description of a microfilaria from an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) and an unsuccessful attempt to infect mosquitoes (culex pipiens pipiens).unidentified microfilariae circulating in the blood of an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) are described. they are ensheathed, measure 102-152 microns long and 2-3 microns in diameter, and have four distinct and consistent gaps in the nuclear column. attempts to infect mosquitoes (culex pipiens pipiens) with the microfilariae were unsuccessful.19921627121
electron microscopical observations of psittacine beak and feather disease in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) was diagnosed in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) with severe feather dystrophy and loss. electron microscopically, the intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies observed by light microscopy were composed of viral particles forming paracrystalline arrays, whorls, semicircles or concentric circles. recovered viral particles from the skin and feather follicle tracts were icosahedral and 15 to 20 nm in diameter.199910535515
trauma-induced aneurysmal bone cysts in two psittacine species (cacatua alba and nymphicus hollandicus).an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) and two cockatiels (nymphicus hollandicus) were presented with rapidly enlarging masses of the head or wing joints. historic trauma to these areas was confirmed in two cases. all birds were >2 yr of age, and two were female. cytologic examination of fluid aspirated from masses in two cases was described as serosanguineous cytologically but failed to reveal inflammation, neoplasia, or microorganisms. radiographic evaluation of these masses included proliferatio ...200415305514
encephalitozoon hellem infection as the cause of a unilateral chronic keratoconjunctivitis in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was presented with a keratoconjunctivitis of 9 months' duration that was refractory to antibacterial and antifungal treatments. microsporidian-type spores were observed in calcofluor m2r-stained cytological preparations of debrided corneal epithelium. hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of a conjunctival biopsy also showed a small number of intracellular parasites. microsporidial dna was detected by polymerase chain reaction in dna extracted from the remain ...200616409247
siadenovirus infection in two psittacine bird species.consensus polymerase chain reaction was used to identify a novel adenovirus from two psittacine birds: a plum-headed parakeet (psittacula cyanocephala) with lethargy, weight loss, and marked leukocytosis; and an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) with lethargy, weight loss, and feather abnormalities. phylogenetic and comparative sequence analysis suggested that this virus is a member of the genus siadenovirus, and is here termed psittacine adenovirus 2. this extends the characterized adenoviruses ...200919937528
coelomic granulomatous fat necrosis (lipogranulomatosis) in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).a 28-year-old, female umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was evaluated because of lethargy, anorexia, regurgitation, and coelomic swelling of 6 month's duration, which corresponded to cessation of egg laying. radiographs and ultrasound examination demonstrated extensive deposits of coelomic fat and an enlarged oviduct. exploratory celiotomy demonstrated copious amounts of firm, nodular fat completely surrounding the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in extensive chronic adhesions between intestina ...201425843325
branchial cyst with carcinoma in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).a 16-year-old female umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was presented for a fluctuant, right-sided cervical mass that extended from the caudolateral edge of the right mandible to the coelomic inlet. results of initial diagnostic tests were consistent with a cystic mass containing hemorrhage. surgical exploration and removal of the mass was done, but because the hyoid apparatus was incorporated in the base of the cyst, complete surgical excision was not possible. histopathologic results were consis ...201425843323
perforating foreign body in the ventriculus of an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).a 4-year-old male umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) with a history of ingestion of foreign material from chewing on a household appliance presented for lethargy, inappetance, and regurgitation of 2 days duration. foreign bodies identified on radiograph included a wire 2 cm in length in the proventriculus, a wire 3 cm in length in the ventriculus, and several pieces of rubber and plastic throughout the gastrointestinal tract. diagnosis of a perforating ventricular foreign body was made through pla ...201323971221
diagnosis and treatment of proventricular nematodiasis in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).a 16-year-old female umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was referred to the university of georgia college of veterinary medicine for evaluation of a 3-year seasonal history of lethargy and weight fluctuation.201323547677
intraocular osteosarcoma in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).an adult, presumed intact female umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba), presented with acute hemorrhage from an intraocular mass that perforated through the right cornea. computed tomography scanning revealed a large soft tissue mass in the right orbit, invading and displacing the globe laterally, and destroying the scleral ossicles. there was no evidence of bony changes of the orbit or extension of the mass into the optic nerve or brain. exenteration and mass removal were performed, and osteosarcoma ...201020840098
