. however, studies on the aetiology of ill-thrift in young sheep indicate that arthropod-borne anaemia-producing pathogens are an important contributing factor, which cannot readily be diagnosed and controlled. experiments were conducted on various farms ...19883210217
experimental anaplasmosis in mule deer: persistence of infection of anaplasma marginale and susceptibility to a. ovis.an experimental anaplasma marginale infection was induced in a splenectomized mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) which persisted subclinically at least 376 days as detected by subinoculation into susceptible cattle. anaplasma ovis was experimentally transmitted from sheep to a splenectomized and a spleen-intact mule deer, and back to sheep. the pathogenesis in deer was very similar to that seen in sheep using ovine blood inoculations.19883352081
experimental infections of anaplasma ovis in pronghorn antelope.anaplasma ovis was experimentally transmitted from sheep to pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana) and back to sheep. anaplasma ovis was recovered in splenectomized sheep, from two of three spleen-intact pronghorns following their inoculation with blood from known a. ovis carrier sheep. these two pronghorns exhibited a 0.5% or higher a. ovis parasitemia within 48 days after exposure, and an anaplasmosis-positive serological response 91 days after exposure. clinical signs of illness were not ...19873586197
ovine anaplasmosis: in utero transmission as it relates to stage of gestation.seventeen mature, pregnant, anaplasmosis-susceptible and 3 anaplasmosis-carrier ewes were used in anaplasma ovis in utero transmission studies. susceptible ewes were arbitrarily allotted to 3 groups, 4 each in groups a and c and 9 in group b, and were inoculated with whole blood from a carrier ewe. each group was anaplasma-exposed once during one of the thirds of pregnancy. in all ewes, resulting parasitemias were low and anemias were mild. three carrier ewes comprised group d. blood samples wer ...19873826827
[specificity of anaplasma ovis]. 19695380232
studies on anaplasma ovis infection. i. course of spontaneous infections in splenectomised nigerian sheep and goats. 19685693875
studies on anaplasma ovis infection. ii. pathogenicity of a nigerian goat strain for dutch sheep and goats. 19685693877
anaplasma ovis infection. 19685761409
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
anaplasma ovis in idaho sheep.blood samples from 16 anaplasmosis complement-fixation (cf) positive sheep from a flock near cambridge, idaho, were inoculated into 3 intact sheep and 3 splenectomized calves. the 3 sheep became cf positive, and 2 developed parasitemia. none of the 3 calves had signs of anaplasmosis, but all became ill when they were subsequently challenge exposed with blood from known carriers of anaplasma marginale. after a 75-day observation period, blood from the recipient intact sheep was subinoculated into ...19817258767
infection of splenectomized calves with anaplasma ovis.an anaplasma was not recovered from 2 splenectomized calves at 17 days after a ovis inoculation, but was recovered from 1 of the calves at 177 days after inoculation. in a 3rd calf exposed to a ovis, an anaplasma was recovered at 177 and 262 days after inoculation. the anaplasma recovered from these calves was determined to be a ovis on the basis of cross-infectivity trials, using anaplasma marginale.19817340580
detection of anaplasma ovis infection in goats by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on a major surface protein 5 (msp5) b-cell epitope conserved among anaplasma species was used to detect goats infected with anaplasma ovis. we examined strains of a. ovis isolated from goats in kenya and demonstrated that msp5 and the target b-cell epitope, bound by monoclonal antibody anaf16c1, were conserved. sera from 149 goats in four regions of kenya and from 302 goats in six u.s. states were tested for the presence of ...19957538510
[ticks and hemoparasitoses of livestock in senegal. vi. the soudano-sahelian zone].the authors report the results of a study on ticks and hemoparasitoses among cattle, sheep and goats in the sudano-sahelian zone. during a period of 15 months, ticks were systematically removed from 40 cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats in order to assess the population dynamics and determine more accurately the preferential sites of settlement of the different species. the following species were collected in ruminants: hyalomma truncatum, h. marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rh. gui ...19947991897
[ticks and hemoparasitoses in livestock in senegal. v. the northern guinea area].the authors report the results of a study on ticks and hemoparasitoses among cattle, sheep and goats in the north-guinean zone. during a period of 15 months, ticks were systematically removed from 40 cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats in order to assess the population dynamics and to determine more accurately the preferential sites of settlement of the following different species collected from these animals: amblyomma variegatum, boophilus geigyi, hyalomma truncatum, h. marginatum rufipes, rhipiceph ...19938073170
characterization of an anaplasma ovis isolate from desert bighorn sheep in southern california.to understand the role of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in the epidemiology of anaplasmosis, we recovered a field isolate from a suspected enzootic area in southern california (usa). whole blood was collected from three desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) and inoculated into a susceptible splenectomized domestic sheep, calf and a susceptible spleen-intact bighorn sheep. no infection occurred in the calf, but a detectable infection developed in both the domestic sheep and bighorn she ...19938258851
a retrospective serologic survey for anaplasma spp. infection in three bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) populations in california.using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, we determined the prevalence of anaplasma-reactive antibody in three herds of bighorn sheep, each a different subspecies and occupying a different habitat in california (usa). antibodies to anaplasma spp. were identified in none of twenty california bighorn (ovis canadensis californiana) sampled from the mt. baxter herd, 11 of 17 peninsular bighorn (o. canadensis cremnobates) sampled in the santa rosa mountains, and all 20 desert bighorn (o. canadensis ...19938258852
