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mosquito species collected from a marsh in western kenya during the long rains.a total of 475,431 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 43 species were collected from a marsh in the western kenya highlands to determine species composition and succession in relation to the epidemiology of rift valley fever virus. culex pipiens was the most common species, totalling 92.3% of the collection, followed by cx. zombaensis (2.2%), anopheles coustani (1.1%), an. squamosus (0.8%), mansonia uniformis (0.6%), coquillettidia microannulatus (0.5%), uranotaenia mashonaensis (0.5%), ma. af ...19911686445
development of filarial parasites in mosquitos in north-east tanzania.natural populations of 6 species of mosquito-anopheles tenebrosus, taeniorynchus (mansonioides) africanus, taeniorynchus (mansonioides) uniformis, anopheles coustani, anopheles ziemanni, and anopheles pharoensis-were examined for filarial parasites. infective stages of dirofilaria immitis were found in the first 3 of these species, which are therefore considered vectors. laboratory studies to see whether or not any of the 6 could potentially transmit wucheria bancrofti showed only a. tenebrosus ...19734151063
anopheles arabiensis and an. funestus are equally important vectors of malaria in matola coastal suburb of maputo, southern mozambique.transmission characteristics of malaria were studied in matola, a coastal suburb of maputo, the capital city, in southern mozambique, from november 1994 to april 1996. the local climate alternates between cool dry season (may-october) and hot rainy season (november-april) with mean annual rainfall 650-850 mm. saltmarsh and freshwater pools provide mosquito breeding sites in matola. malaria prevalence reached approximately 60% among people living nearest to the main breeding sites of the vectors. ...200010872861
an outbreak of rift valley fever in northeastern kenya, 1997-98.in december 1997, 170 hemorrhagic fever-associated deaths were reported in garissa district, kenya. laboratory testing identified evidence of acute rift valley fever virus (rvfv). of the 171 persons enrolled in a cross-sectional study, 31(18%) were anti-rvfv immunoglobulin (ig) m positive. an age-adjusted igm antibody prevalence of 14% was estimated for the district. we estimate approximately 27,500 infections occurred in garissa district, making this the largest recorded outbreak of rvfv in eas ...200211897064
amplification of the sylvatic cycle of dengue virus type 2, senegal, 1999-2000: entomologic findings and epidemiologic considerations.after 8 years of silence, dengue virus serotype 2 (denv-2) reemerged in southeastern senegal in 1999. sixty-four denv-2 strains were isolated in 1999 and 9 strains in 2000 from mosquitoes captured in the forest gallery and surrounding villages. isolates were obtained from previously described vectors, aedes furcifer, ae. taylori, ae. luteocephalus, and--for the first time in senegal--from ae. aegypti and ae. vittatus. a retrospective analysis of sylvatic denv-2 outbreaks in senegal during the la ...200312643833
isolations of bwamba virus from south central uganda and north eastern tanzania.bwamba virus (genus bunyavirus, family bunyaviridae) is widely distributed in africa. it causes many unidentified fevers because of its benign nature.200212789111
experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl) or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin) alone and in combination against insecticide-resistant anopheles gambiae and culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of africa. it is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethroids for use on treated nets. certain compounds of an earlier generation of insecticides, the organophosphates may have potential as net treatments.200515918909
biting behavior and plasmodium infection rates of anopheles arabiensis from sille, ethiopia.the man-biting behavior and plasmodium infection rates of anopheline mosquitoes were investigated in sille, a hyperendemic malarious area in southern ethiopia. seven anopheles species were identified from all night landing collections, conducted from 18:00 to 06:00h between october 2001 and august 2002. the predominant species was anopheles arabiensis (55.8%), followed by anopheles coustani (31.5%), anopheles pharoensis (9.5%), anopheles funestus (2.2%), anopheles nili (0.5%), anopheles marshall ...200616171769
mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in a riceland agroecosystem in mwea, kenya.we conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in the mwea rice scheme, kenya. adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses and outdoors by cdc light traps in three villages representing planned (mbuinjeru) and unplanned (kiamachiri) rice agroecosystems and a non-irrigated agroecosystem (murinduko). during the 12-month sampling period, a total of 98,708 mosquitoes belonging to five genera and 25 species were ...200616859101
complexity of the malaria vectorial system in cameroon: contribution of secondary vectors to malaria transmission.malaria transmission in africa is a dynamic and complex system that is so far superficially understood. further knowledge is required to improve control of the disease. in the present report, we highlight the contribution of the so-called "secondary" malaria vectors to the overall parasite transmission intensity in several sites across cameroon, through a retrospective analysis of surveys from the organisation de coordination pour la lutte contre les endémies en afrique centrale database. in tot ...200617162956
mosquito species succession and physicochemical factors affecting their abundance in rice fields in mwea, kenya.the succession of mosquito species and abiotic factors affecting their distribution and abundance in rice (oryza spp.) fields was investigated over a 16-wk rice growing cycle covering the period between january and may 2006. fifteen experimental rice plots were sampled for mosquito larvae and characterized based on rice height, number of tillers, floating vegetation cover, water depth, water temperature, turbidity, salinity, ph, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. microsc ...200717427706
