genetic variability among endangered chinese giant salamanders, andrias davidianus.the endangered chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) is endemic to mainland china. genetic divergence among six populations of the species was investigated by means of isozyme electrophoresis and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequences. forty allozyme loci were resolved for all populations; the amount of genetic divergence among populations was comparable to that in other amphibians. mtdna sequences showed a similar level of divergence. the population from huangshan is distinct from other po ...200011050549
characterization of galectin-1 from chinese giant salamanders andrias davidianus and its involvements during immune response.galectins are considered as a multifunctional protein which play essential roles in cell adhesion and apoptosis, inflammation, tumor progression and immune response. in spite of extensive studies of galectin importance in immune system among different animals, few studies have been devoted to their functions in amphibian. in the present study, we characterized one proto type of galectin (named adgal1) from chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus and studied its function in immune response. a ...201728065604
transcriptome analysis of the endangered chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus): immune modulation in response to aeromonas hydrophila infection.the endangered chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) is the largest extant amphibian species. disease outbreaks represent one of the major factors threatening a. davidianus populations in the wild and the viability of artificial breeding programmes. development of future immune therapies to eliminate infectious disease in a. davidianus is dependent on a thorough understanding of the immune mechanisms elicited by pathogen encounters. to this end we have undertaken, for the first time in a ...201626620078
purification of a secreted lectin from andrias davidianus skin and its antibacterial activity.a lectin secreted from andrias davidianus skin (adl) was purified by affinity chromatography on porcine stomach mucin (type iii) (psm)-crosslinked albumin, followed by gel filtration on sephadex g-100 and hplc on tsk gel g3000pwxl. the purified lectin was found to be a dimeric protein, as revealed by sds-page and maldi-tof analysis. sds-page showed that the adl protein had a molecular mass of 17 kda. adl produced an 8.5 kda band when examined using sds-page under reducing conditions. adl aggluti ...201525445018
retrospective survey of museum specimens reveals historically widespread presence of batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in china.chytridiomycosis, caused by the chytrid fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (bd), has been implicated in amphibian population declines worldwide. however, no amphibian declines or extinctions associated with bd have been reported in asia. to investigate the history of this pathogen in china, we examined 1,007 museum-preserved amphibian specimens of 80 species collected between 1933 and 2009. bd was detected in 60 individuals (6.0%), with the earliest case of bd infection occurring in one speci ...201424419667
[isolation and identification of citrobacter freundii from diseased giant salamander, andrias davidianus].to determine the pathogenic bacterium infecting giant salamander (andrias davidianus).201222586994
[prokaryotic expression and antiserum preparation for major antigenic epitope region of major capsid protein of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) iridovirus].objective to express the fusion protein of major antigenic epitope region of major capsid protein (mcp) of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) iridovirus (cgsiv) and prepare the rabbit antiserum. methods using the genomic dna of cgsiv lueyang strain (cgsiv-ly) as a template, the gene fragment of major antigenic epitope region of mcp was amplified by pcr and cloned into the prokaryotic vector pet-21a(+) to construct the prokaryotic expression recombinant plasmid pet-21a-mcp. the recombi ...201627667470
molecular characterization, tissue distribution and functional analysis of macrophage migration inhibitory factor protein (mif) in chinese giant salamanders andrias davidianus.the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) produced in numerous cell types is a multi-functional cytokine mediating both innate and adaptive immune responses. to obtain a better understanding of the innate immune ability of andrias davidianus and their defensive mechanisms, we identify the a. davidianus mif (admif) cdna sequence from a skin cdna library. the full-length cdna of admif was of 661bp, consisting of 134bp 5'-terminal utr, 348bp open reading frame and 179bp 3'-terminal utr. the ...201323178403
protective immunity of a pichia pastoris expressed recombinant iridovirus major capsid protein in the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus.the major capsid protein (mcp) is the main immunogenic protein of iridoviruses, that has been widely used as an immunogen in vaccination trials. in this study, the codon-optimized giant salamander iridovirus (gsiv) mcp gene (o-mcp) was synthesized and cloned into a ppiczα b vector for secretory expression in the methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris after methanol induction. the expression of the o-mcp protein was detected by the bradford protein assay, sds-page, western blotting and electron mic ...201526303874
establishment and characterization of a heart-derived cell line from goldfish (carassius auratus).the goldfish carassius auratus, a freshwater fish in the family cyprinidae, was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated for ornamental purposes. a cell line was established from goldfish heart (gh) tissue to create a biological monitoring tool for viral diseases. the gh cell line was optimally maintained at 25 °c in m199 medium supplemented with 10-20% fetal bovine serum. a chromosomal analysis indicated that the cell line remained diploid, with a mean chromosomal count of 100. in viral inoc ...201728097494
multi-drug resistance mediated by class 1 integrons in aeromonas isolated from farmed freshwater animals.aeromonas is regarded as an important pathogen of freshwater animals but little is known about the genetics of its antimicrobial resistance in chinese aquaculture. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of integrons and characterize multidrug resistant aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased farmed freshwater animals. these animal samples included fish, ornamental fish, shrimp, turtles, and amphibians which were collected from 64 farms in guangdong province of south china. one hundr ...201627379065
analysis on the expression and function of a chicken-type and goose-type lysozymes in chinese giant salamanders andrias davidianus.lysozymes as an important immune factor, play vital roles in innate immune response against pathogen infection. in the present study, one c-type and g-type lysozymes were identified from chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus). they shared highly conserved structural features with lysozymes from other species. spatial expression analysis revealed that adlysc transcript was most abundant in liver and stomach, and least in muscle and brain. in contrast, the expression level of adlysg was mos ...201728238880