susceptibility of elk (cervus elaphus) to experimental infection with anaplasma marginale and a. ovis.anaplasma ovis was experimentally transmitted from domestic sheep to elk (cervus elaphus) and back to splenectomized sheep. no rickettsemias were detected but serum from three of seven experimentally inoculated elk developed anaplasma spp.-reactive antibody as measured by indirect immunofluorescence (iif) or by the rapid card agglutination and complement fixation assays. three elk were experimentally infected with a. marginale. the rickettsiae were detected in blood of these elk and caused disea ...19968627938
evaluation of anaplasma marginale major surface protein 3 (msp3) as a diagnostic test antigen.an immunodominant surface protein, major surface protein 3 (msp3), has been proposed as an antigen suitable for use in the diagnosis of bovine anaplasmosis. we further characterized msp3 to examine its potential as a test antigen for the serological diagnosis of carrier cattle. the specificity of this antigen in detecting infected cattle as well as the conservation of msp3 between strains of anaplasma marginale was evaluated by using immunoblots of a. marginale proteins separated by one- and two ...19968788999
piroplasms of domestic animals in the macedonia region of greece. 3. piroplasms of small ruminants.a study was carried out on piroplasms of small ruminants in the macedonia region of greece. during 1984-1985, 721 serum samples were collected from sheep in 49 localities and 487 from goats in 43 localities. blood smears were also prepared from 26 sheep and eight goats in 16 localities. the prevalence of positive ifa titres for sheep and goat sera, respectively, was: 24.6% and 0.6% for theileria ovis, 52.1% and 36.4% for babesia ovis, 10.5% and 4.2% for babesia motasi, 12.6% and 6.6% for babesia ...19968792581
cattle and small ruminant piroplasmosis in macedonia, greece.macedonia is an endemic region of cattle as well as of sheep and goat piroplasmosis in cattle, theileria orientalis (=t. buffeli?), the agent of eurasian benign theileriosis, is the most common and widespread piroplasm species. t. annulata, the agent of tropical theileriosis, seems to be rare and limited to few foci, but causes very severe clinical cases, especially in imported pure-bred or cross-bred animals. babesia bovis and b. bigemina are present in several localities, and often coexist. ca ...199911071550
health protocol for translocation of free-ranging elk.when considering an elk (cervus elaphus) restoration program, wildlife managers must evaluate the positive and negative elements of translocation. we prepared this protocol to give an overview of health considerations associated with translocation of elk, with an emphasis on movement of free-ranging elk from western north america to the southeastern usa. we evaluated infectious agents and ectoparasites reported in elk from two perspectives. first, we made a qualitative estimate of the ability of ...200111504216
anaplasma ovis in the united states; experimental studies with sheep and goats. 195613340112
amplification of 16s rrna genes of anaplasma species in china for phylogenetic analysis.in this study, a phylogenetic tree was inferred through comparing five 16s rrna gene sequences of four isolates of anaplasma ovis and one of anaplasma marginale in china with all nineteen 16s rrna gene sequences deposited in genbank (12 a. marginale, 3 a. ovis and 4 anaplasma centrale derived from america, uruguay, south africa, zimbabwe, australia, isreal and japan). the analysis showed that all a. ovis isolated in china were separated into an a. ovis cluster, while the a. marginale in china wa ...200515795086
serologic and molecular characterization of anaplasma species infection in farm animals and ticks from sicily.although anaplasma marginale was known to be endemic in italy, the diversity of anaplasma spp. from this area have not been characterized. in this study, the prevalence of anaplasma spp. antibodies in randomly selected farm animals collected on the island of sicily was determined by use of a msp5 celisa for anaplasma spp. and an immunofluorescence test specific for anaplasma phagocytophilum. genetic variation among strains of anaplasma spp. from animals and ticks was characterized using the a. m ...200516043300
genetic characterization of anaplasma ovis strains from bighorn sheep in montana.wildlife reservoir species and genetic diversity of anaplasma ovis (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) have been poorly characterized. bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), captured in montana from december 2004 to january 2005, were tested for antibodies to anaplasma spp.; the presence of a. ovis was determined by the characterization of major surface protein msp4 sequences. anaplasma antibodies were detected in 25/180 (14%) sampled bighorn sheep and a. ovis msp4 sequences were amplified by polymerase ...200616870861
sequence analysis of the msp4 gene of anaplasma ovis strains.anaplasma ovis (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) is a tick-borne pathogen of sheep, goats and wild ruminants. the genetic diversity of a. ovis strains has not been well characterized due to the lack of sequence information. in this study, we evaluated bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) from montana for infection with a. ovis by serology and sequence analysis of the msp4 gene. antibodies to anaplasma spp. were detected in 37% and 39% of bighorn sheep and mule deer ...200717052866
an epidemiological study on anaplasma infection in cattle, sheep, and goats in mashhad suburb, khorasan province, iran.the prevalence of anaplasma infection was studied in cattle, sheep, and goats in the mashhad area from 1999 to 2002. a total of 160 cattle from 32 farms and 391 sheep and 385 goats from 77 flocks were clinically examined for the presence of anaplasma spp. in blood smears. the study revealed that 19.37% of cattle were infected with anaplasma marginale and 80.3% of sheep and 38.92% of goats were infected with anaplasma ovis. prevalence of anaplasma infection between male and female and between dif ...200617114758
