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characterization of rna-mediated resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus in transgenic tobacco plants.recently high levels of protection against tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv), a negative-strand rna virus infecting plants, have been obtained by transforming tobacco with viral nucleoprotein (n) gene sequences. here we demonstrate that this protection is primarily due to the presence of n gene transcripts in the cells of transgenic plants, and hence appears to be rna-mediated. further, transgenic tobacco plants are only protected to isolates and strains of tswv and not to other tospoviruses that ...19921368791
multiplication of tomato spotted wilt virus in its insect vector, frankliniella occidentalis.the accumulation of two proteins, the nucleocapsid (n) protein and a non-structural (nss) protein both encoded by the s rna of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv), was followed in larvae during development and in adults of frankliniella occidentalis after ingesting the virus for short periods on infected plants. the amounts of both proteins increased, as shown by elisa and western blot analysis, within 2 days above the levels ingested, indicating multiplication of tswv in these insects. accumulatio ...19938445364
rapid fixation and embedding method for immunocytochemical studies of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (tswv) in plant and insect tissues.a new rapid fixation and embedding technique using microwave energy was evaluated for immunolabelling and examination of ultrastructure of plant and insect cells. tissues in gluteraldehyde-paraformaldehyde were fixed for fifteen seconds in a microwave at 100% power, and dehydrated. microwave energy was then used to polymerize the london resin white (lr white) acrylic resin during the embedding process. embedded specimens were then thin sectioned (90 nm) and treated with anti-tomato spotted wilt ...19938490237
multiplication of tomato spotted wilt virus in primary cell cultures derived from two thrips species.primary cell cultures prepared from embryos of the thrips species frankliniella occidentalis and thrips tabaci were tested for their potential to support replication of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv). using polyclonal antibodies against the viral nucleocapsid protein (n) and indirect immunofluorescent staining, discrete spots with strong signals were observed in the cytoplasm at 48 h post-inoculation in the cell cultures of a f. occidentalis, and a t. tabaci population which failed to transmit ...19979178497
light and electron microscopy studies of the infection of the western flower thrips frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae) by the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliaethe infection of frankliniella occidentalis by two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae was studied using fluorescence, scanning, transmission, and confocal scanning laser microscopy techniques. conidia of m. anisopliae adhered mostly to the wings of adult f. occidentalis but the number declined from 73 to 40% within 72 h postinoculation at 23 degreesc, presumably due to preening. conidia germinated and produced appressoria on adult, larval, and pupal stages within 12 h ...19999878286
tissue tropism related to vector competence of frankliniella occidentalis for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus.the development of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (tswv) infection in the midgut and salivary glands of transmitting and non-transmitting thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, was studied to elucidate tissue tropism and the virus pathway within the body of this vector. immunohistological techniques used in this study showed that the midgut, foregut and salivary glands were the only organs in which virus accumulated. the first signals of infection, observed as randomly distributed fluorescent granu ...199910073714
tomato spotted wilt virus in ornamental plants, vegetables and weeds in the czech republic.the occurrence of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) in horticulture crops and weeds in the czech republic has been studied in 1992-1997. during this period tswv was established in 91 plant species. virus identity was based on the host range, serology and electron microscopy. natural tswv infection was detected in glasshouses where the main vector frankliniella occidentalis was present too. the most frequently tswv-infected plant species were chrysanthemum morifolium and zantedeschia sp. among veg ...199810358737
simplified, rapid method for cloning of virus-binding polypeptides (putative receptors) via the far-western screening of a cdna expression library using purified virus particles.a simplified, alternative method for cloning virus-binding polypeptides (receptor candidates) is described. the method is based on a far-western assay using purified tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (tswv, bunyaviridae) for screening a lambda-phage cdna expression library. the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis pergande, the principal vector of tswv, in which the virus replicates, was used for library construction. using this method several virus-binding polypeptides were identified ...200010785290