telocytes in ileum of the chinese giant salamander: ultrastructural evidence.telocytes (tcs) and their telopodes (tps) have been found in various organs of many mammals, including in lower animals. however, knowledge of tcs in lower animals is still very limited. this study identified tcs and their tps in the ileum of the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus (amphibia: caudata), by transmission electron microscopy. the tcs/tps were found near epithelial cells, glandular cells and unmyelinated nerve fibres. moreover, exosomes were also found to be present in betwe ...201626805522
surgical implantation of coelomic radiotransmitters and postoperative survival of chinese giant salamanders (andrias davidianus) following reintroduction.worldwide, there are only a handful of reintroduction programs for threatened salamander species, and very few have conducted postrelease studies to examine survival, habitat selection, and dispersal. limitations in postrelease monitoring are primarily due to size constraints of amphibians and to dimensions of the radiotransmitters available for implantation. however, due to the large size of the critically endangered chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus), these animals make optimal cand ...201627010279
reintroduction and post-release survival of a living fossil: the chinese giant salamander.captive rearing and reintroduction / translocation are increasingly used as tools to supplement wild populations of threatened species. reintroducing captive-reared chinese giant salamanders may help to augment the declining wild populations and conserve this critically endangered amphibian. we released 31 captive-reared juvenile giant salamanders implanted with vhf radio transmitters at the heihe river (n = 15) and the donghe river (n = 16) in the qinling mountains of central china. salamanders ...201627258650
proteomic analysis of the skin from chinese fire-bellied newt and comparison to chinese giant salamander.animal skin that directly interfaces with the external environment has developed diverse adaptive functions to a variety of ecological conditions laden with pathogenic infection and physical harm. amphibians exhibit various adaptations related to their "incomplete" shift from the aquatic to the terrestrial habitat. therefore, it is very necessary to explore the molecular basis of skin function and adaptation in amphibians. currently, the studies on the molecular mechanisms of skin functions in a ...201627343457
sexually dimorphic expression of foxl2 and ftz-f1 in chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus.foxl2 and ftz-f1 play a crucial role in the regulation of gonad development in fish and mammals, but studies of their function in amphibians are scarce. we isolated the full length of foxl2 (adfoxl2) and ftz-f1 (adftz-f1) cdna from the chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus and quantified its expression in various tissues and developing gonads. the adfoxl2 gene encodes 301aa including a conserved forkhead box, and the adftz-f1 gene encodes 467aa containing an ftz-f1 box. the amino acid sequ ...201627527384
telocytes in gastric lamina propria of the chinese giant salamander, andrias this study, we attempt to identify gastric telocytes (tcs) of the chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus, by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (tem) methods. toluidine blue staining showed tcs with one to two very thin and long telopodes (tps) that were located in gastric lamina propria. tps had characteristic structures, including podoms, podomers and dichotomous branching. immunohistochemistry showed the existence of cd34(+)/pdgfrα(+) tcs with ...201627629815
characterization and tissue distribution of lhx9 and lhx9α in chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus.lhx9 is an lim (named for the first three proteins in which the domain was found, lin-11, isl1 and mec-3) homeodomain protein involved in development and differentiation of the gonad. in this study, we isolated the full-length lhx9 and lhx9α from andrias davidianus, detected the tissue distribution and analysed the methylation of the promoters. we identified lhx9 of 1411 bp and lhx9α of 1153-bp length, differing in the 3'-flanking region, encoding 399 and 330 amino acids, respectively. the lhx9 ...201627659340
autophagy and apoptosis induced by chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) iridovirus (cgsiv).the outbreak of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus, cgs) iridovirus (cgsiv) caused massive death of cgss. however, some cgss with low level of cgsiv usually could survive. in our study, major capsid protein (mcp) dna replicates of cgsiv in shedding skin were employed to assess the relative content of cgsiv in the living cgss by qpcr. furthermore, the examinations of autophagy and apoptosis in cgss in vivo and in the primary renal cells in vitro were performed, respectively. the results ...201627771075
telocytes in pancreas of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).telocytes (tcs), novel interstitial cells, have been identified in various organs of many mammals. however, information about tcs of lower animals remains rare. herein, pancreatic tcs of the chinese giant salamanders (andrias davidianus) were identified by cd34 immunohistochemistry (ihc) and transmission electron microscopy (tem). the ihc micrographs revealed cd34(+) tcs with long telopodes (tps) that were located in the interstitium of the pancreas. cd34(+) tcs/tps were frequently observed betw ...201627650046
electrical discharges in chinese salamander andrias 2-year-old chinese giant salamanders andrias davidianus, occasional electric discharges with a characteristic pattern similar to the electric discharges of weakly electric catfish, polypterus and protopterus, were recorded for the first time. the discharges markedly differ in shape from the myograms accompanying abrupt movements of the salamander or exceeded them in amplitude by more than an order of magnitude. the discharges were recorded both in the autonomous experiment in the absence of e ...201628058686
a reference gene set construction using rna-seq of multiple tissues of chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus. 201728204480
structural insights into ligand binding of pgrp1 splice variants in chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) from molecular dynamics and free energy calculations.peptidoglycan (pgn) recognition proteins (pgrps) are important pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. a number of pgrp splicing variants produced by alternative splicing of pgrp genes have been reported. however, several important aspects of interactions between pgrp splice variants and their ligands are still unclear. in the present study, three dimensional models of salamander pgrp1 (adpgrp1) and its splice variant (adpgrp1a) were constructed, and their key amino acids invo ...201728341996
comparative and phylogenetic perspectives of the cleavage process in tailed amphibians.the order caudata includes about 660 species and displays a variety of important developmental traits such as cleavage pattern and egg size. however, the cleavage process of tailed amphibians has never been analyzed within a phylogenetic framework. we use published data on the embryos of 36 species concerning the character of the third cleavage furrow (latitudinal, longitudinal or variable) and the magnitude of synchronous cleavage period (up to 3-4 synchronous cell divisions in the animal hemis ...201525180466