malaria in africa: vector species' niche models and relative risk maps.a central theoretical goal of epidemiology is the construction of spatial models of disease prevalence and risk, including maps for the potential spread of infectious disease. we provide three continent-wide maps representing the relative risk of malaria in africa based on ecological niche models of vector species and risk analysis at a spatial resolution of 1 arc-minute (9 185 275 cells of approximately 4 sq km). using a maximum entropy method we construct niche models for 10 malaria vector spe ...200717786196
interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban dar es salaam, tanzania.successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. here mosquito biting patterns in dar es salaam, tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (itn) is estimated.200717880679
bionomics of malaria vectors and relationship with malaria transmission and epidemiology in three physiographic zones in the senegal river basin.following the implementation of two dams in the senegal river, entomological and parasitological studies were conducted in three different ecological zones in the senegal river basin (the low valley of senegal river, the guiers lake area and the low valley of ferlo) every 3 month in june 2004, september 2004, december 2004 and march 2005. the objective of this work was to study the influence of environmental heterogeneities on vector bionomics and malaria epidemiology. mosquitoes were collected ...200818068685
a tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the urban malaria control programme in dar es salaam, tanzania.as the population of africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed.200818218148
host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in mwea rice scheme, kenya.studies were conducted between april 2004 and february 2006 to determine the blood-feeding pattern of anopheles mosquitoes in mwea kenya.200818312667
recent reduction in the water level of lake victoria has created more habitats for anopheles funestus.the water level of lake victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. this study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors.200818598355
contribution of different aquatic habitats to adult anopheles arabiensis and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) production in a rice agroecosystem in mwea, kenya.studies were conducted to determine the contribution of diverse larval habitats to adult anopheles arabiensis patton and culex quinquefasciatus say production in a rice land agro-ecosystem in mwea, kenya. two sizes of cages were placed in different habitat types to investigate the influence of non-mosquito invertebrates on larval mortalities and the contribution of each habitat type to mosquito productivities, respectively. these emergence traps had fine netting material covers to prevent adult ...200818697315
pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector anopheles arabiensis from gwave, a malaria-endemic area in zimbabwe.insecticide resistance can present a major obstacle to malaria control programmes. following the recent detection of ddt resistance in anopheles arabiensis in gokwe, zimbabwe, the underlying resistance mechanisms in this population were studied.200819038063
use of integrated malaria management reduces malaria in kenya.during an entomological survey in preparation for malaria control interventions in mwea division, the number of malaria cases at the kimbimbi sub-district hospital was in a steady decline. the underlying factors for this reduction were unknown and needed to be identified before any malaria intervention tools were deployed in the area. we therefore set out to investigate the potential factors that could have contributed to the decline of malaria cases in the hospital by analyzing the malaria cont ...200819115000
identifying the most productive breeding sites for malaria mosquitoes in the gambia.ideally larval control activities should be targeted at sites that generate the most adult vectors, thereby reducing operational costs. despite the plethora of potential mosquito breeding sites found in the floodplains of the gambia river, about 150 km from its mouth, during the rainy season, only a small proportion are colonized by anophelines on any day. this study aimed to determine the characteristics of larval habitats most frequently and most densely populated by anopheline larvae and to e ...200919361337
malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in goulmoun, a rural city in south-western chad.knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as entomological inoculation rates (eir) is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors. in chad, most published surveys date back to the 1960's. in this study, anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry sudanian savannas area of chad.200919463189
comparative evaluation of the ifakara tent trap-b, the standardized resting boxes and the human landing catch for sampling malaria vectors and other mosquitoes in urban dar es salaam, tanzania.frequent, sensitive and accurate sampling of anopheles mosquitoes is a prerequisite for effective management of malaria vector control programmes. the most reliable existing means to measure mosquito density is the human landing catch (hlc). however, the hlc technique raises major ethical concerns because of the necessity to expose humans to vectors of malaria and a variety of other pathogens. furthermore, it is a very arduous undertaking that requires intense supervision, which is severely limi ...200919674477
habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western kenya highlands.although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control.200919845968
field site selection: getting it right first time around.the selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (sit) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be ...200919917079
land use and land cover changes and spatiotemporal dynamics of anopheline larval habitats during a four-year period in a highland community of africa.spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of anopheline larval habitats and land use and land cover (lulc) changes can influence malaria transmission intensity. this information is important for understanding the environmental determinants of malaria transmission heterogeneity, and it is critical to the study of the effects of environmental changes on malaria transmission. in this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of anopheline larval habita ...200919996440
