melioidosis in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).a case of melioidosis in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita) kept as a pet in townsville is described. this case was characterised by liver necrosis with both a heterophil and mononuclear cell inflammatory response associated with giant cells. pseudomonas pseudomallei was isolated by blood plate culture and guinea pig inoculation. this is the first case of melioidosis reported in a native bird in australia.1978687299
pulmonary tuberculosis in a sulfur-crested adult, female sulfur-crested cockatoo (kakatoe sp) was examined because of dyspnea associated with hemoptysis. on radiographic examination there was a large cystic pulmonary mass that, on aspiration, was found to contain thick sanguineous fluid. ziehl-neelsen staining of aspirate smears revealed numerous acid-fast organisms. gross necropsy and microscopic findings suggested a diagnosis of tuberculosis, with primary focus of infection in the pulmonary tissues. bacteriologic isolation and typin ...1976977461
origins of descending spinal pathways in prehensile birds: do parrots have a homologue to the corticospinal tract of mammals?in mammals, the supraspinal descending projections that influence distal limb muscles are the rubrospinal and corticospinal tracts. the former, which is found in other vertebrates, shows greater somatotopy in mammals that are 'dextrous' (e.g. monkeys) than those that are not (e.g. opossums). similarly, the corticospinal tract, which is found only in mammals, has more extensive connections (i.e. direct corticomotoneural) in mammals that are dextrous than in mammals that are not. descending spinal ...19902279235
beak and feather dystrophy in wild sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita).three flocks of wild sulphur-crested cockatoos in southeastern australia had a 10-20% prevalence of feather and beak deformities. in affected birds, the crest, tail, contour and down feathers were lost or reduced in length owing to a "pinching off" 0.5-1 cm above the skin. the underlying skin was discolored brown. flight feathers appeared normal and could sustain flight. in mildly affected birds, only the crest and down feathers were involved. histological examination of affected feathers showed ...19846737606
laboratory diagnosis of psittacine beak and feather disease by haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition.simple and sensitive haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition assays were developed for psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) virus and serum antibody, respectively. the assays were used in the examination of samples from 73 birds clinically affected with pbfd. high antigen titres (log2 9 to log2 12) were detected in feathers, faeces and cloacal contents of pbfd-affected birds. antigen was not detected in either faecal or feather samples from 20 normal galahs (eolophus roseicapill ...19938494521
seroprevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease in wild psittacine birds in new south wales.a haemagglutination inhibition assay was used to detect antibody to psittacine beak and feather disease virus in sera from wild sulphur crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita), galahs (eolophus roseicapillus), short-billed corellas (cacatua sanguinea), eastern long-billed corellas (cacatua tenuirostris) and other psittacine birds in new south wales. the seroprevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease ranged from 41% to 94% in different flocks, indicating infection with the virus is widespread ...19938494522
simultaneous occurrence of salmonella arizonae in a sulfur crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita galerita) and iguanas.a case of fatal hepatitis in a captive sulfur crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita galerita) in which salmonella arizonae was microbiologically and immunohistochemically detected is described. the death of the cockatoo was closely related to the arrival of a group of 10 green iguanas (iguana iguana) at a pet shop, and no previous clinical signs were observed in the cockatoo. the most important lesion observed at necropsy of the cockatoo was a multifocal necrotic hepatitis. salmonella arizonae was ...19989876856
immune and pathophysiological responses to different strains of giardia duodenalis in neonatal mice.numerous studies have demonstrated various strain differences between giardia isolates, but little is known about the immunology and pathogenesis of infections. this study aimed to compare host responses to strains of giardi duodenalis differing in levels of virulence and pathogenicity and, by doing so, elucidate the mechanisms via which pathogenic strains establish infections. marked differences were found in the infection dynamics, histopathological responses and serum antibody responses of ne ...200010704595
platinum pharmacokinetics in sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita) following single-dose cisplatin determine the pharmacokinetics of platinum (pt) in cockatoos.200010920780