thymus cdna library survey uncovers novel features of immune molecules in chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus.a ranavirus-induced thymus cdna library was constructed from chinese giant salamander, the largest extant amphibian species. among the 137 putative immune-related genes derived from this library, these molecules received particular focus: immunoglobulin heavy chains (igm, igd, and igy), ifn-inducible protein 6 (ifi6), and t cell receptor beta chain (tcrβ). several unusual features were uncovered: igd displays a structure pattern distinct from those described for other amphibians by having only f ...201424909429
complete genome sequence of a ranavirus isolated from chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).a ranavirus (rv) was isolated from chinese giant salamanders (andrias davidianus) in china in 2010 and provisionally designated andrias davidianus ranavirus (adrv). the complete genome sequence is 106,719 nucleotides long. genomic sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that adrv has a high degree of conservation with other rvs.201424407629
a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for the detection of members of the genus ranavirus.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method was developed for detection of members of the genus ranavirus. the optimum reaction mixture contained 2.5 μl of each inner primer, rv-fip (20 pmol/μl) and rv-bip (20 pmol/μl), 0.5 μl of each outer primer, rv-f3 (10 pmol/μl) and rv-b3 (10 pmol/μl), 1.25 μl of each loop primer, rv-lf (20 pmol/μl) and rv-lb (20 pmol/μl), 3.5 μl dntp mix (10 mm each), 8 μl mgso4 (25 mm), 1 μl of bst dna polymerase (8 u/ml, large fragment; new england biolabs inc ...201323665768
a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in gibel carp (carassius auratus gibelio).a rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (cyhv-2) detection in gibel carp was developed. following cloning and sequencing of the putative dna helicase gene of cyhv-2 isolate from china, a set of four specific primers was designed based on the sequence. the mgcl2 concentration and the reaction temperature were optimized to 6 mm, 64°c, respectively. lamp products were detected by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of sybr ...201424574914
data set for transcriptome analysis of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus ).the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) occupies a seat at the phylogenetic and species evolution process, which makes it an invaluable model for genetics; however, the genetic information and gene sequences about the chinese giant salamander in public databases are scanty. hence, we aimed to perform transcriptome analysis with the help of high-throughput sequencing. in this data, 61,317,940 raw reads were acquired from chinese giant salamander mrna using illumina paired-end sequencing ...201626759822
morphological changes in amphibian and fish cell lines infected with andrias davidianus ranavirus.andrias davidianus ranavirus (adrv) is an emerging viral pathogen that causes severe disease in chinese giant salamanders, the largest extant amphibian in the world. a fish cell line, epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (epc), and a new amphibian cell line, chinese giant salamander spleen cell (gssc), were infected with adrv and observed by light and electron microscopy. the morphological changes in these two cell lines infected with adrv were compared. cytopathic effect (cpe) began with rounding of ...201525728809
establishment of three cell lines from chinese giant salamander and their sensitivities to the wild-type and recombinant ranavirus.known as lethal pathogens, ranaviruses have been identified in diseased fish, amphibians (including chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus, the world's largest amphibian) and reptiles, causing organ necrosis and systemic hemorrhage. here, three chinese giant salamander cell lines, thymus cell line (gstc), spleen cell line (gssc) and kidney cell line (gskc) were initially established. their sensitivities to ranaviruses, wild-type andrias davidianus ranavirus (adrv) and recombinant rana gryli ...201526070783
first report of a ranavirus associated with morbidity and mortality in farmed chinese giant salamanders (andrias davidianus).from february to may 2010, an outbreak of disease occurred amongst farmed chinese giant salamanders (andrias davidianus) in hanzhong county, shanxi province, china. clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, ecchymoses and swollen areas on the head and limbs, and skin ulceration. the aim of this study was to determine the cause of this disease. necropsy examination revealed subcutaneous and intramuscular oedema, swollen and pale livers with multifocal haemorrhage, swollen kidneys with multifoca ...201121256507
[habitat characteristics of andrias davidianus in zhangjiajie of china].by the methods of field investigation and laboratory analysis, the habitat characteristics of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) in zhangjiajie giant saramander national nature reserve were studied from july to august in 2006-2008. in the study area, the inhabited reaches of a. davidianus were characterized by moderate altitude (373 +/- 97 m), relatively small river width (6.39 +/- 2.13 m) and depth (1.07 +/- 0.53 m), lithoid substrate with more gravels or rocks, irregular river bed, ...200919899477
first report of two balantidium species from the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus: balantidium sinensis nie 1935 and balantidium andianusis n. sp.two ciliated protozoa, balantidium sinensis nie 1935 and balantidium andianusi n. sp., were isolated from the feces of a wild chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) captured from the mountainous area of shiyan, hubei province, central china in october 2006. it is the first report of balantidium species inhabiting cryptobranchoidea amphibians. the occurrence of b. sinensis in a. davidianus should be a new record because the type specimens were first discovered and named by nie in 1935 from ...200818043944
transcriptomic analysis of the host response to an iridovirus infection in chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus.the emergence of an infectious viral disease caused by the chinese giant salamander iridovirus (gsiv) has led to substantial economic losses. however, no more molecular information is available for the understanding of the mechanisms associated with virus-host interaction. in this study, de novo sequencing was used to obtain abundant high-quality ests and investigate differentially-expressed genes in the spleen of chinese giant salamanders that were either infected or mock infected with gsiv. co ...201526589400
cloning, expression of, and evidence of positive selection for, the prolactin receptor gene in chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).prolactin receptor (prlr) is a protein associated with reproduction in mammals and with osmoregulation in fish. in this study, the complete length of chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus prolactin receptor (ad-prlr) was cloned. andrias davidianus prlr expression was high in the kidney, pituitary, and ovary and low in other examined tissues. the ad-prlr levels were higher in ovary than in testis, and increased in ovaries with age from 1 to 6 years. to determine effect of exogenous androgen ...201526526303