malignant melanoma of the subcutaneous tissues in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).a 24-year-old female umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was examined because of a subcutaneous swelling of the left shoulder. radiographs of the left wing revealed boney proliferation of the left proximal humerus. at surgery, an unencapsulated infiltrative nonpigmented mass within the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle was identified overlying the left humerus. the mass was surgically excised and submitted for histologic examination; however, the cockatoo died after excision. histologically, ...200920235462
treatment of nonepitheliotropic cutaneous b-cell lymphoma in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).a 3.5-year-old umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was presented because of the development of widely disseminated subcutaneous nodules. the diagnostic work-up included a complete blood count, plasma biochemical analysis, and whole body radiographs. biopsy samples of the skin lesions were submitted for histopathologic evaluation, bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, immunohistochemistry staining, and acid-fast staining. the diagnosis was nonepitheliotropic cutaneous b-cell lymphoma with a leu ...200920235461
clinical diagnosis of aneurysm of the right coronary artery in a white cockatoo (cacatua alba).a 16-year-old male white cockatoo was presented with lethargy and a decreased appetite. auscultation between the second and third sternal rib revealed a heart murmur, which was confirmed by electrocardiographic and phonocardiographic examination to be systolic, with a shift of the heart axis to -152 degrees. radiographs showed lack of detail in the cranial part of the abdominal coelom, indicative of ascites and an enlarged cardiac shadow, while ultrasonographic examination revealed pericardial e ...19989846316
a novel surgical approach to avian femorotibiotarsal luxation repair.a 3-month-old male umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was presented because of acute non-weight-bearing lameness of the right leg. marked soft tissue swelling was present around the femorotibiotarsal (stifle) joint, and the radiographic diagnosis was right medial femorotibiotarsal subluxation. surgical management was elected, and the stifle joint was approached via a lateral parapatellar incision. joint exploration revealed damage to the lateral meniscus, tendon of origin of the cranial tibial mus ...201728644076
novel siadenovirus infection in a cockatiel with chronic liver disease.a 15-year-old female cockatiel (nymphicus hollandicus) undergoing long term management for hepatopathy died and underwent necropsy. microscopic findings were consistent with chronic liver disease characterized by distorted hepatic architecture, fibrosis and biliary proliferation. the additional finding of large intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelium prompted diagnostic next generation sequencing. the assembled sequences isolated from pooled kidney and liver ...201930711577
infraorbital keratin cyst in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).a 10-year-old, female umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was presented for evaluation of a mass at the right commissure of the beak, with associated right periorbital swelling. a feather cyst was suspected, based on history and the results of a computed tomography scan and fine-needle aspirate. the cyst was surgically debrided and removed. histopathologic results confirmed an infraorbital keratin cyst, most likely originating from a feather follicle. to our knowledge, this is the first reported ca ...201931251502
rectricectomy with pygostylectomy for resolution of feather trauma in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).feather trauma is a common problem among pet birds, especially those with trimmed wing feathers, and often affects remiges and rectrices. damage can become chronic if new feathers remain unprotected by fully formed adjacent feathers. the follicles can become damaged and poorly functional over time. a 6-month-old male umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was presented for examination because of feather damage that occurred shortly after receiving a wing trim by the owner. over the next 18 months, var ...201931251509
vegetative endocarditis due to staphylococcus aureus in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba).a 15-year-old, female cockatoo (cacatua alba) was presented with a history of intermittent cloacal prolapse of 1-year duration. after each prolapse, the owner would digitally reduce the distended cloacal tissue within approximately 12-24 hours, for short-term resolution. the cockatoo was examined 3 times over a 7-month period and received supportive care with leuprolide acetate, behavioral modification, and diet change. after the third examination, the owner decided to proceed with a surgical cl ...201931833311
treatment of exuberant granulation tissue in an umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) with strontium radiation.a 26-year-old female umbrella cockatoo (cacatua alba) was presented for reoccurrence of a soft tissue mass extending from a fractured area of the rhinotheca. the mass was originally observed 12 years before, after unknown trauma. histopathology after initial removal was consistent with inflammatory granulation tissue. the mass reoccurred 3 additional times in the same location despite surgical removal and cryogenic therapy. on the fourth surgical resection, strontium-90 radiotherapy was applied ...202032237686
asymmetrical cloacoplasty for the treatment of chronic cloacal prolapse in psittaciformes: a case series.chronic cloacal prolapse is a common condition in psittacine birds, particularly in cockatoos and african grey parrots (psittacus erithacus). techniques to permanently reduce the prolapse have been developed and include cloacal sutures, percutaneous cloacopexy, and open circumcostal or rib cloacopexy. several complications, some of which are life-threatening, have been reported with these tissue reduction techniques. cloacoplasty surgeries have also been advocated, but most often as an adjunct t ...202032702957
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