psittacine beak and feather disease in three captive sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita) in thailand.three sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita) were diagnosed as psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd). histopathology of the feather pulp and follicles showed intracytoplasmic botryoid clusters or granular inclusion bodies in epithelial cells and macrophages. electron microscopy revealed multiple cytoplasmic clusters of electron dense viral particles corresponding to the inclusions. pbfd virus (circovirus) dna-specific product was detected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded feathers ...200212130840
giardia duodenalis trophozoites isolated from a parrot (cacatua galerita) colonize the small intestinal tracts of domestic kittens and lambs.this study examines the ability of giardia duodenalis trophozoites, isolated from a wild bird, to colonize the intestinal tracts of companion animals (kittens) and domestic ruminants (lambs). trophozoites colonized the intestinal tracts of intraduodenally inoculated animals as demonstrated by increasing parasite burdens within the duodenum and jejunum and by fecal passage of cysts within 4 days post-inoculation. the pathogenesis of the trophozoites was further investigated in kittens. in these a ...200312523977
recombinant expression of a truncated capsid protein of beak and feather disease virus and its application in serological tests.beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) causes severe disease characterized by irreversible feather disorders and severe immunosuppression in many psittacine species. bfdv cannot be propagated in tissue or cell cultures, rendering virus propagation and thus diagnosis rather difficult. to develop reliable diagnostic methods, the region encoding the bfdv capsid protein c1 was cloned from an infected sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita). phylogenetic analysis showed this gene had 76.3 to 83.2% ...200415223562
carboplatin pharmacokinetics following a single-dose infusion in sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita).to determine the pharmacokinetics of carboplatin in sulphur-crested cockatoos, so that its use in clinical studies in birds can be considered.200415267096
doxorubicin pharmacokinetics following a single-dose infusion to sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita).to determine the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin in sulphur-crested cockatoos, so that its use in clinical studies in birds can be considered.200415648940
the prevalence of beak and feather disease virus infection in wild populations of parrots and cockatoos in new determine the prevalence of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) infection in exotic parrots and cockatoos in the wild in new zealand.200717928900
a serologic survey for avian polyomavirus and pacheco's disease virus in australian cockatoos.sera collected from wild and captive australian cockatoos and other psittacine species (n = 411) were tested for antibodies to avian polyomavirus (apv) and pacheco's disease virus (pdv). of 144 wild sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita) sampled at three regions in new south wales (nsw) 96 (64.4%) birds had positive (>/= 1:32) neutralizing antibody titres to avian polyomavirus (range 1:32-1:2048). two of 17 wild long-billed corellas (cacatua tenuirostris) were also apv-antibody positive. h ...199818483996
the haemagglutination spectrum of psittacine beak and feather disease virus.a simple method for concentrating psittacine beak and feather disease virus (pbfdv) from crude feather suspensions is described. the addition of 10% polyethylene glycol (mw 6000 to 9000) to feather suspensions facilitated the precipitation and pelleting of pbfdv by low speed centrifugation. pellets were resuspended in one-twentieth of the original volume with caesium chloride (cscl) buffer and subjected to isopycnic ultracentrifugation. peak haemagglutination activity (ha) occurred at 1.35 g/ml ...199418671129
viral enteritis in cockatoos (cacatua spp.).sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita) and galahs (c. roseicapilla) captured in victoria, australia at 7 to 9 weeks of age were found to suffer a profuse diarrhoea and wasting syndrome ending in death. necropsy revealed dilatation of the duodenum with mucosal thickening. histologically, the duodenal mucosa had short, fused villi, with marked proliferation of crypt enterocytes compared with normal birds. electron microscopic examination of faeces and intestinal sections revealed the presenc ...199118680048
mortality in psittacine birds resembling pacheco's disease in spain.the sudden death of five sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita) with no apparent clinical signs was investigated. the birds had hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies (iibs), as well as iibs in mononuclear spleen cells, epithelial cells of the kidney tubules and endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries. ultrastructurally, icosahedral herpesvirus-like particles, 110 to 115 nm in diameter were found consistent with pacheco's disease. this is the first time the disease has been r ...199118680049
