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effects of palytoxin on the electrical activity of dog and rabbit heart.reversible effects of palytoxin, extracted from colonies of the soft coral palythoa caribaeorum, are described. there is a decrease of both membrane resting potential and overshoot during activity. rise time of the action potential is prolonged, while repolarization is shortened. the electrical events resemble those seen with metabolic poisons.197721804
identification of a novel beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase (pcb-naha1) from marine zoanthid palythoa caribaeorum (cnidaria, anthozoa, zoanthidea).beta-n-acetylhexosaminidases (ec 3.2.1.52) belong to an enzyme family that hydrolyzes terminal beta-d-n-glucosamine and beta-d-n-galactosamine residues from oligosaccharides. in this report, we purified a novel beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase (pcb-naha1) from the marine zoanthid palythoa caribaeorum by applying ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on a chitin column, followed by two rounds of size exclusion chromatography. sds-page analysis indicated a single band protein of appar ...200818171621
vibrios dominate as culturable nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the brazilian coral mussismilia hispida.taxonomic characterization was performed on the putative n(2)-fixing microbiota associated with the coral species mussismilia hispida, and with its sympatric species palythoa caribaeorum, p. variabilis, and zoanthus solanderi, off the coast of são sebastião (são paulo state, brazil). the 95 isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria according to the 16s rdna gene sequences. in order to identify the isolates unambiguously, pyrh gene sequencing was carried out. the majority of the isolates (n = ...200818678453
genomic diversity of vibrios associated with the brazilian coral mussismilia hispida and its sympatric zoanthids (palythoa caribaeorum, palythoa variabilis and zoanthus solanderi).a taxonomic survey of the vibrios associated with the brazilian endemic coral mussismilia hispida and the sympatric zoanthids (i.e. palythoa caribaeorum, palythoa variabilis and zoanthus solanderi).200919291243
detection of hemolytic bacteria from palythoa caribaeorum (cnidaria, zoantharia) using a novel palytoxin-screening assay.palytoxin (ptx), one of the most potent and chemically complex marine toxins, is predominantly found in zoanthid corals and sporadically in dinoflagellates. its biosynthesis and metabolic pathways are largely unknown. however, the widespread occurrence of the toxin in phylogenetically distinct marine organisms is consistent with its production by microorganisms and subsequent accumulation in the food chain. to investigate a possible microbial origin, bacteria from two zoanthid corals (palythoa c ...200919504172
photobacterium jeanii sp. nov., isolated from corals and zoanthids.four novel isolates (r-40508(t), r-40507, r-40903 and r-21419) were obtained from different cnidarian species (phyllogorgia dilatata, merulina ampliata and palythoa caribaeorum) from different places in brazil and australia. the novel isolates formed a tight phylogenetic group based on 16s rrna, reca, topa, ftsz, mreb and rpoa gene sequences. their closest phylogenetic neighbours were the type strains of photobacterium leiognathi, p. rosenbergii and p. halotolerans, sharing 97.1-97.5 % 16s rrna ...201020081016
vibrio communis sp. nov., isolated from the marine animals mussismilia hispida, phyllogorgia dilatata, palythoa caribaeorum, palythoa variabilis and litopenaeus vannamei.eight vibrio isolates originating from the marine corals mussismilia hispida and phyllogorgia dilatata and the zoanthids palythoa caribaeorum and palythoa variabilis in brazil and the pacific white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) in ecuador were studied by means of a polyphasic approach. the novel isolates formed a tight monophyletic group in the genus vibrio and were closely related to species of the vibrio harveyi group, to which they showed more than 99 % 16s rrna gene sequence similarity. anal ...201120305064
vibrio variabilis sp. nov. and vibrio marinus sp. nov., isolated from palythoa caribaeorum.two novel vibrio isolates (r-40492t and r-40493t) originated from the zoanthid palythoa caribaeorum in brazil in 2005 were taxonomically characterized by means of a polyphasic approach, comprising multilocus sequence analysis (mlsa), dna-dna hybridizations (ddh), tm, and phenotypic characterization. phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequences showed that r-40492t and r-40493t fell within the genus vibrio, and were most closely related to each other with 99 % similarity. the similarity ...201121296931
susceptibility to antifungal agents and enzymatic activity of candida haemulonii and cutaneotrichosporon dermatis isolated from soft corals on the brazilian reefs.candida is a common fungus with the capacity to cause infections in humans. however, most studies have concentrated on clinical isolates and little is known about the identity, ecology and drug resistance of free living species/strains. here, we isolate eight strains of candida haemulonii and four strains of cutaneotrichosporon dermatis from three marine cnidarian zoanthids species (palythoa caribaeorum, palythoa variabilis and zoanthus sociatus) collected from brazilian coral reefs. strains wer ...201627282152
a method for the isolation of the caribbean palytoxin (c-ptx) from the coelenterate (zooanthid) palythoa caribaeorum.chromatographically pure toxin was isolated from the zooanthid palythoa caribaeorum. toxin isolation was achieved by extraction with 50% ethanol from the homogenized specimens, gel filtration on sephadex g-50 and ion exchange chromatography on qae- and sp-sephadex. final purification was obtained by gel filtration on biogel p-6. the ld50 tested on the shore crab carcinus maenas was 62.5 ng/kg.19836134356
identification of a new 6-bromo-5,9-eicosadienoic acid from the anemone condylactis gigantea and the zoanthid palythoa caribaeorum.a new brominated fatty acid, 6-bromo-5,9-eicosadienoic acid [1] was identified in the phospholipids (mainly phosphatidylethanolamine) of the anemone condylactis gigantea and the zoanthid palythoa caribaeorum. the delta 5,9 fatty acids, 5,9-octadecadienoic acid, 5,9-eicosadienoic acid, 5,9-docosadienoic acid, and 5,9-tetracosadienoic acid, were also identified in both organisms. structural elucidation was accomplished by spectroscopic and chemical means. our results further corroborate that delta ...19958594145
alcanivorax dieselolei, an alkane-degrading bacterium associated with the mucus of the zoanthid palythoa caribaeorum (cnidaria, anthozoa).analyses of 16s rdna genes were used to identify the microbiota isolated from the mucus of the zoanthid palythoa caribaeorum at porto de galinhas on the coast of pernambuco state, brazil. this study is important as the first report of this association, because of the potential biotechnological applications of the bacterium alcanivorax dieselolei, and as evidence for the presence of a hydrocarbon degrading bacterium in a reef ecosystem such as porto de galinhas.201526132028
bacterial communities and species-specific associations with the mucus of brazilian coral species.we investigated the existence of species-specific associations between brazilian coral species and bacteria. pyrosequencing of the v3 region of the 16s rdna was used to analyze the taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with the mucus of four coral species (madracis decactis, mussismilia hispida, palythoa caribaeorum, and tubastraea coccinea) in two seasons (winter and summer), which were compared with the surrounding water and sediment. the microbial communities found in samp ...201323567936
reproductive biology of palythoa caribaeorum and protopalythoa valilbilis (cnidaria, anthozoa, zoanthidea) from the southeastern coast of brazil.the reproductive biology of palythoa caribaeorum (duchassaing & michelotti 1860) and protopalythoa variabilis (duerden 1898) was studied through monthly samples from tagged colonies from june 1996 to june 1997, in sao sebastiao channel, são paulo, brazil (45 degrees 26'w, 23 degrees 50's). the gametogenesis was similar to that of other zoanthids as shown by histological preparations. oocyte diameters and maturation stages of testis vesicles were evaluated on squash preparations. both species sho ...200516025901
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