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relationship of bacillus subtilis clades associated with strains 168 and w23: a proposal for bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis subsp. nov. and bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii subsp. nov.earlier phylogenetic studies based on the inferred dna sequences of the polc, rpob and gyra genes suggested that strains of the species bacillus subtilis formed two clusters, indicating the presence two closely related taxa; one contained the laboratory strain 168 and the other the laboratory strain w23. significant sexual isolation was found between strain 168 and members of the group containing w23, but no sexual isolation was observed between strain 168 and other members of the 168 group. dna ...199910425781
importance of 3-hydroxy fatty acid composition of lipopeptides for biosurfactant activity.biosurfactant production may be an economic approach to improving oil recovery. to obtain candidates most suitable for oil recovery, 207 strains, mostly belonging to the genus bacillus, were tested for growth and biosurfactant production in medium with 5% nacl under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. all strains grew aerobically with 5% nacl, and 147 strains produced a biosurfactant. thirty-five strains grew anaerobically with 5% nacl, and two produced a biosurfactant. in order to relate structur ...200516332741
taxonomic characterization and plant colonizing abilities of some bacteria related to bacillus amyloliquefaciens and bacillus subtilis.the phylogenetic relationships of 17 bacillus strains isolated from plants and soil were determined from partial sequences of genes encoding 16s rrna, gyrasea (gyra) and the chea histidine kinase. five strains were closely related to bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, three strains were more closely related to b. subtilis subsp. spizizeni and two strains were identified as b. mojavensis. the remaining seven strains formed a cluster closely related to, but distinct from, bacillus amyloliquefacien ...200419712408
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of yisp protein from bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain 168.yisp is an enzyme involved in the pathway of biofilm formation in bacteria and is predicted to possess squalene synthase activity. a blastp search using the yisp protein sequence from bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain 168 shows that it shares 23% identity with the dehydrosqualene synthase from staphylococcus aureus. the yisp from b. subtilis 168 was expressed in escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was purified and crystallized. the crystals, which belong to the orthorhombic space ...201223295493
characterization of xync from bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain 168 and analysis of its role in depolymerization of glucuronoxylan.secretion of xylanase activities by bacillus subtilis 168 supports the development of this well-defined genetic system for conversion of methylglucuronoxylan (megaxn [where n represents the number of xylose residues]) in the hemicellulose component of lignocellulosics to biobased products. in addition to the characterized glycosyl hydrolase family 11 (gh 11) endoxylanase designated xyna, b. subtilis 168 secretes a second endoxylanase as the translated product of the ynff gene. this sequence show ...200617028274
reclassification of bacillus axarquiensis ruiz-garcia et al. 2005 and bacillus malacitensis ruiz-garcia et al. 2005 as later heterotypic synonyms of bacillus mojavensis roberts et al. 1994.the bacillus subtilis group encompasses the taxa bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, b. licheniformis, b. amyloliquefaciens, b. atrophaeus, b. mojavensis, b. vallismortis, b. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, b. sonorensis, b. velezensis, b. axarquiensis and b. malacitensis. in this study, the taxonomic relatedness between the species b. axarquiensis, b. malacitensis and b. mojavensis was investigated. sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene and the gene for dna gyrase subunit b (gyrb) confirmed the ver ...200717625213
identification and characterization of a mosquito pupicidal metabolite of a bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain.the culture supernatant of a strain of bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis isolated from mangrove forests of andaman and nicobar islands, india was found to kill larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes. a chloroform extract of the culture supernatant of the bacterium showed pupicidal effects at an lc(50) dose of 1 microg/ml. the mosquitocidal metabolite(s) produced by this strain were purified by gel permeation chromatography. the purified fraction was subjected to fourier transform infrared (ftir) ...201020130853