experimental evidence for synchronization to a musical beat in a nonhuman animal.the tendency to move in rhythmic synchrony with a musical beat (e.g., via head bobbing, foot tapping, or dance) is a human universal [1] yet is not commonly observed in other species [2]. does this ability reflect a brain specialization for music cognition, or does it build on neural circuitry that ordinarily serves other functions? according to the "vocal learning and rhythmic synchronization" hypothesis [3], entrainment to a musical beat relies on the neural circuitry for complex vocal learnin ...200919409790
cloacal papillomatosis in the absence of herpesvirus and papillomavirus in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).a 21-year-old male sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita) was presented following the sudden appearance of blood associated with the passage of faeces and urates. clinical and pathological findings: there was fresh blood-staining of the feathers around the vent. the dorsal mucosal wall of the proctodeum was erythematous and roughened in appearance. an endoscopic biopsy was performed, and histological examination revealed multiple fronds of epithelium; the mucosa varied from simple to pseudo ...200919649020
studying synchronization to a musical beat in nonhuman animals.the recent discovery of spontaneous synchronization to music in a nonhuman animal (the sulphur-crested cockatoo cacatua galerita eleonora) raises several questions. how does this behavior differ from nonmusical synchronization abilities in other species, such as synchronized frog calls or firefly flashes? what significance does the behavior have for debates over the evolution of human music? what kinds of animals can synchronize to musical rhythms, and what are the key methodological issues for ...200919673824
using a gnrh agonist to obtain an index of testosterone secretory capacity in the cockatiel (nymphicus hollandicus) and sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).validation of a stimulation test for determining the steroidogenic capacity of the parrot testis. the major aim was to characterise testosterone secretion after injection of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (gnrha), then use the test to investigate seasonal reproduction in the male cockatiel.201020148828
health and nutritional status of wild australian psittacine birds: an evaluation of plasma and hepatic mineral levels, plasma biochemical values, and fecal evaluate the health and nutritional status of 3 wild australian psittacine species, plasma and hepatic mineral concentrations and plasma biochemical values were measured in wild-caught galahs (eolophus roseicapilla), long-billed corellas (cacatua tenuirostris), and sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita). no correlations were found between hepatic and plasma mineral levels. mean plasma calcium (1.79 mmol/l [7.16 mg/dl]) and sodium (103 mmol/ l [103 meq/l]) concentrations were lower, wher ...201021302759
radiology of the avian skull.a standard radiographic anatomy of the skulls of three genera of birds (psittacines, accipitrines, passerines) is worked out and illustrated by drawings. the african grey parrot is described as a standard. all detectable anatomical structures are identified and set into relationship to discernable structures in cockatoos (cacatua galerita galerita), common buzzards (buteo buteo) and mynah birds (gracula religiosa).19911907062
[pathologic-anatomic and morphometric examinations on the heart in feral cockatoos].to evaluate the heart of free-living psittacine birds macroscopically and morphologically, and to compare the results to findings published for psittacine birds living in captivity to obtain information on the influence of bird keeping in a human environment on the psittacine heart.201425284467
incisional colopexy for treatment of chronic, recurrent colocloacal prolapse in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).to report a surgical technique for treatment of chronic, recurrent cloacal prolapse in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).201425088524
effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on depth of anaesthesia during and after isoflurane anaesthesia in sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita galerita).this study aimed to determine the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (ippv) on the depth of inhalation anaesthesia in parrots. anaesthesia was induced with 3.0% isoflurane in six sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita galerita) and maintained using either 1.5% or 3.0% during spontaneous ventilation (sv) or ippv at 6 (ippv-6) or 12 (ippv-12) breaths per minute. the time taken for the appearance of somatic reflexes and the return of sv after ippv was recorded. during recover ...201424587938