first serological and molecular evidence on the endemicity of anaplasma ovis and a. marginale in hungary.recurring and spontaneously curing spring haemoglobinuria was recently reported in a small sheep flock in a selenium deficient area of northern hungary. in blood smears of two animals showing clinical signs, anaplasma-like inclusion bodies were seen in erythrocytes. to extend the scope of the study, 156 sheep from 5 flocks and 26 cattle from 9 farms in the region were examined serologically with a competitive elisa to detect antibodies to anaplasma marginale, a. centrale and a. ovis. the seropos ...200717336001
detection and quantification of anaplasma marginale dna in blood samples of cattle by real-time pcr.a taqman-based real-time pcr assay was developed for the diagnosis of anaplasma marginale infection of cattle. the established assay was proven to be highly specific, since no cross-reactions were observed with other anaplasma species of ruminants, including the closely related anaplasma centrale, or other haemoparasites of ruminants (anaplasma bovis, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata and theileria buffeli). the detection limit was equ ...200717466470
molecular detection of ehrlichia ruminantium infection in amblyomma variegatum ticks in the gambia.in west africa, losses due to heartwater disease are not known because the incidence/prevalence has not been well studied or documented. to develop a diagnostic tool for molecular epidemiology, three pcr-based diagnostic assays, a nested pcs20 pcr, a nested map1 pcr and a nested reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization assay, were evaluated to determine their ability to detect infection in vector ticks, by applying them simultaneously to a. variegatum field ticks to detect ehrlichia ruminantium, th ...200717476576
ticks of small ruminants in china.the importance of ticks and tick-borne diseases of small ruminants in china is discussed. of the 109 species of ticks identified to date in china, 45 species infest small ruminants. five species have been proved to be involved, or possibly involved, in the transmission of tick-borne diseases. anaplasma ovis, babesia motasi, babesia ovis and two unidentified species of theileria, have been recorded in small ruminants in china. the diseases caused by these organisms are widespread in china, causin ...200717823826
a novel clinical syndrome and detection of anaplasma ovis in mongolian reindeer (rangifer tarandus).the tsaatan (or dhuka) peoples of northern-western mongolia are one of the few remaining reindeer-herding cultural groups in the world. recently a disease condition that involves sudden death of reindeer and cases involving fever, lethargy, and pale mucous membranes has been reported. examination of blood smears collected in the 2005 field season resulted in the identification of intra-erythrocytic inclusions resembling anaplasma spp. in smears from clinically sick animals. using universal polym ...200818689641
prevalence and genotypes of anaplasma species and habitat suitability for ticks in a mediterranean ecosystem.anaplasma species are tick-transmitted pathogens that impact veterinary and human health. sicily is one of the locations where these pathogens are endemic. sicily represents a typical mediterranean ecosystem to study anaplasma infection and tick habitat suitability. the aims of this study were (i) to characterize by 16s rrna and species-specific msp4 gene pcr the prevalence and genotypes of a. marginale, a. phagocytophilum, and a. ovis in the most abundant host species in sicilian provinces and ...200818978093
molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia and concomitant anaplasma ovis infection.after the first outbreak of fatal mycoplasma ovis infection (eperythrozoonosis) in a sheep flock in hungary (1997), a second wave of the disease was noted in 2006, with different seasonal pattern and affected age group, as well as increased mortality (5.5%). the aim of the present study was to molecularly characterize the causative agent and to reveal underlying factors of the second wave of the disease. remarkably, among the 33 sheep examined, 17 were infected with two strains of haemotropic my ...200919091491
small-scale expressed sequence tag analysis of theileria uilenbergi: identification of a gene family encoding potential antigenic proteins.recently, theileria sp. (china) has been designated as t. luwenshuni[formerly theileria sp. (china 1)] and t. uilenbergi[formerly theileria sp. (china 2)]. a cdna library of t. uilenbergi merozoites was constructed and subjected to random sequencing. among the obtained sequences were three highly identical cdna clones, indicating a gene family. bioinformatic analyses indicated these genes contain signal peptides and encode potential immunogenic proteins. the presence of tandemly arranged and add ...200819120214
phylogentic analysis of anaplasma ovis strains isolated from sheep and goats using groel and mps4 genes.evidence of anaplasma spp. in goats and sheep in cyprus has been demonstrated by previous research. herein, further research was performed for the identification of the exact anaplasma spp. resulting in the identification of anaplasma ovis strains in all samples examined. we used a bioinformatics as well as a molecular approach (study of groel and mps4 genes) in order to verify the validity of the results. all samples depicted the presence of a. ovis regardless of the host (goat or sheep).200919443140
human anaplasmosis and anaplasma ovis variant. 201020507768
application of highly sensitive saturation labeling to the analysis of differential protein expression in infected ticks from limited samples.abstract:201020704695
characterization of pathogen-specific expression of host immune response genes in anaplasma and mycobacterium species infected ruminants.anaplasma and mycobacterium species are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in european red deer (cervus elaphus) in south-central spain and are known to modify gene expression in ruminants. in this study, we used microarray hybridization and real-time rt-pcr analyses to characterize global gene expression profiles in red deer in response to anaplasma ovis and a. ovis/mycobacterium bovis/mycobacterium avium sub. paratuberculosis (map) infections, compare the expression of immune respons ...201020952064