heterogeneous vesicles in mucous epithelial cells of posterior esophagus of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).the chinese giant salamander belongs to an old lineage of salamanders and endangered species. many studies of breeding and disease regarding this amphibian had been implemented. however, the studies on the ultrastructure of this amphibian are rare. in this work, we provide a histological and ultrastructural investigation on posterior esophagus of chinese giant salamander. the sections of amphibian esophagus were stained by hematoxylin & eosin (h&e). moreover, the esophageal epithelium wa ...201526428885
data from proteomic analysis of the skin of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus), renowned as a living fossil, is the largest and longest-lived amphibian species in the world. its skin is rich in collagens, and has developed mucous gland which could secrete a large amount of mucus under the scraping and electric stimulation. the molting is the degraded skin stratum corneum. to establish the functional skin proteome of chinese giant salamander, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2de) and mass spectrometry (ms) were applied t ...201526217726
characterization of chinese giant salamander iridovirus tissue tropism and inflammatory response after infection.the chinese giant salamander iridovirus (gsiv), belonging to the genus ranavirus in the family iridoviridae, causes severe hemorrhagic lesions and nearly 100% mortality in naturally infected chinese giant salamanders andrias davidiamus. however, the replication and distribution of the virus has not been well characterized in vivo. using in situ hybridization, the expression of the gsiv major capsid protein (mcp) was detected in the cytoplasm of cells of the spleen, kidney, liver and gut tissues. ...201526036830
rna-seq analysis and gene discovery of andrias davidianus using illumina short read sequencing.the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus, is an important species in the course of evolution; however, there is insufficient genomic data in public databases for understanding its immunologic mechanisms. high-throughput transcriptome sequencing is necessary to generate an enormous number of transcript sequences from a. davidianus for gene discovery. in this study, we generated more than 40 million reads from samples of spleen and skin tissue using the illumina paired-end sequencing techn ...201525874626
3d bite modeling and feeding mechanics of the largest living amphibian, the chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus (amphibia:urodela).biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. however, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. herein, the skull biomechanics of the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus is investigated using 3d finite ele ...201525853557
cloning, sequence analysis and expression profiles of toll-like receptor 7 from chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus.the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus, is the largest extant amphibian species in the world, which is of significance due to its specific position in the evolutionary history of vertebrates. currently, limited information about the innate immune system of this animal is known. in this study, the toll-like receptor 7 (tlr7), designated cgstlr7, was cloned from chinese giant salamander, a. davidianus. the full-length cdna of cgstlr7 is 3747 bp, with an open reading frame of 3150 bp, enc ...201525754925
antimicrobial peptide from mucus of andrias davidianus: screening and purification by magnetic cell membrane separation technique.andrias davidianus, the chinese giant salamander, has been used in traditional chinese medicine for many decades. however, no antimicrobial peptides (amps) have been described from a. davidianus until now. here we describe a novel amp (andricin 01) isolated from the mucus of a. davidianus. the peptide was recovered using an innovative magnetic cell membrane separation technique and was characterised using mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (cd) spectroscopy. andricin 01 is comprised of ten ...201728461043
identification of type i ifn in chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) and the response to an iridovirus infection.the type i ifns play a major role in the first line of defense against virus infections. in this study, the type i ifn gene designated gsifn was identified and characterized in the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus). the genomic dna of gsifn contains 5 exons and 4 introns and has a total length of 5622 bp. the full-length cdna sequence of gsifn is 1113 bp and encodes a putative protein of 186 amino acids that has a 43% identity to type i ifn of xenopus tropicalis. the deduced amino ac ...201525733388
three ferritin subunit analogs in chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) and their response to microbial stimulation.ferritin, an evolutionarily conserved iron-binding protein, plays important roles in iron storage and detoxification and in host immune response to invading stimulus as well. in the present study, we identified three ferritin subunit analog cdnas from chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus). all the three ferritin subunit cdnas had a putative iron responsive element in the 5'-untranslated region. two deduced ferritin subunits (designated as cgsferh and cgsferm) had the highest identity of ...201526319314
amphibians have immunoglobulins similar to ancestral igd and iga from amniotes.we studied the immunoglobulin genes from either the genomes or rnas of amphibians. in particular, we obtained data from one frog genome (nanorana parkeri) and three transcriptomes of the caudata order (andrias davidianus, notophthalmus viridescens and cynops pyrrhogaster). apart from the immunoglobulins igm and igy previously described, we identified several igd related immunoglobulins. the species n. parkeri, n. viridescens and c. pyrrhogaster have two igd genes, while andrias davidianus has th ...201626675067
characterization and expression of cyp19a gene in the chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus.we cloned the full length cyp19a of chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus, determined its distribution in tissues and developing gonads, and analyzed the cpg methylation pattern of the cyp19a promoter. the results revealed isoforms of 1706 bp (g arom) and 1698 bp (b arom) in length, differing in the 5' flanking region, both encoding 502 amino acids. the g arom gene was observed mainly in the ovary and kidney, with little in other investigated tissues, while b arom expression was high in th ...201626593771
the complete mitochondrial genome of the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus (amphibia: caudata).the mitochondrial genome of the chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus was isolated using the long-and-accurate polymerase chain reaction (la pcr) method. the sequencing work adopted the shotgun strategy accompanying with seven internal primers to cover the gaps where overlapping clones were not available. the entire mtdna sequence is 16,503 bp long, with a gene content of 13 protein-coding, two ribosomal rna and 22 transfer rna genes, and order identical to that observed in most other vert ...200312853142