habitat suitability and ecological niche profile of major malaria vectors in cameroon.suitability of environmental conditions determines a species distribution in space and time. understanding and modelling the ecological niche of mosquito disease vectors can, therefore, be a powerful predictor of the risk of exposure to the pathogens they transmit. in africa, five anophelines are responsible for over 95% of total malaria transmission. however, detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution and ecological requirements of these species is to date still inadequate.200920028559
distribution of the main malaria vectors in kenya.a detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main anopheles malaria vectors in kenya should guide national vector control strategies. however, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant anopheles vectors including anopheles gambiae, anopheles arabiensis, anopheles merus, anopheles funestus, anopheles pharoensis and anopheles nili are lacking. the methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in k ...201020202199
role of culex and anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in sudan outbreak, 2007.rift valley fever (rvf) is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family bunyaviridae. rvf virus (rvfv) is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the culex, anopheles and aedes genera.201020222979
bionomics of anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in western cameroon.highland areas of africa are mostly malaria hypoendemic, due to climate which is not appropriate for anophelines development and their reproductive fitness. in view of designing a malaria control strategy in western cameroon highlands, baseline data on anopheline species bionomics were collected.201020482824
rift valley fever virus epidemic in kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations.in december 2006, rift valley fever (rvf) was diagnosed in humans in garissa hospital, kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of rvf virus (rvfv). approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for rvfv by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested po ...201020682903
anopheles larval abundance and diversity in three rice agro-village complexes mwea irrigation scheme, central kenya.the diversity and abundance of anopheles larvae has significant influence on the resulting adult mosquito population and hence the dynamics of malaria transmission. studies were conducted to examine larval habitat dynamics and ecological factors affecting survivorship of aquatic stages of malaria vectors in three agro-ecological settings in mwea, kenya.201020691120
culicidae diversity, malaria transmission and insecticide resistance alleles in malaria vectors in ouidah-kpomasse-tori district from benin (west africa): a pre-intervention study.abstract:201020819214
sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito anopheles gambiae.carbon dioxide (co2) plays an important role in the host-seeking process of opportunistic, zoophilic and anthropophilic mosquito species and is, therefore, commonly added to mosquito sampling tools. the african malaria vector anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is attracted to human volatiles augmented by co2. this study investigated whether co2, usually supplied from gas cylinders acquired from commercial industry, could be replaced by co2 derived from fermenting yeast (yeast-produced co2).201020973963
detection, isolation, and genetic characterization of rift valley fever virus from anopheles (anopheles) coustani, anopheles (anopheles) squamosus, and culex (culex) antennatus of the haute matsiatra region, madagascar.abstract following veterinary alerts of rift valley fever (rvf) in the districts of fianarantsoa i and ii in november 2008 and in the district of ambalavao in april 2009, entomological and virological investigations were carried out to identify the mosquito species that could act as rvf virus (rvfv) vectors in the region. a total of 12,785 adult mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 21 species were collected. after identification, mosquitoes were pooled by species, sex, and female status (fed or ...201021028960
identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in zambia.malaria, caused by the parasite plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern zambia. in the mapanza chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. the ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures.201021050496
unexpected anthropophily in the potential secondary malaria vectors anopheles coustani s.l. and anopheles squamosus in macha, zambia.abstract anopheles coustani s.l. and anopheles squamosus are sub-saharan mosquito species that have been implicated in malaria transmission. although generally believed to be of negligible importance due to their overwhelmingly zoophilic behavior, an. coustani s.l. and an. squamosus made up a large proportion of the anophelines collected by human landing catches during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 rainy seasons in macha, zambia. further, polymerase chain reaction-based blood meal identification s ...201021142969
dry season ecology of anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in baringo, kenya.pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. the objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.201121352608
a longitudinal study on anopheles mosquito larval abundance in distinct geographical and environmental settings in western kenya.abstract:201121477340
productivity of malaria vectors from different habitat types in the western kenya highlands.mosquito larval source management (lsm) could be a valuable additional tool for integrated malaria vector control especially in areas with focal transmission like the highlands of western kenya if it were not for the need to target all potential habitats at frequent intervals. the ability to determine the productivity of malaria vectors from identified habitats might be used to target lsm only at productive ones.201121559301
plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a kenyan experience from the dry lands of baringo and its implications for anopheles arabiensis control.abstract: background: the ecology of malaria vectors particularly in semi-arid areas of africa is poorly understood. accurate knowledge on this subject will boost current efforts to reduce the burden of malaria in sub-saharan africa. the objective of this study was to describe the dynamics of malaria transmission in two model semi-arid sites (kamarimar and tirion) in baringo in kenya. methods: adult mosquitoes were collected indoors by pyrethrum spray collections (psc) and outdoors by centers fo ...201121569546
mosquito species abundance and diversity in malindi, kenya and their potential implication in pathogen transmission.mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. mosquitoes are found both in rural and urban areas. deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. the objective of this study was to evaluate the mosquito vector abundance and ...201121626425
development of environmental tools for anopheline larval control.malaria mosquitoes spend a considerable part of their life in the aquatic stage, rendering them vulnerable to interventions directed to aquatic habitats. recent successes of mosquito larval control have been reported using environmental and biological tools. here, we report the effects of shading by plants and biological control agents on the development and survival of anopheline and culicine mosquito larvae in man-made natural habitats in western kenya. trials consisted of environmental manipu ...201121733150
spatial and temporal distribution patterns of anopheles arabiensis breeding sites in la reunion island - multi-year trend analysis of historical records from 1996-2009.abstract:201121708013
zika virus: a review from the virus basics to proposed management strategies.this review aims to summarize the body of knowledge available on zika virus to date. a comprehensive review of the scientific literature on zika virus was performed with the aim to stress relevant aspects for healthcare professionals in the non-endemic areas. for several years, the zika virus infection was considered an extremely rare exotic disease with poor clinical relevance. however, zika virus has recently gained the attention of the scientific community and public opinion since the virus s ...201627872736
eilat virus, a unique alphavirus with host range restricted to insects by rna replication.most alphaviruses and many other arboviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. consequently, they can be propagated in most vertebrate and insect cell cultures. this ability of arboviruses to infect arthropods and vertebrates is usually essential for their maintenance in nature. however, several flaviviruses have recently been described that infect mosquitoes but not vertebrates ...201222908261
larval habitat characteristics of the genus anopheles (diptera: culicidae) and a checklist of mosquitoes in guilan province, northern iran.ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. there is scattered published information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus anopheles (diptera: culicidae) in iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern iran.201122808409
scoping review of the zika virus literature.the global primary literature on zika virus (zikv) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to march 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on zikv has been published since 2011. the articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of zikv (surveillance an ...201627244249
zika virus: the latest newcomer.since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: west nile, influenza a, avian flu, dengue, chikungunya, sars, mers, ebola, and now zika, the latest newcomer. zika virus (zikv), a flavivirus transmitted by aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in uganda, and later on in humans in nigeria. the virus was mainly confined to the african continent until it was detected in south-east asia the 1980's, t ...201627148186
zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern senegal, 2011.zika virus (zikv; genus flavivirus, family flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in african and asian forests. spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in french polynesia. zikv amplifications are frequent in southeastern senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. the aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal pa ...201425310102
insect-specific viruses and their potential impact on arbovirus transmission.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are the causative agents of significant morbidity and mortality among humans and animals globally. in the past few years, the widespread adoption of next generation sequencing and metagenomics has led to a new era of virus discovery, where many novel viruses have been documented, exhibiting a restricted host-range in mosquitoes. they represent a wide-range of insect-specific viruses within the families of bunyaviridae, flaviviridae, mesoniviridae, reoviridae ...201526322695
larvicidal efficacy of ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant juniperus procera essential oil against afrotropical malaria vector anopheles arabiensis (diptera: culicidae).to screen the essential oil of juniperus procera (j. procera) (cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of anopheles arabiensis (an. arabiensis) patton, the principle malaria vector in ethiopia.025183156
background review for diagnostic test development for zika virus infection.to review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge.027516635
review of west nile virus circulation and outbreak risk in madagascar: entomological and ornithological perspectives.west nile fever (wnf) is a zoonotic disease, occurring nearly globally. in madagascar, west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in 1978 from wild birds and the virus is currently distributed across the island, but no epidemic or epizootic period has been recorded. one fatal human case of wnv infection was reported in 2011, suggesting a "tip of the iceberg" phenomenon of a possible wnf epidemic/epizootic on the island. the main objective of this literature-based survey is to review patterns of wn ...201627849515