immunoprecipitation of a 50-kda protein: a candidate receptor component for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (bunyaviridae) in its main vector, frankliniella occidentalis.a 50-kda protein that binds to viral particles in solid-phase assays and that is recognized by anti-idiotypic antibodies made against anti-viral glycoproteins g1/g2 (anti-ids) has been proposed as a receptor candidate for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (tswv) in its main thrips vector, frankliniella occidentalis pergande (bandla et al., 1998. phytopathology 88, 98-104). here we show the immunoprecipitation of the 50-kda protein by anti-ids and by an anti-g1/g2-tswv conjugate - a new immunoprecip ...200010867190
use of cc traps with different trap base colors for silverleaf whiteflies (homoptera: aleyrodidae), thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae), and leafhoppers (homoptera: cicadellidae).during 1996, 1997, and 1999, studies were conducted in cotton, sugar beets, alfalfa, yardlong bean, and peanut fields to compare insect catches in cc traps equipped with different trap base colors. the studies were conducted in southwestern united states, china, and india. the nine colors, white, rum, red, yellow, lime green, spring green, woodland green (dark green), true blue, and black, varied in spectral reflectance in the visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-1050 nm) portions of spec ...200010985050
the association of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, with a near erwinia species gut bacteria: transient or permanent?associations between insects and gut bacteria are ubiquitous. it is possible to make a distinction between permanent associations (called symbiosis), in which the same type of bacteria is present in more than one generation of the insect, and transient associations. transient bacteria are ingested together with food but do not settle in the insect gut in such a way that they will be passed on to the next generation. in this study, we describe the permanent association between western flower thri ...200111273692
growth and transmission of gut bacteria in the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis.the western flower thrips (frankliniella occidentalis), a polyphagous insect with global distribution, has a permanent association with a near erwinia species tac bacterium in its hindgut. since this bacterium is able to grow outside the thrips, it is a facultative symbiont that is not completely dependent on the host. in this study we address the question of how the association is maintained and how bacteria are transmitted to newly hatched thrips larvae. bacteria are passed on to new thrips vi ...200111273693
modified atmosphere treatments as a potential disinfestation technique for arthropod pests in greenhouses.incidental transport of arthropods on plant material can be a significant mode of pest entry into greenhouses. we evaluated the use of controlled atmosphere treatments as a potential way to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules (i.e., cuttings or small rooted plants). lethal exposures to co2 or n2 were determined for common greenhouse pests including fungus gnat larvae, bradysia sp.; green peach aphid, myzus persicae (sulzer); sweetpotato whitefly, bemisia sp.; twospotted spider mite, te ...200111332835
how species-specific is the phoretic relationship between the broad mite, polyphagotarsonemus latus (acari: tarsonemidae), and its insect hosts?broad mite, polyphagotarsonemus latus (acari: tarsonemidae), is a serious plant pest in tropical and subtropical regions. phoretic associations between broad mite and two genera of whiteflies (insecta: homoptera: aleyrodidae). namely bemisia and trialeurodes, have been reported from different parts of the world. our purpose was to determine the specificity of the association between the mite and its phoretic hosts. two host plants, potatoes and cucumbers, were used to study these relationships i ...200111523917
factors determining vector competence and specificity for transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus.the competence of a frankliniella occidentalis and a thrips tabaci population to transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) was analysed. adults of the f. occidentalis population transmitted this virus efficiently, whereas those of the thelytokous t. tabaci population failed to transmit. tswv replicated in the midgut of the larvae of both populations after ingestion of virus; however, lower amounts accumulated in t. tabaci larvae than in f. occidentalis larvae. the virus was almost undetectable i ...200211842261
the detection of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) in individual thrips using real time fluorescent rt-pcr (taqman).tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) is an important virus, economically in the uk, causing damaging disease in ornamental and vegetable crops. the virus is vectored by several species of thrips, most importantly the western flower thrips (frankliniella occidentalis pergande [thysanoptera: thripidae]). the vector thrips themselves constitute a damaging pest and are difficult to control completely. monitoring thrips numbers is an important part of the control of virus, but does not give information o ...200211849682
