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new sesquiterpenoid from the mushroom sparassis crispa.a new sesquiterpenoid (1) was isolated from the mushroom, sparassis crispa, along with a known sesquiterpenoid (2). the structure of 1 was determined as (3r(*), 3as(*), 4s(*), 8ar(*))-3-(1'-hydroxy-1'-methylethyl)-5,8a-dimethyldecahydroazulen-4-ol by the combination of nmr and esi-ms analyses.200919129625
induction of dendritic cell maturation by β-glucan isolated from sparassis crispa.sparassis crispa is a medicinal mushroom containing high 6-branched 1,3-β-d-glucan (sparan) content, which exhibits immune-mediated antitumor activity. in the present study, we investigated the stimulating effect of sparan on phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells (dcs). phenotypic maturation was confirmed by the elevated expressions of cd40, cd80, cd86, and mhc-i/ii molecules. functional activation was proved by increased cytokine production of il-12, il-1β, tnf-α, and ifn-α/β, ...201020699131
mitogen activated protein kinases are prime signalling enzymes in nitric oxide production induced by soluble β-glucan from sparassis crispa.sparassis crispa (sc) is an edible mushroom that harbours β-glucans reported to possess immunostimulatory and anticancer properties. the role of sc in regulating the functional activation of macrophages is yet to be fully elucidated. the objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the immune-stimulatory function of sparassis crispa soluble β-glucan (sc-sg) on macrophages. according to this study, sc-sg was able to stimulate nitric oxide (no) production as well a ...201021116778
beneficial effect of sparassis crispa on stroke through activation of akt/enos pathway in brain of shrsp.sparassis crispa (s. crispa) is a mushroom used as a natural medicine that recently became cultivatable in japan. in this study, we investigated not only the preventive effects of s. crispa against stroke and hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (shrsp) but also the mechanism involved by using studies of the cerebral cortex at a young age. six-week-old male shrsp were divided into 2 groups, a control group and an s. crispa group administered 1.5% s. crispa in feed, and we ...201021076883
novel phthalide compounds from sparassis crispa (hanabiratake), hanabiratakelide a-c, exhibiting anti-cancer related activity.sparassis crispa (sc), known as hanabiratake in japanese, is an edible mushroom with various medicinal properties. we isolated 3 novel phthalides, designated hanabiratakelide a (1), b (2), and c (3), from the sc fruit body. in this investigation, 3 known phthalides (4-6), ubiquinone-9, and 2 known unsaturated fatty acids were also isolated. their structures were elucidated primarily through extensive nmr experiments. the isolated compounds 1-6 were tested for their anti-oxidant activity. the in ...201020686231
granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor is required for cytokine induction by a highly 6-branched 1,3-β-d-glucan from aureobasidium pullulans in mouse-derived splenocytes.we have previously obtained and elucidated the precise structure of a highly branched 1,3-β-d-glucan (with 6-monoglucopyranosyl side chains), aureobasidium pullulans-fermented β-d-glucan (ap-fbg), from the fungus a. pullulans. however, the mechanism(s) of the effects of ap-fbg on in vitro mouse primary cells have not been analyzed in detail. herein, we report that the induction of cytokines by ap-fbg was dependent on the existence of a granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf); t ...201120672970
new method development for nanoparticle extraction of water-soluble beta-(1-->3)-d-glucan from edible mushrooms, sparassis crispa and phellinus linteus.sparassis crispa and phellinus linteus are edible/medicinal mushrooms that have remarkably high contents of beta-(1-->3)-d-glucan, which acts as a biological response modifier, but difficulty in cultivating the fruiting bodies and extraction of beta-d-glucan have restricted detailed studies. therefore, a novel process for nanoparticle extraction of sparan, the beta-d-glucan from sparassis crispa, and phellin, the beta-d-glucan from phellinus linteus, has been investigated using insoluble tungste ...200919227977
highly expressed dectin-1 on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells regulates the sensitivity to beta-glucan in dba/2 mice.sparassis crispa beta-glucan (scg) is a major six-branched 1,3-beta-d-glucan in s. crispa fr. showing antitumor activity. we previously found that dba/1 and dba/2 mice are highly sensitive to scg in vivo and in vitro. in this study, we investigated the effect of scg on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (bmdcs) in dba/2 mice in vitro. scg increased the expression of cd80, mhc class i and mhc class ii molecules on the cell membrane of bmdcs. scg induced bmdcs to produce interleukin-12p70 (il-12p ...200818729738
proteomics of two cultivated mushrooms sparassis crispa and hericium erinaceum provides insight into their numerous functional protein components and diversity.mushroom can be defined as a macrofungus with a distinctive fruiting body. mushrooms of class basidiomycete are primarily wood degradation fungi, but serve as food and a part of traditional medicine used by humans. although their life cycle is fairly well-established, the information on the molecular components, especially proteins are very limited. here, we report proteomics analysis of two edible mushrooms (fruiting bodies) sparassis crispa and hericium erinaceum using one- and two-dimensional ...200818380476