means-end comprehension in four parrot species: explained by social complexity.a comparative approach is required to investigate the evolutionary origins of cognitive abilities. in this paper, we compare the performance of four parrot species, spectacled parrotlets (forpus conspicillatus), rainbow lorikeets (trichoglossus haematodus), green-winged macaws (ara chloroptera) and sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita triton) in standardized string-pulling and string-choice paradigms. we varied the spatial relationship between the strings, the presence of a reward and the ...201323397182
two new quill mite species (prostigmata: syringophilidae) parasitizing australian birds.two new quill mite species (prostigmata: cheyletoidea: syringophilidae), syringophilopsis philemonis sp. nov. from philemon citreogularis (gould) (passeriformes: meliphagidae) and megasyringophilus cacatua sp. nov. from cacatua galerita (latham) (psittaciformes: psittacidae) are described from australia.201326438949
unilateral evisceration of an eye following cornea and lens perforation in a sulfur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).a 24-year old male sulfur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita) was presented with a subacute perforation of the cornea without involvement of the lens. the bird was treated conservatively and the eye remained quiescent up to a second traumatic corneal perforation associated with a lens capsule rupture 15 months later. due to the second perforating trauma of an already blind eye involving the lens, evisceration of the eye was performed. two months after surgery the cosmetic result was excellent. t ...200617209511
toxicokinetics of the active doxorubicin metabolite, doxorubicinol, in sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita).the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicinol, a cytotoxic metabolite of the anticancer drug, doxorubicin, were studied in four healthy sulphur-crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita) after a 20 min intravenous infusion of 2 mg/kg. plasma doxorubicinol concentrations were measured by hplc. the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a non-compartmental method. the mean (+/- sd) peak concentration was 8341 +/- 3132 microg/l at 17.5 +/- 5.0 min after the start of the infusion, and doxorubicinol conce ...200717197005
airsac cystadenocarcinomas in cockatoos.the clinical signs, radiographic and pathological findings of four histologically similar neoplasms that occurred as unilateral tumours projecting from the left axilla in three galahs (eolophus roseicapillus) and one sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita) are described. in each case, the main reason for clinical presentation was respiratory distress. all cases were eventually fatal due to airway obstruction with evidence of extensive neoplastic invasion of the lungs, major airways and or hu ...200616821490
a class of chaotic bird calls?evidence is presented that the basic vocalized sound produced by some cockatoos, specifically the australian sulfur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita) and the gang-gang cockatoo (callocephalon fimbriatum), has a chaotic acoustic structure rather than the harmonic structure characteristic of most birdsongs. these findings support those of fee et al. [nature (london) 395(3), 67-71 (1999)] on nonlinear period-doubling transitions in the song of the zebra finch (taeniopygia guttata). it is suggeste ...200010955649
lethal giardia from a wild-caught sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita) established in vitro chronically infects axenic culture of giardia was established from a sample of infected intestine obtained following autopsy of a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita). the cockatoo recently captured in the wild and with good muscle tone died along with several other cage mates, apparently of an overwhelming, acute infection of giardia. trophozoites which established in the traditional, axenic giardia medium (tyi-s-33 with supplementary bile) were morphologically identical to g. duodenalis. when outbred qu ...19979149411
synovial cell sarcoma in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).a 13-year-old sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita) was presented with a mass surrounding the right elbow joint. radiographs showed a soft tissue mass. the right wing was amputated. histological examination of the mass revealed an incompletely lobulated tumour composed of strands of spindle-shaped cells and of epithelial cells resembling acini. on morphological grounds the tumour was classified to be a synovial cell sarcoma. after 6 months the bird was returned for examination because of l ...199618645850
psittacine beak and feather disease syndrome in a cockatoo.psittacine beak and feather disease syndrome was diagnosed in an adult sulfur-crested cockatoo with a history of chronic, progressive feather loss and beak necrosis. a definitive diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and the observation of intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in involved feather follicular epithelium. psittacine beak and feather disease syndrome develops in a variety of psittacine species and usually has a progressive and irreversible clinical course. symmetr ...19883204057
chronic endocrine disorder associated with inclusion body hepatitis in a sulfur-crested cockatoo. 19816276351