serologic comparisons of 4 anaplasma isolates as measured by the complement-fixation test.anaplasma marginale isolated from virginia ( vam ), from north texas ( ntam ), from florida (fam), and anaplasma ovis from idaho were used in these trials. complement-fixation antigens from each of the 4 isolates were used to compare complement-fixing antibody titers of 10 cattle infected with vam , 17 with fam, and 6 with ntam . strong cross-reactions occurred with all antigens and sera. the homologous system generally showed higher average antibody titers. the serum antibody titers occurring w ...19846203210
treatment and control of chlamydial and rickettsial infections in sheep and goats.small ruminants are susceptible to several chlamydial and rickettsial infections. some of them, such as ehrlichia ruminantium, have a great impact on the sheep and goat industry while others, such as coxiella burnetii, are important zoonotic agents. this review focuses on measures of treatment and control for the following organisms: chlamydophila abortus (formerly chlamydia psittaci immunotype 1), coxiella burnetii, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and ehrlichia ruminantium.201021215905
tick-borne bacteria in mouflons and their ectoparasites in cyprus.the cypriot mouflon (ovis orientalis ophion), a once almost extirpated species of wild sheep, is under strict surveillance because it can be threatened by likely transmission of pathogenic bacteria, such as anaplasma spp., rickettsia spp., and coxiella burnetii, primarily from domestic ungulates. we collected 77 blood samples from cypriot mouflons and 663 of their ectoparasites (rhipicephalus turanicus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus bursa, hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, hyalomma margin ...201121441182
electron microscopic study of anaplasma ovis. 19695824911
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detection of theileria lestoquardi.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed for the diagnosis of theileria lestoquardi infection. the primers were designed based on the clone-5 sequence of t. lestoquardi. the specificity and sensitivity of the assay were established. analysis of the specificity showed that the selected lamp primers amplified the target sequence from t. lestoquardi dna successfully, while no amplification was seen with dna from theileria annulata, theileria ovis, babesia ovis, anaplasma ...201121744022
test of the sheep ked melophagus ovinus (l) as a vector of anaplasma ovis lestoquard.the sheep ked melophagus ovinus was evaluated as a possible vector of anaplasma ovis. in 4 tests, 45 to 293 keds were transferred from sheep with acute anaplasmosis, low level parasitemia, or carrier state of anaplasmosis to individual splenectomized ewes. keds were confined in stockinette cages attached to the dorsal midline of the recipient hosts for 10 days. throughout the 90-day observation periods after the keds were transferred, no clinical, serologic, or hematologic evidence of anaplasmos ...19863717726
eperythrozoon ovis. i. serological diagnosis of infection by the indirect immunoflurescent antibody test.the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) was evaluated for the detection of eperythrozoon ovis infection in sheep. the test first became positive, on the average, 10 days following exposure to e. ovis and remained positive for 24 months, the longest period checked. reciprocal titres in the first three days after becoming positive in the ifat were between 4 and 80, but rose to 640 within 9 weeks; in general titres were between 4 and 640, exceptionally titres of 1280 were obtained. nega ...197883044
fatal bovine anaplasmosis in a herd with new genotypes of anaplasma marginale, anaplasma ovis and concurrent haemoplasmosis.haematological and molecular analysis of blood samples was carried out during an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in hungary. acute disease was observed in five animals, two of which died. anaplasma-carrier state was diagnosed in 69 (92%) of cattle. further evaluation of 24 blood samples revealed concurrent infections with mycoplasma wenyonii and 'candidatusm. haemobos' in 22 and 21 animals, respectively. in addition, two cows were identified with rickettsaemia. regarding molecular investigation ...201021094505
blood parasites of sheep in the netherlands. i. anaplasma mesaeterum sp.n. (rickettsiales, anaplasmataceae).summary on two occasions an anaplasm was isolated from sheep on the dutch island of ameland. the organism proved to be highly pathogenic for splenectomised sheep; a non-splenectomised animal recovered spontaneously after the packed cell volume had decreased by 40%. treatment with oxytetracycline was effective. its pathogenicity for goats appeared to be low, and the organism was apparently not infective to splenectomised cattle. this anaplasm differs from anaplasma ovis in that less than 30% ...197922040472
hematologic and clinical aspects of experimental ovine anaplasmosis caused by anaplasma ovis in iran.anaplasma ovis infections can cause clinical symptoms in acute phase and lead to huge economic losses in flocks. the aim of the present study was to investigate the hematological and parasitological changes in experimental anaplasmosis in sheep with iranian strain of a. ovis.201223323097
survey on blood-sucking lice (phthiraptera: anoplura) of ruminants and pigs with molecular detection of anaplasma and rickettsia spp.lice may serve as biological or mechanical vectors for various infectious agents. to investigate louse infestation of ruminants and pigs, and pathogens potentially transmitted by them, anopluran lice (n=1182) were collected in hungary, and evaluated for the presence of anaplasma, rickettsia and haemotropic mycoplasma dna. on cattle the following species were found: linognathus vituli (57%), haematopinus eurysternus (38%) and solenopotes capillatus (5%). l. vituli had a lower mean individual coun ...201020943320