contribution of dectin-1 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (gm-csf) to immunomodulating actions of beta-glucan.beta-glucans are major cell wall structural components in fungi. as they are not found in animals, these carbohydrates are considered to be classic pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps), and are recognized by the innate immune system. although their immunomodulating activities have been shown to be associated with the recognition of some fungi, and with their medicinal properties in the field of cancer immunotherapy, it is still unclear how beta-glucans mediate their effects. recent stu ...200818328447
current analytical methods to study plant water extracts: the example of two mushrooms species, inonotus hispidus and sparassis crispa.the analytical study of two hot-water extracts from the mushrooms inonotus hispidus (bull.) p. karst and sparassis crispa wulf.:fr was performed by nmr, hplc-pad-ms and gc-ms. the simultaneous use of different analytical techniques highlighted the diverse classes of natural products contained in these extracts. this study describes an attempt to adapt a useful phytochemical method to the direct investigation of plant water extracts, which represent the typical traditional manner for the administ ...200717260696
a peptide with hiv-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from the medicinal mushroom russula paludosa.hot water extracts of 16 species of mushrooms, including both edible and medicinal mushrooms, were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-1 reverse transcriptase (rt) inhibitory activity. extracts of lactarius camphoratus, trametes suaveolens, sparassis crispa, pleurotus sajor-caju, pleurotus pulmonarius, and russula paludosa elicited over 50% inhibition when tested at the concentration of 1 mg/ml. the extract of r. paludosa demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on hiv-1 rt (97.6 ...200717113195
cell to cell contact through icam-1-lfa-1 and tnf-alpha synergistically contributes to gm-csf and subsequent cytokine synthesis in dba/2 mice induced by 1,3-beta-d-glucan scg.scg is a major 6-branched 1,3-beta-d-glucan in sparassis crispa fr. showing antitumor activity. we recently found that the splenocytes from naive dba/1 and dba/2 mice are potently induced by scg to produce interferon- gamma (ifn-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf), and interleukin-12p70 (il-12p70), and that gm-csf plays a key biologic role among these cytokines. in this study, we investigated the contribution of cell-cell con ...200616704300
[sparassis crispa as biological response modifier].sparassis crispa (sc, hanabiratake), an edible mushroom which contains beta (1 --> 6) branched beta (1 --> 3) glucan in large quantities, was studied on its immunomodulative effect. as a result, (1) tumor size of sarcoma 180-bearing mice was smaller than that of control group after 5 weeks by oral administration of sc, and thus their survival was prolonged. (2) by administering sc orally, a blood ige level and scratching index of nc/nga mice, which had been induced dermatitis by a continuous app ...200415553707
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) regulates cytokine induction by 1,3-beta-d-glucan scg in dba/2 mice in vitro.sparassis crispa fr. is an edible/medicinal mushroom that recently became cultivable in japan. scg is a major 6-branched 1,3-beta-d-glucan in s. crispa showing antitumor activity. we recently found that the splenocytes from naive dba/1 and dba/2 mice strongly react with scg to produce interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma). in this study, cytokines induced by scg were screened and found to be ifn-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf), and ...200415320961
antibody to soluble 1,3/1,6-beta-d-glucan, scg in sera of naive dba/2 mice.a branched beta-glucan from sparassis crispa (scg) is a major 6-branched 1,3-beta-d-glucan showing antitumor activity. in the present study, we examined the anti-scg antibody in naive mice by elisa. using scg coated plate, sera of naive dba/1 and dba/2 mice contained significantly higher titers of antibody than other strains of mice. anti-scg ab titers of each dba/1 and dba/2 mice were significantly varied. using various polysaccharide-coated plate, sera of dba/2 mice also reacted with a beta-gl ...200312913284
ifn-gamma induction by scg, 1,3-beta-d-glucan from sparassis crispa, in dba/2 mice in vitro.sparassis crispa fr. in an edible mushroom recently cultivable in japan. a branched beta-glucan from s. crispa (scg) is a major 6-branched 1,3-beta-d-glucan showing antitumor activity. in this study, we examined interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) induction by scg from splenocytes in dba/2 mice in vitro. in the splenocytes derived from almost all inbred strains of mice except for dba/1 and dba/2 mice, ifn-gamma production was not induced by scg. the breeder and genders of dba/2 mice showed no influence ...200212581496
effect of scg, 1,3-beta-d-glucan from sparassis crispa on the hematopoietic response in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice.sparassis crispa fr. is an edible mushroom recently cultivable in japan. it contains a remarkably high content of 6-branched 1,3-beta-d-glucan showing antitumor activity. using ion-exchange chromatography, a purified beta-glucan preparation, scg, was prepared. in this study, we examined the hematopoietic response by scg in cyclophosphamide (cy)-induced leukopenic mice. scg enhanced the hematopoietic response in cy induced leukopenic mice by intraperitoneal routes over a wide range of concentrati ...200212132673