a spatially explicit metapopulation model and cattle trade analysis suggests key determinants for the recurrent circulation of rift valley fever virus in a pilot area of madagascar highlands.rift valley fever (rvf) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. in 2008-2009, a rvf outbreak affected the whole madagascar island, including the anjozorobe district located in madagascar highlands. an entomological survey showed the absence of aedes among the potential rvf virus (rvfv) vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. no serological nor virolog ...201425474116
negevirus: a proposed new taxon of insect-specific viruses with wide geographic distribution.six novel insect-specific viruses, isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sand flies collected in brazil, peru, the united states, ivory coast, israel, and indonesia, are described. their genomes consist of single-stranded, positive-sense rnas with poly(a) tails. by electron microscopy, the virions appear as spherical particles with diameters of ∼45 to 55 nm. based on their genome organization and phylogenetic relationship, the six viruses, designated negev, ngewotan, piura, loreto, dezidougo ...201223255793
vector competence of aedes aegypti and aedes vittatus (diptera: culicidae) from senegal and cape verde archipelago for west african lineages of chikungunya virus.to assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (chikv) in west africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban aedes aegypti and ae. vittatus from senegal and cape verde for chikv was investigated. mosquitoes were fed orally with chikv isolates from mosquitoes (ard30237), bats (cs13-288), and humans (hd180738). after 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of chikv rna was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time revers ...201425002293
high prevalence of west nile virus in domestic birds and detection in 2 new mosquito species in madagascar.west nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. its distribution is largely widespread over africa, asia, the americas and europe. since 1978, it has frequently been reported in madagascar. studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of wnv infection was reported in 2011. despite these reports, the epidemiology of ...201626807720
composition and genetic diversity of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) on islands and mainland shores of kenya's lakes victoria and baringo.the lake baringo and lake victoria regions of kenya are associated with high seroprevalence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. however, molecular identification of potential mosquito vector species, including morphologically identified ones, remains scarce. to estimate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquito vectors on the mainland shores and adjacent inhabited islands in these regions, we collected and morphologically identified adult and immature mosquitoes and obtained the co ...201627402888
larval ecology of mosquitoes in sylvatic arbovirus foci in southeastern senegal.although adult mosquito vectors of sylvatic arbovirus [yellow fever (yfv), dengue-2 (denv-2) and chikungunya (chikv)] have been studied for the past 40 years in southeastern senegal, data are still lacking on the ecology of larval mosquitoes in this area. in this study, we investigated the larval habitats of mosquitoes and characterized their seasonal and spatial dynamics in arbovirus foci.201223216815
utilization of an eilat virus-based chimera for serological detection of chikungunya infection.in december of 2013, chikungunya virus (chikv), an alphavirus in the family togaviridae, was introduced to the island of saint martin in the caribbean, resulting in the first autochthonous cases reported in the americas. as of january 2015, local and imported chikv has been reported in 50 american countries with over 1.1 million suspected cases. chikv causes a severe arthralgic disease for which there are no approved vaccines or therapeutics. furthermore, the lack of a commercially available, se ...201526492074
eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range.most alphaviruses are arthropod-borne and utilize mosquitoes as vectors for transmission to susceptible vertebrate hosts. this ability to infect both mosquitoes and vertebrates is essential for maintenance of most alphaviruses in nature. a recently characterized alphavirus, eilat virus (eilv), isolated from a pool of anopheles coustani s.i. is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. the eilv host range restriction occurs at both attachment/entry as well as genomic rna replication levels. h ...201425515341
transmission indices and microfilariae prevalence in human population prior to mass drug administration with ivermectin and albendazole in the gomoa district of ghana.the lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in ghana involves annual mass drug administration (mda) of ivermectin and albendazole to persons living in endemic areas. this is repeated annually for 4-6 years to span across the reproductive lifespan of adult worms. in order to stimulate participation of community members in the mda programme, this study was carried out to understand local views on transmission, management and prevention of the disease. the study also presents baseline transmissi ...201526503363
quantitative real-time pcr detection of zika virus and evaluation with field-caught mosquitoes.zika virus (zikv), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in asia and africa. zikv infection diagnosis relies on serology-which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of igm and igg antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. therefore, real-time rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for dete ...201324148652
an ecological assessment of the pandemic threat of zika virus.the current outbreak of zika virus poses a severe threat to human health. while the range of the virus has been cataloged growing slowly over the last 50 years, the recent explosive expansion in the americas indicates that the full potential distribution of zika remains uncertain. moreover, many studies rely on its similarity to dengue fever, a phylogenetically closely related disease of unknown ecological comparability. here we compile a comprehensive spatially-explicit occurrence dataset from ...201627564232