anaplasma species of veterinary importance in japan.anaplasma species of the family anaplasmataceae, order rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. in japan, all recognized species of anaplasma (except for anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel anaplasma sp. closely related to anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in japan although the zoonotic a. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinic ...201627956767
molecular survey of anaplasma species in small ruminants reveals the presence of novel strains closely related to a. phagocytophilum in tunisia.a survey of anaplasma species in small ruminants is still lacking in north african countries. in this study, the presence of a. phagocytophilum, a. phagocytophilum-related species, and a. ovis was investigated in a total of 563 healthy small ruminants (303 goats and 260 sheep), from 25 randomly selected flocks sampled in tunisia. anaplasma spp. and a. ovis overall infection rates were 95.0% and 93.8% in sheep and 69.6% and 65.3% in goats, respectively. a. phagocytophilum was not detected in any ...201526394065
characterization of anaplasma phagocytophilum and a. ovis infection in a naturally infected sheep flock with poor health condition.anaplasma species are transmitted by ticks and cause diseases in humans and animals. these pathogens infect sheep, an economically important domestic animal worldwide. the current study was designed to characterize in 200 animals the infection with anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma ovis and the genetic diversity of a. ovis strains collected from a naturally infected sheep flock with poor health condition. sheep had 98% seroprevalence to anaplasma spp. antibodies. pcr results confirmed the ...201020405320
development of an immunochromatographic strip for the serodiagnosis of theileria infection in sheep.theileria uilenbergi and t. luwenshuni are tick-borne protozoan parasites, transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and h. longicornis, respectively. they are the main causative agents of theileriosis in small ruminants in china. the disease has resulted in severe economic losses and hindered the development of sheep and goat husbandry industry in the endemic regions.201526631226
merozoite proteins from babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) as potential antigens for serodiagnosis by elisa.babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) is a babesia isolated from sheep infested with haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in china, and is closely related to b. motasi based on the 18s rrna gene sequence. in the present study, an elisa was developed with merozoite antigens of babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) (bqma) purified from in vitro culture. when the positive threshold was chosen as 30% of the antibodies rate, evaluated with 198 negative sera, the specificity was 95.5%. except for babesia sp. tianzhu, there was no cross- ...201020109252
identification of theileria uilenbergi immunodominant protein for development of an indirect elisa for diagnosis of ovine theileriosis.theileriosis of small ruminants in the northwest of china is a protozoan disease that restricts the development of the livestock industry. the disease is caused by infection with theileria uilenbergi and theilerialuwenshuni, both of which are transmitted by ixodid heamaphysalis ticks. the development of serological tools as a means of integrated control of the disease is an urgent and important requirement. here we describe the identification and partial recombinant expression of a t.uilenbergi ...201019900458
molecular detection and identification of ehrlichia and anaplasma species in ixodid ticks.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16s ribosomal rna gene was performed for the presence of ehrlichia and/or anaplasma. a total of 242 ixodid ticks were collected from domestic ruminants and their shelters, as well as humans, and their individual salivary glands were dissected out for dna. from the 242 ticks analyzed, six (2.47%), comprising three hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, one rhipicephalus bursa, and two rhipicephalus sanguineus, were positive. o ...200919247690
first molecular evidence for the presence of anaplasma dna in milk from sheep and goats in china.anaplasmosis, a disease caused by bacteria in the genus of anaplasma, imposes economic constraints on animal breeders and also threatens human health. in the present study, we investigated the presence of anaplasma spp. dna in milk collected from sheep and goats in china. a total of 120 milk samples and 414 field-sampled blood specimens from sheep and goats were analyzed by pcr and dna sequencing. anaplasma ovis was detected in 12 milk samples (three from sheep and nine from goats). the blood sp ...201627038248
development of a new pcr-based assay to detect anaplasmataceae and the first report of anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma platys in cattle from algeria.bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease considered as a major constraint to cattle production in many countries. this pathology is at least partially caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum, anaplasma marginale, anaplasma centrale, and anaplasma bovis. the global threat and emergence of these species in animals require the reliable identification of these bacteria in animal samples. in this study, we developed a new qpcr tool targeting the 23s rrna gene for the detection of anaplasmataceae ba ...201525748051
development of a real-time pcr assay for detection and quantification of anaplasma ovis infection.anaplasma ovis is a tick-borne intra-erythrocytic rickettsial pathogen of small ruminants. real-time pcr possesses merits of rapidity, accuracy, reliability, automation and ease of standardization, but has not been used for detection of a. ovis, to the best of our knowledge. in this study, a real-time pcr assay was developed for detection and quantification of a. ovis. species-specific primers and taqman probe were designed based on the glta gene. no cross-reactions were observed with anaplasma ...201324589111