properties and potential applications of the culinary-medicinal cauliflower mushroom, sparassis crispa wulf.:fr. (aphyllophoromycetideae): a review.sparassis crispa is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that has recently become popular in korea, china, japan, germany, and the usa. s. crispa is a good source of food and nutraceuticals, or dietary supplements, due to its rich flavor compounds and beta-glucan content. this review is a comprehensive summary of its distribution, growth, management, general constituents, functional ingredients, as well as its current and potential medicinal and other applications.201122135894
anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic effects of beta-1,3-d-glucan purified from hanabiratake, sparassis crispa.sparassis crispa (sc), hanabiratake in japanese, is an edible mushroom with medicinal properties, that contains more than 40% beta-d-glucan. it was concluded from results of the methylation study that beta-d-glucan from sc (sbg) was composed of a backbone of beta-(1-->3)-linked d-glucopyranosyl residues, and had beta-d-glucopyranosyl groups joined through o-6 and o-2 of d-glucose of the backbone. we purified sbg and investigated its anti-angiogenic functions and anti-metastatic effects on neopla ...200919182386
enhanced cytokine synthesis of leukocytes by a beta-glucan preparation, scg, extracted from a medicinal mushroom, sparassis crispa.sparassis crispa is edible mushroom recently cultivable in japan. it contains significantly high content (approximately 40%) of 6-branched 1,3-beta-d-glucan showing antitumor activity in mice. we recently purified a beta-glucan preparation designated as "scg." it was considered worth while to test scg in vitro with whole blood collected from human volunteers. the present study is focusing on the cytokine productivity of scg in an in vitro human system. the following results were observed: (i) sc ...200319180796
effects of medicinal mushroom (sparassis crispa) on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.the impaired wound healing in diabetes mellitus is a major clinical problem. sparassis crispa (sc) is a medicinal mushroom and its beta-glucan content is more than 40%. this study investigated whether oral administration of sc could improve the impaired wound healing in diabetic rats.200918585672
nmr characterization of the structure of a beta-(1-->3)-d-glucan isolate from cultured fruit bodies of sparassis crispa.scg, a purified beta-d-glucan, obtained from sparassis crispa, exhibits various biological activities including an antitumor effect, enhancement of the hematopoietic response in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice, and induction of the production of cytokines. the mechanisms of these effects have been extensively investigated; however, an unambiguous structural characterization of scg is yet to be achieved. it is well accepted that the biological effects of beta-glucan depend on its primary ...200717868661
novel bioactive compound from the sparassis crispa mushroom.a novel compound (2) and a known one (1) were isolated from the mushroom, sparassis crispa. both compounds inhibited melanin synthesis and mrsa growth.200717617705
mechanism of enhanced hematopoietic response by soluble beta-glucan scg in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.scg is a major 6-branched 1,3-beta-d-glucan in sparassis crispa fr. scg shows antitumor activity and also enhances the hematopoietic response in cyclophosphamide (cy)-treated mice. in the present study, the molecular mechanism of the enhancement of the hematopoietic response was investigated. the levels of interferon-(ifn-)gamma, tumor necrosis factor-(tnf-)alpha, granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (gm-csf), interleukin-(il-) 6 and il-12p70 were significantly increased by scg in cy ...200616985290
induction of human neutrophil chemotaxis by candida albicans-derived beta-1,6-long glycoside side-chain-branched beta-glucan.polysaccharide beta-1,3-d-glucans (beta-glucans) are components of the cell wall of various fungi and show immunomodulatory activities. beta-glucans have been reported to enhance neutrophil accumulation during pathogenic fungi-induced lung inflammation. therefore, we examined whether beta-glucans themselves possess chemotactic activities for human neutrophils. among several kinds of beta-glucans, beta-1,6-long glucosyl side-chain-branched beta-glucan, isolated from candida albicans [candida solu ...200616670126
soy isoflavone aglycone modulates a hematopoietic response in combination with soluble beta-glucan: scg.soy isoflavone aglycones (ifas) have a wide range of biological actions that suggest they may be of use in cancer prevention. on the other hand, a branched beta-glucan from sparassis crispa (scg) is a major 6-branched 1,3-beta-d-glucan in an edible/medicinal mushroom: sparassis crispa showing antitumor activity. we have previously reported that both oral and intraperitoneal administration of scg enhanced the hematopoietic response in cyclophosphamide (cy)-induced leukopenic mice. in this study, ...200516327179
antitumor 1,3-beta-glucan from cultured fruit body of sparassis crispa.sparassis crispa is an edible mushroom recently cultivable in japan. polysaccharide fractions were prepared from the cultured s. crispa by repeated extraction with hot water (schwe), cold naoh (scca), and then hot naoh (scha). hwe was further separated by 1 volume (schwe1v) or 4 volumes (schwe4v) of ethanol-precipitable fractions. by chemical, enzymic, and nmr analyses, the primary structures of schwe1v, scca, and scha were 6-branched 1,3-beta-glucan, having one branch in approximately every thi ...200010919368
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