commensal viruses of mosquitoes: host restriction, transmission, and interaction with arboviral pathogens.recent advances in virus detection strategies and deep sequencing technologies have enabled the identification of a multitude of new viruses that persistently infect mosquitoes but do not infect vertebrates. these are usually referred to as insect-specific viruses (isvs). these novel viruses have generated considerable interest in their modes of transmission, persistence in mosquito populations, the mechanisms that restrict their host range to mosquitoes, and their interactions with pathogens tr ...201728096646
entomological monitoring and evaluation: diverse transmission settings of icemr projects will require local and regional malaria elimination strategies.the unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. these changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. integrated vector management will require focal and tailored vector control to achieve malaria elimination. ...201526259942
susceptibility status of anopheles arabiensis (diptera: culicidae) commonly used as biological materials for evaluations of malaria vector control tools in madagascar.madagascar is a malaria-endemic country with an increase in cases in recent years. in vector control using insecticide, a susceptible strain is necessary to evaluate insecticide efficacy, either for spraying or on nets. the susceptibility of anopheles arabiensis from antananarivo, madagascar to two organophosphate, three pyrethroid, two carbamate, and one organochlorine insecticides was investigated. since 2010, an. arabiensis strain has been maintained away from insecticide source during 110 ge ...201627364163
'a bite before bed': exposure to malaria vectors outside the times of net use in the highlands of western kenya.the human population in the highlands of nyanza province, western kenya, is subject to sporadic epidemics of plasmodium falciparum. indoor residual spraying (irs) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (llins) are used widely in this area. these interventions are most effective when anopheles rest and feed indoors and when biting occurs at times when individuals use llins. it is therefore important to test the current assumption of vector feeding preferences, and late night feeding times, in ...201526109384
malaria in mauritania: retrospective and prospective overview.malaria has become a major public health problem in mauritania since the 1990s, with an average of 181,000 cases per year and 2,233,066 persons at risk during 1995-2012. this paper provides the first publicly available overview of malaria incidence and distribution in mauritania. information on the burden and malaria species distribution is critical for guiding national efforts in malaria control. as the incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of epidemiological data are necessar ...201525880759
a cost-effective, community-based, mosquito-trapping scheme that captures spatial and temporal heterogeneities of malaria transmission in rural zambia.monitoring mosquito population dynamics is essential to guide selection and evaluation of malaria vector control interventions but is typically implemented by mobile, centrally-managed teams who can only visit a limited number of locations frequently enough to capture longitudinal trends. community-based (cb) mosquito trapping schemes for parallel, continuous monitoring of multiple locations are therefore required that are practical, affordable, effective, and reliable.201424906704
field study site selection, species abundance and monthly distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in the northern kruger national park, south africa.knowledge of the ecology and behaviour of a target species is a prerequisite for the successful development of any vector control strategy. before the implementation of any strategy it is essential to have comprehensive information on the bionomics of species in the targeted area. the aims of this study were to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of anopheline species in the northern kruger national park. in addition to this, the impact of weather c ...201424460920
an analysis of two island groups as potential sites for trials of transgenic mosquitoes for malaria control.considerable technological advances have been made towards the generation of genetically modified mosquitoes for vector control. in contrast, less progress has been made towards field evaluations of transformed mosquitoes which are critical for evaluating the success of, and hazards associated with, genetic modification. oceanic islands have been highlighted as potentially the best locations for such trials. however, population genetic studies are necessary to verify isolation. here, we used a p ...201323789035
phylogeny of anopheline (diptera: culicidae) species in southern africa, based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes.a phylogeny of anthropophilic and zoophilic anopheline mosquito species was constructed, using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) genes. the its2 alignment, typically difficult due to its noncoding nature and large size variations, was aided by using predicted secondary structure, making this phylogenetically useful gene more amenable to investigation. this phylogeny is unique in explicitly including zoophilic, non-vector anophel ...026047180
modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures.predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission.201424903736
reemergence of anopheles funestus as a vector of plasmodium falciparum in western kenya after long-term implementation of insecticide-treated bed nets.historically, the malaria vectors in western kenya have been anopheles funestus, anopheles gambiae s.s., and anopheles arabiensis. of these species, an. funestus populations declined the most after the introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets (itns) in the 1990s in asembo, and collections of an. funestus in the region remained low until at least 2008. contrary to findings during the early years of itn use in asembo, the majority of the anopheles collected here in 2010 and 2011 were an. funes ...201424470562