differential expression and sequence conservation of the anaplasma marginale msp2 gene superfamily outer membrane proteins.bacterial pathogens in the genera anaplasma and ehrlichia encode a protein superfamily, pfam01617, which includes the predominant outer membrane proteins (omps) of each species, major surface protein 2 (msp2) and msp3 of anaplasma marginale and anaplasma ovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum msp2 (p44), ehrlichia chaffeensis p28-omp, ehrlichia canis p30, and ehrlichia ruminantium map1, and has been shown to be involved in both antigenic variation within the mammalian host and differential expression b ...200616714578
seroprevalence of anaplasmosis among cattle in switzerland in 1998 and 2003: no evidence of an emerging disease.anaplasma marginale infection in europe has been limited to the mediterranean and eastern countries, to austria and to very sporadic cases in switzerland. there are no reports of its occurrence in the countries north of switzerland. a severe outbreak of anaplasmosis in august 2002 in a cattle farm in the canton grisons, switzerland, north of the alps, with more than 300 cattle that had to be culled, came unexpected and gave reason to hypothesize presence of an increased yet undetected prevalence ...200515795079
anaplasmosis. vii. experimental anaplasma ovis infection in white-tailed deer (dama virginiana). 196314035794
infection of tick cells and bovine erythrocytes with one genotype of the intracellular ehrlichia anaplasma marginale excludes infection with other genotypes.anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle, is endemic in several areas of the united states. many geographic isolates of a. marginale that occur in the united states are characterized by the major surface protein 1a, which varies in sequence and molecular weight due to different numbers of tandem repeats of 28 or 29 amino acids. recent studies (g. h. palmer, f. r. rurangirwa, and t. f. mcelwain, j. clin. microbiol. 39:631-635, 2001) of an a. marginale-infected herd of catt ...200211986275
a molecular survey of anaplasma spp., rickettsia spp., ehrlichia canis and babesia microti in foxes and fleas from sicily.fleas (insecta: siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. this study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the palermo and ragusa provinces of sicily, italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. thirteen foxes (vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to de ...201324589112
dermacentor hunteri (acari: ixodidae): an experimental vector of anaplasma marginale and a. ovis (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) to calves and sheep.the experimental vector competence of laboratory-reared dermacentor hunteri bishopp for anaplasma marginale theiler and anaplasma ovis lestoquard was evaluated by delayed transfer of male ticks from infected to susceptible holstein calves and from infected to susceptible domestic sheep, respectively. after feeding for 4 or 5 d on rickettsemic acquisition hosts, the ticks were held off the host at 26 degrees c, approximately 93% rh, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (l:d) h for 7 or 8 d, then test fed f ...199910337102
persistence of anaplasma ovis infection and conservation of the msp-2 and msp-3 multigene families within the genus anaplasma.goats which have recovered from acute anaplasma ovis infection remain seropositive, although infected erythrocytes cannot be detected by microscopic examination. persistence of a. ovis 17 to 21 months following experimental infection was demonstrated by pcr detection of the msp-5 gene. quantitative analysis of persistent rickettsemia over time showed that all levels were below the limit of microscopic detection and ranged from a low of 10(2) organisms/ml to peaks of 10(6) organisms/ml. two patte ...19989826393
cd4(+) t-lymphocyte and immunoglobulin g2 responses in calves immunized with anaplasma marginale outer membranes and protected against homologous challenge.protective immunity against the ehrlichial pathogen anaplasma marginale has been hypothesized to require induction of immunoglobulin g2 (igg2) antibody against outer membrane protein epitopes and coordinated activation of macrophages for phagocytosis and killing. in the present study, cell-mediated immune responses, including induction of igg isotype switching, were characterized in calves immunized with purified outer membranes of the florida strain of a. marginale. importantly, these calves we ...19989784551
status of the tick-borne diseases in sheep and goats in turkey.a serological survey using indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for babesia ovis infection of sheep has been carried out in different geographical regions of turkey. the results indicated that 71.6% of 141 sheep in black sea region, 70.9% of 93 sheep in central anatolia, 80.2% of 96 sheep in aegean region and 55.7% of 122 sheep in eastern anatolia were seropositive. this means that b. ovis infection is endemic throughout turkey. in addition, occurrence of b. ovis, b. motasi, theileria hirci ...19979530701
tick-borne diseases of sheep and goats and their related vectors in iran.haemoparasitic diseases have long been considered as a major problem to efficient sheep and goats production in iran. theileriosis due to theileria hirci and babesiosis due to babesia ovis and b. motasi are the most pathogenic protozoa. b. crassa, anaplasma ovis and eperythrozoon ovis are usually non-pathogenic and do not cause any apparent problem. the major tick genera found on sheep and goats are hyalomma, rhipicephalus, haemaphysalis, ixodes and rarely dermacentor distributed in all part of ...19979530694
tick-borne diseases of sheep and goats caused by babesia, theileria or anaplasma spp.a review is given on the babesia, theileria, and anaplasma species infecting sheep and goats. b. ovis is the most important disease agent. it is transmitted by rhipicephalus bursa, r. turanicus, hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, and probably by r. evertsi evertsi b. ovis is widely spread in southern europe, the middle east, and central asia. its geographical distribution in south and east asia and in africa is widely unknown. b. motasi obviously represents several nosodemes in separate regions. it ...19979530692