brief report. the karyotype of the caudate amphibian andrias davidianus. 200212184494
ultrastructure of the skin mechanoreceptors of the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus.the ultrastructure of two kinds of mechanoreceptive organs, pit organs and neuromasts, in the skin of adult giant salamanders (andrias davidianus) was studied by transmission electron microscopy. neuromasts and pit organs differ in their types of synapses, the spatial distribution of kinocilia on sensory cells, and in the degree to which sensory cells are separated by processes of the supporting cells; the two organs probably serve complementary functions. the neuromasts in a. davidianus differ ...200010861833
call and skin glands secretion induced by stimulation of midbrain in urodele (andrias davidianus).stimulation of the midbrain induced calls, gaping, tail lashing, locomotion and secretion of skin glands in the cryptobranchidae, andrias davidianus, which is a rare precious animal in china. these responses can be considered as a complex of action related to escape. most of the sites where calls and secretion of skin glands could be induced were found in the outside of central nucleus of the torus semicircularis. this is the first description of this cluster of functions in the midbrain of andr ...19902245333
a histological, histochemical, and biochemical study of the adrenal tissue of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus blanchard). 1975236973
parathyroid gland and serum calcium concentration in the giant salamander, megalobatrachus davidianus. 19734762870
cytoplasmic dna and basic protein synthesis in megalobatrachus davidianus oocytes. 19715157349
comparative micrornaome analysis of the testis and ovary of the chinese giant salamander.micrornas (mirnas) are 18-24 nucleotides non-coding rnas that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional suppression of mrna. the chinese giant salamander (cgs, andrias davidianus), which is an endangered species, has become one of the important models of animal evolution; however, no mirna studies on this species have been conducted. in this study, two small rna libraries of cgs ovary and testis were constructed using deep sequencing technology. a bioinformatics pipeline was developed to ...201728630098
identification and characterization of known and novel micrornas in three tissues of chinese giant salamander base on deep sequencing approach.micrornas (mirnas) are a class of non-coding small rnas that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. although animal mirnas have been extensively studied in model systems, less is known in other animal with limited genome sequence data, including chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus). the identification of the full repertoire of mirnas expressed in the liver, spleen and muscle of a. davidianus would significantly increase our understanding for physiological function of ...201728476431
genomic sequencing of ranaviruses isolated from edible frogs (pelophylax esculentus).ranaviruses were isolated from wild edible frogs (pelophylax esculentus) during epizootics in denmark and italy. phylogenomic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related and belong to a clade of ranaviruses that includes the andrias davidianus ranavirus (adrv), common midwife toad ranavirus (cmtv), testudo hermanni ranavirus (thrv), and pike-perch iridovirus (ppiv).201728935748
comparative transcriptome analyses reveal the genetic basis underlying the immune function of three amphibians' as the first barrier against external invasions plays an essential role for the survival of amphibians on land. understanding the genetic basis of skin function is significant in revealing the mechanisms underlying immunity of amphibians. in this study, we de novo sequenced and comparatively analyzed skin transcriptomes from three different amphibian species, andrias davidianus, bufo gargarizans, and rana nigromaculata hallowell. functional classification of unigenes in each amphibian showe ...201729267366
differential autophagic effects triggered by five different vertebrate iridoviruses in a common, highly permissive mandarinfish fry (mff-1) cell model.autophagy of five vertebrate iridoviruses, including one megalocytivirus (infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus, isknv) and four ranaviruses (chinese giant salamander iridovirus, cgsiv; tiger frog virus, tfv; grouper iridovirus, giv; and largemouth bass virus, lmbv) were investigated in a common, highly permissive mandarinfish fry (mff-1) cell model. the results showed marked autophagosome formation in giv- and lmbv-infected cells but not in isknv-, cgsiv- and tfv-infected mff-1 cells. str ...201626748344
proteomic analysis of the skin of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus), renowned as a living fossil, is the largest and longest-lived amphibian species in the world. its skin has developed mucous gland which could secrete a large amount of mucus under the scraping and electric stimulation, and the molting is the degraded skin stratum corneum. although several proteomic studies have focused on functional proteomes of mammalian and frog skin, the skin proteome of chinese giant salamander has not yet been carefully stu ...201525725404
immunological responses and protection in chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus immunized with inactivated iridovirus.chinese giant salamander hemorrhage is a newly emerged infectious disease in china and has caused huge economic losses. the causative pathogen has been identified as the giant salamander iridovirus (gsiv). in this study, the immunological responses and protection in chinese giant salamander immunized with β-propiolactone inactivated gsiv are reported. red and white blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune-related gene expression and det ...201425465180
pathological and microbiological findings from mortality of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus, is a nationally protected and cultured species in china. recently, a severe epizootic occurred in cultured chinese giant salamanders in hubei, hunan, sichuan, shaanxi, and zhejiang provinces of china, causing substantial economic losses. the typical clinical signs of diseased larval animals were jaw and abdominal swelling and subcutaneous hemorrhaging. diseased adult animals exhibited skin hemorrhages, ulceration of the hind limbs, and multiple h ...201424385158
functional characterization of a short peptidoglycan recognition protein from chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).peptidoglycan (pgn) recognition proteins (pgrps) are important pattern recognition receptors (prrs) involved in immune defense against bacterial infections. in this study, a short pgrp (termed adpgrp-s1) was cloned and functionally characterized from chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus), the largest extant urodela amphibian species. adpgrp-s1 was 184 aa in length and shared 38.7%-54.9% sequence identities with other vertebrates' short pgrps. it contained one typical pgrp domain at the c ...201729245904