tubercular infection in a sulfur-crested cockatoo. 1979256692
current research in avian chemotherapy.chemotherapy as a treatment modality is increasingly being used in avian oncology. currently, most chemotherapeutic agents can only be used empirically, as pharmacokinetic data in birds are lacking.recently, the pharmacokinetic profile of the platinum analogs,cisplatin, and carboplatin has been reported in sulfur-crested cockatoos,paving the way for clinical and toxicity trials.200415296875
fatal hepatic trematodiasis in cockatoos due to platynosomum proxillicens.severe hepatic trematodiasis due to platynosomum proxillicens was diagnosed as the cause of death in two sulfur-crested cockatoos (cacatua sulfurea). gross pathologic alterations included hepatomegaly in one bird and hepatic and generalized cyanosis in the other. microscopic changes included multifocal hepatic necrosis, dilated fibrous bile ducts containing trematode, parasites, bile duct hyperplasia, and hepatic inflammation.20047447844
avian viral surveillance in victoria, australia, and detection of two novel avian herpesviruses.viruses in avian hosts can pose threats to avian health and some have zoonotic potential. hospitals that provide veterinary care for avian patients may serve as a site of exposure of other birds and human staff in the facility to these viruses. they can also provide a useful location to collect samples from avian patients in order to examine the viruses present in wild birds. this study aimed to investigate viruses of biosecurity and/or zoonotic significance in australian birds by screening samp ...201829570719
beak and feather disease virus carriage by knemidocoptes pilae in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).this paper describes the pathology associated with psittacine beak and feather disease in a wild sulphur-crested cockatoo with concurrent knemidocoptic mange, cestodiasis and mycotic encephalitis.201729243237
spontaneity and diversity of movement to music are not uniquely human.spontaneous movement to music occurs in every human culture and is a foundation of dance [1]. this response to music is absent in most species (including monkeys), yet it occurs in parrots, perhaps because they (like humans, and unlike monkeys) are vocal learners whose brains contain strong auditory-motor connections, conferring sophisticated audiomotor processing abilities [2,3]. previous research has shown that parrots can bob their heads or lift their feet in synchrony with a musical beat [2, ...201931287976
beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) prevalence, load and excretion in seven species of wild caught common australian parrots.pathogens pose a major risk to wild host populations, especially in the face of ongoing biodiversity declines. beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) can affect most if not all members of one of the largest and most threatened bird orders world-wide, the psittaciformes. signs of disease can be severe and mortality rates high. its broad host range makes it a risk to threatened species in particular, because infection can occur via spill-over from abundant hosts. despite these risks, surveillance o ...202032609774
opportunistic sampling of wild native and invasive birds reveals a rich diversity of adenoviruses in australia.little is known about the diversity of adenoviruses in wild birds and how they have evolved and are maintained in complex ecosystems. in this study, 409 samples were collected from woodland birds caught for banding (droppings), birds submitted to a wildlife hospital (droppings and tissues), silver gulls (droppings or tissues), and feral pigeons (columbia livia; oral, cloacal swabs, or tissues) from the greater sydney area in nsw, australia. additional samples were from native pigeons and doves ( ...202032411389
a citizen science approach reveals long-term social network structure in an urban parrot, cacatua galerita.parrots are often referenced in discussions of social and cognitive complexity, yet relatively little is known of their social organization in the wild. in particular, the presence of long-lasting social ties has been highlighted as a hallmark of social complexity; however, the presence of such ties can be masked in fission-fusion systems like that exhibited by most parrot species. social network analysis has the potential to elucidate such multi-level dynamics. while most parrot species are tro ...202032629533
bill covering and nape feather ruffling as indicators of calm states in the sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita).parrots are highly social birds that are recognized for their primate-like cognitive abilities but their way to express emotions remain overlooked. herein we explored potential facial indicators of emotions in cockatoos. we predicted that facial feather ruffling is an indicator of a cockatoo's emotional state and hypothesized that specific facial feather positions would be present more during positive valence and low arousal situations. we observed feather position on the crest, cheek and nape d ...202032598901
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