antigen profiles of anaplasma ovis and a. mesaeterum and cross infection trials with them and a. marginale.antigen profiles of anaplasma ovis and a. mesaeterum were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, and cross infection trials were performed by a. ovis challenge to a. mesaeterum- or a. marginale-inoculated goats and a. marginale challenge to an a. ovis-inoculated calf. antigen analysis showed unique and common proteins of a. ovis and a. mesaeterum and identified a major 38 kda protein to be a dominant immunogen bearing two epitopes common to anap ...19938296449
common and isolate-restricted antigens of anaplasma marginale detected with monoclonal antibodies.anaplasma marginale-infected erythrocytes were examined for the presence of maturation, isolate-restricted, and isolate-common antigens by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. a panel of 18 monoclonal antibodies was used; none of the antibodies reacted with anaplasma ovis, babesia bigemina, babesia bovis, trypanosoma brucei, trypanosoma congolense, or uninfected bovine erythrocytes. antigens common to all six a. marginale isolates were detected by nine antibodies. single isola ...19846205996
evidence of co-infection with mycobacterium bovis and tick-borne pathogens in a naturally infected sheep flock.ticks are responsible for the transmission of pathogens of veterinary importance, including those affecting sheep. the current study was designed to investigate co-infections with tick-borne and other pathogens in a naturally infected sheep flock with poor health condition using serology and pcr. infection with anaplasma ovis was detected by serology and pcr in 56% of the animals. the presence of rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group (sfg) was detected by pcr and sequence analysis in 31% of ...201626726806
serological investigation for west nile virus, anaplasma ovis and leishmania infantum in greek cattle.this study investigates the seroprevalence of greek adult cattle against west nile virus, anaplasma ovis and lehismania infantum. in total, 156 serum samples were examined, drawn from cattle between 2-4 years old. all the examined cattle originated from slaughterhouses of 4 prefectures in northern greece (thessaloniki, pella, chalkidiki, kilkis), in 2 of which (thessaloniki, pella) human cases of west nile virus had been recorded some months before. thirty out of the 156 (18.6%) samples have tes ...201526455373
human infection with a novel tick-borne anaplasma species in china: a surveillance study.anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma ovis cause human infections. we investigated the potential for human pathogenicity of a newly discovered anaplasma species infecting goats in china.201525833289
development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of anaplasma ovis.anaplasma ovis is an intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen of small ruminants. loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) is a nucleic acid detection method in which the target dna can be efficiently amplified with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. in this study, a lamp method was developed for the specific detection of a. ovis, using lamp primers designed on the basis of the major surface protein 4 gene. lamp was performed at 65°c for 30 min. its specificity was ...201121471346
[invasive and immunogenic properties of anaplasma ovis]. 19705529611
chemoprophylaxis of anaplasma ovis infection in sheep with a long-acting oxytetracycline.the chemoprophylactic efficacy of long-acting oxytetracycline was determined in 13 susceptible ewes infected with anaplasma ovis. the drug was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 20 mg kg-1 body weight during the prepatent period. when the ewes were exposed to an equivalent homologous challenge on day 45 post-infection, each showed a mild or inapparent reaction. the host reactions, i.e., body temperature, parasitaemia, packed-cell volume (pcv), haemoglobin, humoral and cell mediated i ...19853992880
molecular and phylogenetic analysis of anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats from six provinces of china.members of the genus anaplasma are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. here, we investigated the presence of anaplasma spp. in 621 sheep and 710 goats from six provinces of china. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and dna sequencing were conducted to determine the prevalence of anaplasma (a.) phagocytophilum, a. ovis and a. bovis targeting the 16s ribosomal rna or the major surface protein 4 gene. pcr revealed anaplasma in 39.0% (24 ...201627456776
a survey of ixodid tick species and molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens.this study was undertaken in two different climatic areas of turkey to determine the presence of tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. the ticks were removed from humans, pooled according to species and developmental stages, and analyzed by pcr, reverse line blot (rlb) and sequencing. of the 2333 removed ticks from 10 species, 1238 (53.06%) were obtained from the arid cold zone, and the remaining 1095 (46.93%) were obtained from the humid zone. the removed ticks were identif ...201424424312
looking for prognosticators in ovine anaplasmosis: discriminant analysis of clinical and haematological parameters in lambs belonging to differently susceptible breeds experimentally infected with anaplasma ovis.a study was carried out to evaluate the response of different native sheep breeds to experimental infection with anaplasma ovis, the most prevalent sheep tick-borne pathogen in apulia (southern italy). thirty-four lambs belonging to a northern european breed (suffolk) and two southern italian breeds (comisana and altamurana) were infected. eleven clinical as well as haematological parameters were monitored at different temporal resolutions on the same subjects before and after the infection, res ...201324053615
a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay targeting 16s rrna gene for rapid detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in sheep and goats.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga) in humans and tick-borne fever in various kinds of animals. in the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for rapid detection of a. phagocytophilum was developed using primers specific to 16s rrna gene of this organism. the lamp assay was performed at 65 c for 60 min and terminated at 80 c for 10 min. the optimal reaction conditions, under which no cross ...201728118097