ultrastructural morphogenesis of an amphibian iridovirus isolated from chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).haemorrhagic disease of chinese giant salamanders (andrias davidianus) (cgss) is an emerging condition caused by an iridovirus of the genus ranavirus within the family iridoviridae. several studies have described different biological properties of the virus, but some aspects of its replication cycle, including ultrastructural alterations, remain unknown. the aim of the present study was to describe the morphogenesis of chinese giant salamander iridovirus (gsiv) in an epithelioma papulosum cyprin ...201424237715
genome architecture changes and major gene variations of andrias davidianus ranavirus (adrv).ranaviruses are emerging pathogens that have led to global impact and public concern. as a rarely endangered species and the largest amphibian in the world, the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus, has recently undergone outbreaks of epidemic diseases with high mortality. in this study, we isolated and identified a novel ranavirus from the chinese giant salamanders that exhibited systemic hemorrhage and swelling syndrome with high death rate in china during may 2011 to august 2012. the ...201324143877
extensive diversification of mhc in chinese giant salamanders andrias davidianus (anda-mhc) reveals novel splice variants.a series of mhc alleles (including 26 class ia, 27 class iia, and 17 class iib) were identified from chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus (anda-mhc). these genes are similar to classical mhc molecules in terms of characteristic domains, functional residues, deduced tertiary structures and genetic diversity. the majority of variation between alleles is found in the putative peptide-binding region (pbr), which is driven by positive darwinian selection. the coexistence of two isoforms in mhc ...201424135718
virion-associated viral proteins of a chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) iridovirus (genus ranavirus) and functional study of the major capsid protein (mcp).chinese giant salamander iridovirus (cgsiv) is the emerging causative agent to farmed chinese giant salamanders in nationwide china. cgsiv is a member of the common midwife toad ranavirus (cmtv) subset of the amphibian-like ranavirus (alrv) in the genus ranavirus of iridoviridae family. however, viral protein information on alrv is lacking. in this first proteomic analysis of alrv, 40 cgsiv viral proteins were detected from purified virus particles by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectromet ...201424906872
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of iridovirus in the chinese giant salamander.the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) iridovirus (gsiv) is an emerging infectious pathogen responsible for severe hemorrhagic disease and high mortality in cultured chinese giant salamanders. a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay based on the major caspid protein (mcp) gene has been developed to detect this virus. primer pairs for the lamp assay were designed based on the gsiv mcp gene sequence. amplification results indicate that under optimized conditions the lamp a ...201324025343
transcriptome analysis of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) using rna-sequencing.the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) is an economically important animal on academic value. however, the genomic information of this species has been less studied. in our study, the transcripts of a. davidianus were obtained by rna-seq to conduct a transcriptomic analysis. in total 132,912 unigenes were generated with an average length of 690 bp and n50 of 1263 bp by de novo assembly using trinity software. using a sequence similarity search against the nine public databases (cdd, k ...201729159068
uchl1 expression and localization on testicular development and spermatogenesis of chinese giant salamanders.ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase l1 (uchl1), which is extensively expressed in vertebrates, is a deubiquitinating enzymes that inhibits the degradation of proteins by reversing ubiquitination modification. herein, a 1087-bp sequence encoding uchl1 was identified from the chinese giant salamander (cgs; andrias davidianus). the coding sequences (cds) of uchl1 encoded a putative poly peptide of 222 amino acids. the cgs uchl1 isoforms were more related to their human and mouse counterparts. the ...201729156776
skin secretion and shedding is a good source for non-destructive genetic sampling in the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).a non-destructive method of collecting samples for dna analysis of the chinese giant salamander is described and validated. dna was extracted from the skin secretion and shedding using a chelex-based method, and partial 12s rrna gene sequences were amplified and sequenced. sequences from skin secretion and shedding were cross-checked against the reported sequences from liver and were found to be identical. this method provides a non-destructive way of carrying out larger studies of the genetics ...201323819313
biomechanics and hydrodynamics of prey capture in the chinese giant salamander reveal a high-performance jaw-powered suction feeding mechanism.during the evolutionary transition from fish to tetrapods, a shift from uni- to bidirectional suction feeding systems followed a reduction in the gill apparatus. such a shift can still be observed during metamorphosis of salamanders, although many adult salamanders retain their aquatic lifestyle and feed by high-performance suction. unfortunately, little is known about the interplay between jaws and hyobranchial motions to generate bidirectional suction flows. here, we study the cranial morpholo ...201323466557
major biological activities of the skin secretion of the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus.amphibian skin can produce abundant secretion which contains many bioactive compounds. in this work, skin secretion of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) was obtained by mild electrical stimulation of the dorsal skin surface, and the main physiopathological properties of the secretion were described. intraperitoneal administration of the skin secretion caused lethal effects in mice. low doses of the skin secretion induced significant systemic and local effects like edema and nocic ...201222486045
[isolation and characterization of an iridovirus from sick giant salamander (andrias davidianus)].a virus was isolated from cultured sick giant salmander (andrias davidianus ) in a farm, shanxi province, china. skin ulceration and necrosis of the distal limbs are main clinical symptoms. virus propagated and caused cpe at 10 degrees c to 30 degrees c in bf-2, co, chse, fhm cells. the optimum condition of replication was in bf-2 cells at 25 degrees c. the virus was proved to be senstive to chloroform, heat, ph3 and ph10 treatment. viral replication was inhibited by 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine (fud ...201121774254
growth hormone and prolactin in andrias davidianus: cdna cloning, tissue distribution and phylogenetic analysis.the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) is one of the largest and 'living fossil' species of amphibian. to obtain genetic information for this species, the cdnas encoding growth hormone (adgh) and prolactin (adprl) were cloned from a pituitary cdna library. the isolated adgh cdna consisted of 864 bp and encoded a propeptide of 215 amino acids, while the cdna of adprl was 1106 bp in length and encoded a putative peptide of 229 amino acids. expression of the gh and prl mrna was only dete ...201019616001