inhibitory activity of surfactin, produced by different bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strains, against listeria monocytogenes sensitive and bacteriocin-resistant strains.three surfactin-producing bacillus subtilis strains, c4, m1 and g2iii, previously isolated from honey and intestines from the apis mellifera l. bee, were phylogenetically characterized at sub-species level as b. subtilis subsp. subtilis using gyra gene sequencing. the antagonistic effect of surfactin was studied against seven different listeria monocytogenes strains, 6 of which were resistant to bacteriocins. surfactin showed anti-listeria activity against all 7 strains and a dose of 0.125 mg/ml ...201223265790
analysis of the life cycle of the soil saprophyte bacillus cereus in liquid soil extract and in soil.bacillus is commonly isolated from soils, with organisms of bacillus cereus sensu lato being prevalent. knowledge of the ecology of b. cereus and other bacillus species in soil is far from complete. while the older literature favors a model of growth on soil-associated organic matter, the current paradigm is that b. cereus sensu lato germinates and grows in association with animals or plants, resulting in either symbiotic or pathogenic interactions. an in terra approach to study soil-associated ...200616820495
prediction of functional modules based on gene distributions in microbial genomes.we present a computational method for prediction of functional modules that can be directly applied to the newly sequenced microbial genomes for predicting gene functions and the component genes of biological pathways. we first quantify the functional relatedness among genes based on their distribution (i.e., their existences and orders) across multiple microbial genomes, and obtain a gene network in which every pair of genes is associated with a score representing their functional relatedness. ...200516901107
effect of the wavelength of infrared heaters on the inactivation of bacterial spores at various water activities.bacterial spores (bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis nbrc 16183) inoculated onto a stainless steel petri dish and treated at nine levels of water activity (a(w)) for 2 days were inactivated by infrared radiation heating (irh) using three kinds of infrared heaters with different radiation spectra. the peak wavelengths used were 950, 1,100 and 1,150 nm. in general, the inactivating efficacy of irh treatment against bacterial spores with shorter wavelength heater (950 nm) was greater than that with ...200616503067
anionic polymers of the cell wall of bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis vkm b-501(t).teichoic acid and disaccharide-1-phosphate polymer were identified in the cell walls of bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis vkm b-501(t). the teichoic acid represents 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) 80% substituted by alpha-d-glucopyranose residues at o-2 of glycerol. the linear repeating unit of disaccharide-1-phosphate polymer contains the residues of beta-d-glucopyranose, n-acetyl-alpha-d-galactosamine, and phosphate and has the following structure: -6)-beta-d-glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-d-galpnac-(1-p-. t ...200919538128
recombinant expression and characterization of xynd from bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis atcc 6051: a gh 43 arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase.the complete genome sequence of bacillus subtilis reveals that sequences encoding several hemicellulases are co-localised with a gene (xynd) encoding a putative family 43 glycoside hydrolase that has not yet been characterised. in this work, xynd has been isolated from genomic dna of b. subtilis subsp. subtilis atcc 6051 and cloned for cytoplasmatic expression in escherichia coli. recombinant xynd (rxynd) was purified using ion-exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. the enzym ...200717426966
restriction fragment length polymorphism of rrna operons for discrimination and intergenic spacer sequences for cataloging of bacillus subtilis sub-groups.restriction fragment length polymorphism of rrna operons (rflp) and 16s-23s rrna intergenic region (isr) sequences of bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, b. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, and b. atrophaeus were compared. isr sequences of the b. subtilis subspecies were extremely similar (w23 versus 168 rrn h, j, g,w; 96.8%; rrn d, e; 98.4%; rrnb; 97.9%) and, therefore, not useful for their differentiation. however, rflp of rrna operons of the b. subtilis subspecies were distinct in terms of numbers ...200211997172
Enhanced production of mosquitocidal cyclic lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis.A cyclic lipopeptide, surfactin produced by a strain of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (VCRC B471) was found to exhibit activity against both the larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes. The present study was aimed at increasing the production of the mosquitocidal metabolite by modifying the conventional medium.201122089610
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