biting by anopheles funestus in broad daylight after use of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a new challenge to malaria elimination.malaria control is mainly based on indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. the efficacy of these tools depends on the behaviour of mosquitoes, which varies by species. with resistance to insecticides, mosquitoes adapt their behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction. the aim of this study was to assess the biting behaviour of anopheles funestus after the implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins).201424678587
environmentally friendly tool to control mosquito populations without risk of insecticide resistance: the lehmann's funnel entry trap.current malaria control strategies have cut down the malaria burden in many endemic areas, however the emergence and rapid spread of insecticide and drug resistance undermine the success of these efforts. there is growing concern that malaria eradication will not be achieved without the introduction of novel control tools. one approach that has been developed in the last few years is based on house screening to reduce indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decrease malaria transmissio ...201323758904
review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in zambia.a comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. this review considered data from the national health information management system, malaria surveys and programme review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria re ...023593585
haemosporidian parasites of antelopes and other vertebrates from gabon, central africa.re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. in this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of gabon (central africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. we found that samples from five mammalian spec ...201626863304
exploring the potential of using cattle for malaria vector surveillance and control: a pilot study in western kenya.malaria vector mosquitoes with exophilic and zoophilic tendencies, or with a high acceptance of alternative blood meal sources when preferred human blood-hosts are unavailable, may help maintain low but constant malaria transmission in areas where indoor vector control has been scaled up. this residual transmission might be addressed by targeting vectors outside the house. here we investigated the potential of insecticide-treated cattle, as routinely used for control of tsetse and ticks in east ...201728069065
efficient method for establishing f1 progeny from wild populations of anopheles mosquitoes.the changing malaria situation in madagascar requires additional knowledge on the physiology and behaviour of local mosquito vectors. however, the absence of established colonies for several anopheline species present in madagascar constitutes a limiting factor. to avoid labour intensive work and uncertainty for success of establishing anopheles colonies from malagasy species, field collections of blood-fed females and in-tube forced oviposition were combined to reliably produce large numbers of ...201728069024
malaria epidemiological research in the republic of congo.reliable and comprehensive information on the burden of malaria is critical for guiding national and international efforts in malaria control. the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of published data and available information on malaria resulting from field studies/investigations conducted in the republic of congo (roc) from 1992 to 2015, as baseline for assisting public health authorities and researchers to define future research priorities as well as interventions.201628010728
effect of deforestation and land use changes on mosquito productivity and development in western kenya highlands: implication for malaria risk.african highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past 50 years. however, the ever growing human population in the highlands of africa has led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing, and house construction materials needs. this has lead to the creation of suitable breeding habitats, which are in open places. decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in deforested areas. ...201627833907
similar trends of susceptibility in anopheles arabiensis and anopheles pharoensis to plasmodium vivax infection in ethiopia.around half of the global population is living in areas at risk of malaria infection. plasmodium vivax malaria has become increasingly prevalent and responsible for a high health and socio-economic burden in ethiopia. the availability of gametocyte carriers and mosquito species susceptible to p. vivax infection are vital for malaria transmission. determining the susceptibility of vector species to parasite infection in space and time is important in vector control programs. this study assesses t ...201627756355
composition and genetics of malaria vector populations in the central african republic.in many african countries malaria has declined sharply due to a synergy of actions marked by the introduction of vector control strategies, but the disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in central african republic (car). an entomological study was initiated with the aim to characterize the malaria vectors in bangui, the capital of car, and determine their vector competence.201627456078
chicken volatiles repel host-seeking malaria mosquitoes.anopheles arabiensis is a dominant vector of malaria in sub-saharan africa, which feeds indoors and outdoors on human and other vertebrate hosts, making it a difficult species to control with existing control methods. novel methods that reduce human-vector interactions are, therefore, required to improve the impact of vector control programmes. investigating the mechanisms underlying the host discrimination process in an. arabiensis could provide valuable knowledge leading to the development of ...201627439360
integrated analysis of environment, cattle and human serological data: risks and mechanisms of transmission of rift valley fever in madagascar.rift valley fever (rvf) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. madagascar was heavily affected by rvf in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. the identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting rvf surveillance in madagascar. herein, the objectives of our study were: (i) to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to rvf transmission to both cattle and human and (ii) to i ...201627415438