purification, characterization and application of a novel antimicrobial peptide from andrias davidianus blood.the andrias davidianus has been known as a traditional chinese medicine for a long time. its blood is considered as a waste or by-product of the meat production industry. although there are reports on isolation of the antimicrobial peptides from different resources, there are no reports of their isolation from a. davidianus blood. in this work, an antimicrobial peptide, andricin b, was isolated from the blood of a. davidianus by an innovative method in which the magnetic liposome adsorption was ...029130500
molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of cathepsin a in the chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus.cathepsin a (ctsa) is serine carboxypeptidase, an important protease in the lysosome. in this study, the full complementary dna (cdna) sequence of ctsa in chinese giant salamanders andrias davidianus was cloned, and its sequence features were analyzed. tissue expression patterns of ctsa in healthy and aeromonas hydrophila-infected salamanders were also investigated. the full cdna sequence of salamander ctsa was 1,620 base pairs in length, encoding 472 amino acids. salamander ctsa shared high seq ...201728992444
identification and expression of forkhead box genes in the chinese giant salamander andrias the present study, 21 forkhead box (fox) genes were identified in andrias davidianus, including 13 full-length genes and eight partial sequences. phylogenetic analysis showed that most were conserved in other investigated amphibians, whereas the foxk1 gene was found exclusively in a. davidianus. molecular evolution analysis indicated that most fox genes underwent purifying selection, whereas two sites of the adfoxp4 gene showed positive selection and were located on the adfoxp4 protein surfac ...201728945985
identification of the first cathelicidin gene from skin of chinese giant salamanders andrias davidianus with its potent antimicrobial activity.cathelicidins, as effector molecules, play important roles against infections and represent a crucial component of the innate immune system in vertebrates. they are widely studied in mammals, but little is known in amphibians. in the present study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel cathelicidin from chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus, which is the first study in caudata amphibian. the cdna sequence encodes a predicted 148-amino-acid polypeptide, which composed ...201728801228
vaccination with recombinant baculovirus expressing ranavirus major capsid protein induces protective immunity in chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus.the chinese giant salamander iridovirus (cgsiv), belonging to the genus ranavirus in the family iridoviridae, is the causative agent of an emerging infectious disease causing high mortality of more than 90% and economic losses in chinese giant salamanders in china. in this study, a recombinant baculovirus-based vaccine expressing the cgsiv major capsid protein (mcp) was developed and its protective immunity in chinese giant salamanders was evaluated. the recombinant autographacalifornica nucleop ...201728757575
identification and characterization of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) mirnas by deep sequencing and predication of their targets.micrornas (mirnas) are non-coding small rna of approximately 22 nt in length. they are considered as key regulators for gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the regulation of many fundamental biological processes. andrias davidianus, as one of the largest amphibian on earth, may represent the transitional type of animal from aquatic to terrestrial life, but so far, no mirna has been identified in the species. in this study, illumina deep sequencing was ...201728695491
identification and expression of cytochrome p450 genes in the chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus.cytochrome p450 (cyp) genes play vital roles in biological processes, including in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. exogenous hormone influences on gene expression that leads to disruption of gonad development have been studied in several species, but whether exogenous hormones affect cyp genes that show sexually dimorphic expression remains to be determined. here, we identified and characterized cyp genes from the widely-cultured chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus. we ...201728460681
sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).next-generation technologies for determination of genomics and transcriptomics composition have a wide range of applications. andrias davidianus, has become an endangered amphibian species of salamander endemic in china. however, there is a lack of the molecular information. in this study, we obtained the rna-seq data from a pool of a. davidianus tissue including spleen, liver, muscle, kidney, skin, testis, gut and heart using illumina hiseq 2500 platform. a total of 15,398,997,600 bp were obtai ...201728413781
iridovirus infection in chinese giant salamanders, china, 2010. 201122172343
proteomic analysis of eleven tissues in the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus, cgs) is the largest extant amphibian species in the world. global quantitative proteome analysis of multiple tissues would indicate tissue-specific physiological processes and clarify the function of each protein from a whole-organism perspective. this study performed proteome analysis of eleven tissues collected from adult cgss using itraq coupled with lc-ms/ms technology. based on the predicted protein database from previously obtained cgs tran ...201931712686
ultrastructure of telocytes, a new type of interstitial cells in the myocardium of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus).telocytes (tcs) are new interstitial cells, and they are involved in tissue regeneration, particularly in heart. therefore, tcs are suggested to be a promising cell in regenerative medicine. however, the information of location structural characteristics and functions of tcs is still limited. in this study, cardiac tcs of the chinese giant salamanders (andrias davidianus) were identified by transmission electron microscopy. tcs were located in the interstitium between cardiomyocytes (cm). tcs po ...201931122004
divergent transcriptomic responses underlying the ranaviruses-amphibian interaction processes on interspecies infection of chinese giant salamander.ranaviruses (family iridoviridae, nucleocytoplasmic large dna viruses) have been reported as promiscuous pathogens of cold-blooded vertebrates. rana grylio virus (rgv, a ranavirus), from diseased frog rana grylio with a genome of 105.79 kb and andrias davidianus ranavirus (adrv), from diseased chinese giant salamander (cgs) with a genome of 106.73 kb, contains 99% homologous genes.201829558886
comparative transcriptome reveal the potential adaptive evolutionary genes in andrias search the evidence of molecular evolution mechanism for aquatic and cave habitat in andrias davidianus, the evolution analysis was carried out among several species transcriptome data. the transcriptome data of notophthalmus viridescens, xenopus tropicalis, cynops pyrrhogaster, hynobius chinensis and a. davidianus were obtained from the genbank and reassembled except xenopus tropicalis. the blast search of transcriptome data obtained 1244 single-copy orthologous genes among five species. a p ...201829483849