guidelines for the direct detection of anaplasma spp. in diagnosis and epidemiological studies.the genus anaplasma (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: anaplasma bovis, anaplasma centrale, anaplasma marginale, anaplasma phagocytophilum, anaplasma platys, and anaplasma ovis. these have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. a zoonotic role has been recognized for a. phagocytophilum, but other spe ...201728055579
molecular survey of anaplasma and ehrlichia of red deer and sika deer in gansu, china in 2013.anaplasma and ehrlichia are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals. here, we conducted a molecular surveillance study in gansu, china to assess the prevalence of anaplasma and ehrlichia spp. in red deer and sika deer based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis and sequencing of 16s rrna or msp genes. pcr revealed that the prevalence of anaplasma ovis, anaplasma bovis and anaplasma platys of the qilian mountain samples was 32%, 9% and 9%, respectively; the preval ...201625660960
identification of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma and ehrlichia species, and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from southeastern europe.prevalence data for tick-borne pathogens are used to assess the risk for human health. in this study the presence and identity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, ehrlichia, anaplasma, and rickettsia species in bulgarian ixodes ricinus ticks and in non- ixodes ticks from turkey and albania was determined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and reverse line blot hybridization. in the adult bulgarian ticks, the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was approximately 40%, while bor ...200312938010
molecular investigation and phylogeny of anaplasmataceae species infecting domestic animals and ticks in corsica, france.corsica is a french island situated in the mediterranean sea. the island provides suitable natural conditions to study disease ecology, especially tick-borne diseases and emerging diseases in animals and ticks. the family anaplasmataceae is a member of the order rickettsiales; it includes the genera anaplasma, ehrlichia, neorickettsia and wolbachia. anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis traditionally refer to diseases caused by obligate intracellular bacteria of the genera anaplasma and ehrlichia. the a ...201728645313
emergence and genetic variability of anaplasma species in small ruminants and ticks from central europe.anaplasmoses are common tick-borne zoonotic bacterial diseases of livestock and free-living ungulates from the genus anaplasma that are recently emerging in central europe. the main aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and genetic variability of anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma ovis in small ruminants and questing ticks from six different sites in slovakia and the czech republic using the pcr of the msp4 gene followed by the sequence analysis. at two farms from southeastern slo ...201121684091
molecular survey and genetic identification of anaplasma species in goats from central and southern china.anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that impact the health of humans and animals. few studies have been carried out on anaplasma infections in central and southern china. this study was conducted to determine the coinfection rates of anaplasma ovis, a. bovis, and a. phagocytophilum from 262 field blood samples of goats in these regions. the average prevalences of single infection of a. ovis, a. bovis, and a. phagocytophilum were 15.3, 16.0, and 6.1%, respectively. ...201222057867
molecular epidemiological survey and genetic characterization of anaplasma species in mongolian livestock.anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that cause great economic loss to the animal industry. few studies on anaplasma infections in mongolian livestock have been conducted. this study examined the prevalence of anaplasma marginale, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and anaplasma bovis by polymerase chain reaction assay in 928 blood samples collected from native cattle and dairy cattle (bos taurus), yaks (bos grunniens), sheep (ovis aries), and goats (capra a ...201728678004
blood parasites of livestock in certain regions in saudi arabia.blood samples from camels, sheep, goats and cattle from six regions in saudi arabia were examined for blood parasites. asir region camels were disinfected while those of the eastern, jazan, northern frontiers, riyadh and tabouk regions were infected with trypanosoma evansi (5-40%), those of riyadh and the eastern regions were infected with dipetalonema evansi (1-6%) and those of the eastern, jazan and riyadh regions were infected with eperythrozoon species (8-20%). sheep and goats of all tested ...023961044
anaplasma infections in ticks and reservoir host from slovakia.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a worldwide distributed bacterium with a significant medical and veterinary importance. it grows within the phagosome of infected neutrophils and is responsible for human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga), tick-borne fever (tbf) of small ruminants and cattle, canine and equine granulocytic anaplasmosis, but infects also a great variety of wildlife species. wild ungulates and rodents are considered reservoirs of infection in natural foci. the objective of this study was ...201423770268
identification of anaplasma ovis appendage-associated protein (aaap) for development of an indirect elisa and its application.ovine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease that is caused by anaplasma ovis in sheep and goats. the pathogen is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. at present, diagnosis of the disease mainly depends on microscopy or nucleic acid based molecular tests, although a few serological tests have been applied for the detection of a. ovis infection.201728754151
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