evaluation of a topical formulation of eprinomectin against anopheles arabiensis when administered to zebu cattle (bos indicus) under field conditions.although vector control strategies, such as insecticide-treated bed nets (itns) and indoor residual spraying (irs) have been effective in kenya the transmission of malaria continues to afflict western kenya. this residual transmission is driven in part by anopheles arabiensis, known for its opportunistic blood feeding behaviour and propensity to feed outdoors. the objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of the drug eprinomectin at reducing malaria vector density when applied to c ...201627317557
mosquito host choices on livestock amplifiers of rift valley fever virus in kenya.animal hosts may vary in their attraction and acceptability as components of the host location process for assessing preference, and biting rates of vectors and risk of exposure to pathogens. however, these parameters remain poorly understood for mosquito vectors of the rift valley fever (rvf), an arboviral disease, and for a community of mosquitoes.201627036889
seasonal dynamics, longevity, and biting activity of anopheline mosquitoes in southwestern ethiopia.continuous monitoring of vector species composition, abundance, dynamics, feeding pattern, and host finding strategy is the base to determine when, what, and how control should be implemented. thus, this study was conducted to assess entomological parameters of anopheline mosquitoes in nine villages in seka district, southwestern ethiopia, from june to december 2012. mosquito collection was carried out from selected households in each of the nine study villages using light trap catches from june ...201626798142
zoophagic behaviour of anopheline mosquitoes in southwest ethiopia: opportunity for malaria vector control.increased understanding of the feeding behaviours of malaria vectors is important to determine the frequency of human-vector contact and to implement effective vector control interventions. here we assess the relative feeding preferences of anopheles mosquitoes in relation to cattle and human host abundance in southwest ethiopia.201526684464
malaria case in madagascar, probable implication of a new vector, anopheles coustani.indoor spraying of insecticides and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets are key strategies for national malaria vector control in the central highlands of madagascar. during the year 2013, malaria outbreaks were reported by the national malaria control programme in the highlands, including the district of ankazobe.201526620552
investigating a non-mesh mosquito net among outdoor sleeping nomadic communities in kenya.rising reports of exophagic malaria vectors make even more pressing the need for alternatives to traditional, mesh, long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) designed for indoor sleeping and often inadequate in the protection of outdoor-sleeping populations. this study tests and evaluates the retention, utilization, and durability of novel, non-mesh nets designed for outdoor use. longitudinal, cross-sectional surveys were conducted, the physical condition of nets was assessed, and bio-efficacy and ...201526416107
monitoring changes in malaria epidemiology and effectiveness of interventions in ethiopia and uganda: beyond garki project baseline survey.scale-up of malaria interventions seems to have contributed to a decline in the disease but other factors may also have had some role. understanding changes in transmission and determinant factors will help to adapt control strategies accordingly.201526337671
evaluation of a protocol for remote identification of mosquito vector species reveals bg-sentinel trap as an efficient tool for anopheles gambiae outdoor collection in burkina faso.feasibility and costs of monitoring efforts aimed to monitor mosquito species are strictly dependent on the presence of skilled entomologists directly in the field. however, in several contexts this is not possible or easy to organize, thus limiting the possibility to obtain crucial information on presence/abundance of potential disease vectors and of new invasive species. digital imaging approaches could be extremely useful in the frame of medical entomology to overcome this limit. this work de ...201525888896
the past, present and future use of epidemiological intelligence to plan malaria vector control and parasite prevention in uganda.an important prelude to developing strategies to control infectious diseases is a detailed epidemiological evidence platform to target cost-effective interventions and define resource needs.201525888989
an assessment of participatory integrated vector management for malaria control in kenya.the world health organization (who) recommends integrated vector management (ivm) as a strategy to improve and sustain malaria vector control. however, this approach has not been widely adopted.201525859686
discovery of an oviposition attractant for gravid malaria vectors of the anopheles gambiae species complex.new strategies are needed to manage malaria vector populations that resist insecticides and bite outdoors. this study describes a breakthrough in developing 'attract and kill' strategies targeting gravid females by identifying and evaluating an oviposition attractant for anopheles gambiae s.l.201525885703
investigating the acceptability of non-mesh, long-lasting insecticidal nets amongst nomadic communities in garissa county, kenya using a prospective, longitudinal study design and cross-sectional household surveys.north east kenya is an area of semi-arid terrain, prone to malaria epidemics. the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) has long been a key malaria intervention, however, for nomadic populations who live and sleep outside, in harsh climates and areas with increasing reports of exophagic behaviour of mosquitoes, traditional llins are often inadequate. this study investigates the acceptability of non-mesh llins, specifically designed to suit nomadic, outdoor sleeping communities.201525652420
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