species range shifts in response to climate change and human pressure for the world's largest amphibian.the chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus, the world's largest amphibian, is critically endangered and has an extremely unique evolutionary history. therefore, this species represents a global conservation priority and will be impacted by future climate and human pressures. understanding the range and response to environmental change of this species is a priority for the identification of targeted conservation activities. we projected future range shifts of the chinese giant salamander un ...202032485455
identification and functional analysis of two interferon regulatory factor 3 genes and their involvement in antiviral immune responses in the chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus.interferon regulatory factor 3 (irf3), a crucial member of interferon regulatory factor (irf) family, plays an important role in innate immunity in vertebrates. however, there are no reports on the characterization and especially their respective functional analysis of two irf3 genes in some species. in this study, two irf3 genes as well as their roles in the immune response were identified and investigated in chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus. the complete open reading frames of adir ...202032311388
differential proteomic analysis of chinese giant salamander liver in response to fasting.chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus has strong tolerance to starvation. fasting triggers a complex array of adaptive metabolic responses, a process in which the liver plays a central role. here, a high-throughput proteomic analysis was carried out on liver samples obtained from adult a. davidianus after 3, 7, and 11 months of fasting. as a result, the expression levels of 364 proteins were significantly changed in the fasted liver. functional analysis demonstrated that the expression lev ...202032256382
characterization, expression pattern and antiviral activities of mx gene in chinese giant salamander, andrias, myxovirus resistance is an important interferon-stimulated protein that mediates antiviral responses. in this study, the expression and activities of chinese giant salamander, andrias davidianus mx gene, admx, were investigated. the admx cdna sequence contains an open reading frame (orf) of 2112 nucleotides, encoding a putative protein of 703 aa. meanwhile, admx possesses the conserved tripartite gtp binding motif and a dynamin family signature. qrt-pcr analysis revealed a broad expression o ...202032213935
andrias davidianus ranavirus 1r encoding a delayed-early protein promotes cell proliferation by driving cell cycle progression into s phase.andrias davidianus ranavirus 1r (adrv-1r), a core gene of the family iridoviridae, is predicted to encode a viral transcription factor (vtf) since the protein contains a virus late transcription factor-3 like (vltf3 like) domain. however, its characteristics and function are still unclear. in this study, the transcription and expression of adrv-1r were investigated in chinese giant salamander thymus cells (gstcs). adrv-1r transcription starts 6 hours post-infection (hpi), while the protein expre ...202032180414
network pharmacology study on the pharmacological mechanism of cinobufotalin injection against lung cancer.cinobufotalin injection, extracted from the skin of chinese giant salamander or black sable, has good clinical effect against lung cancer. however, owing to its complex composition, the pharmacological mechanism of cinobufotalin injection has not been fully clarified. this study aimed to explore the mechanism of action of cinobufotalin injection against lung cancer using network pharmacology and bioinformatics. compounds of cinobufotalin injection were determined by literature retrieval, and pot ...202032148531
the first evidence of four transcripts from two interleukin 18 genes in animal and their involvement in immune responses in the largest amphibian andrias davidianus.interleukin 18 (il-18), a member of il-1 cytokine superfamily, is an important proinflammatory cytokine with multiple functions in both innate immunity and acquired immunity. however, the characteristics and functional roles of il-18 remain largely unknown in amphibians, which were classed as major group of vertebrates. in the present study, two il-18 genes (adil-18a and adil-18b) and four transcripts (adil-18a1, adil-18a2, adil-18b1 and adil-18b2) were firstly identified and characterized from ...202031881236
chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) iridovirus infection leads to apoptotic cell death through mitochondrial damage, caspases activation, and expression of apoptotic-related genes.chinese giant salamander iridovirus (gsiv) is the causative pathogen of chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus) iridovirosis, leading to severe infectious disease and huge economic losses. however, the infection mechanism by gsiv is far from clear. in this study, a chinese giant salamander muscle (gsm) cell line is used to investigate the mechanism of cell death during gsiv infection. microscopy observation and dna ladder analysis revealed that dna fragmentation happens during gsiv infecti ...201931817556
rna-seq analysis provides insight into molecular adaptations of andrias davidianus.the chinese giant salamander andrias davidianus is regarded as an ideal model for studying local adaptations, such as longevity, tolerance to starvation, and cutaneous respiration. transcriptome analysis is useful for studying the large and complex genomes of amphibians. based on the coding gene set of adult a. davidianus, dozens of a. davidianus-specific genes were identified and three signaling pathway (jak-stat, hif-1, and foxo) genes were expanded as compared with other amphibians. the resul ...201931734771
interaction between two iridovirus core proteins and their effects on ranavirus (rgv) replication in cells from different species.the two putative proteins rgv-63r and rgv-91r encoded by rana grylio virus (rgv) are dna polymerase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) respectively, and are core proteins of iridoviruses. here, the interaction between rgv-63r and rgv-91r was detected by a yeast two-hybrid (y2h) assay and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation (co-ip) assays. subsequently, rgv-63r or rgv-91r were expressed alone or co-expressed in two kinds of aquatic animal cells including amphibian chinese giant ...201931060251
a transmembrane domain of andrias davidianus ranavirus 13r is crucial for co-localization to endoplasmic reticulum and viromatrix.13r, a core gene of andrias davidianus ranavirus (adrv), encoded a protein containing a transmembrane domain (tmd) and a restriction endonuclease-like domain. however, the characterization and function of 13r and the protein it encodes remain unclear. in this study, chinese giant salamander thymus cell (gstc) was used to investigate the function of 13r. the results showed that the 13r transcripts were detected first at 8 h post-infection (hpi) by rt-pcr and the protein was detected first at 24 h ...201931696038
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