modelling population dynamics of orius laevigatus and o. albidipennis (hemiptera: anthocoridae) to optimize their use as biological control agents of frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae).orius laevigatus: (fieber) and o. albidipennis (reuter) play an important role in the control of frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) in crops and natural vegetation in the mediterranean area. the biological parameters of the two anthocorids were studied and modelled in relation to temperature to optimize their use in thrips control programmes. development times and reproductive parameters of o. laevigatus and o. albidipennis were determined at 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees c. pre-imaginal developm ...200212020365
expression of the movement protein of tomato spotted wilt virus in its insect vector frankliniella occidentalis.tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) is able to infect both its botanical hosts and its insect vector (thrips). in plant tissue the ns(m) protein of tswv functions as viral movement protein (mp), aggregating into plasmodesma-penetrating tubules to establish cell-to-cell movement. as upon heterologous expression ns(m) was able to form similar tubules on the surface of insect (spodoptera frugiperda) cells, we have now investigated the expression and cellular manifestation of this protein in infected t ...200212038691
evaluation of metabolic detoxifying enzyme activities and insecticide resistance in frankliniella occidentalis.the western flower thrips frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) is a very significant pest of a number of different agricultural crops in the south-east of spain. the importance of thrips as a pest is not due mainly to the direct damage inflicted on the plant, but to the loss in commercial value which occurs as a consequence of the development of dark spots caused by the tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) which they transmit. the economic threshold is therefore almost zero, which enhances the prob ...200212233183
insecticide resistance in field populations of frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) in murcia (south-east spain).thirty-nine field populations of frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) were collected from different crops (sweet pepper, tomato, lettuce, artichoke, melon, cucumber, carnation, broad bean, peach and plum) in murcia (south-east spain). all populations were reared separately in the laboratory to obtain enough individuals for bioassays. female thrips were bioassayed, using a standard topical application method, against methiocarb, methamidophos, acrinathrin, endosulfan, deltamethrin and formetanat ...200212233190
the route of tomato spotted wilt virus inside the thrips body in relation to transmission efficiency.the route of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) in the body of its vectors, frankliniella occidentalis and thrips tabaci (thysanoptera: thripidae) was studied during their development. first instar larvae were allowed, immediately upon hatching, to acquire virus from mechanically infected datura stramonium plants for 24 h. the rate of transmission by adults was determined in inoculation access feeding test on emilia sonchifolia leaf disks. thrips tissues were analysed for infection at 24 h interva ...200212417949
spinosad, a new tool for insect control in vegetables cultivated in greenhouses.spinosad is a biological insecticide derived as a fermentation product from the soil actinomycete saccharopolyspora spinosa. the compound was tested for its possible use in northwestern europe in vegetables cultivated in greenhouses. spinosad is an insect control agent that has activity against a wide range of insect pests including caterpillars, leafminers and thrips. because of its selectivity on a large number of beneficials used in greenhouses, spinosad is an interesting tool for insect cont ...200112425058
relationship between nutritional composition of plant species and infestation levels of thrips.levels of soluble protein and carbohydrate (raffinose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in leaves from a selection of plant species were measured to determine if a relationship existed between these nutrients and infestation by frankliniella occidentalis and heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. most species of host plant examined contained a higher proportion of protein than carbohydrates, and overall, leaves from species of plants that supported populations of thrips had greater levels of protein than l ...200212564789
prospects for biological control of the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, with the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae, on chrysanthemum.the potential of metarhizium anisopliae (metsch.) sorok. for the control of frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) on chrysanthemum cuttings was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. the fungus significantly reduced both the adult and larval populations of f. occidentalis, although the level of control of larval populations was much lower than for adults. combined application of m. anisopliae and methomyl (lannate), however, resulted in a significant reduction of both the larval and adult stages. ...200212650600
detection of tomato spotted wilt virus in its vector frankliniella occidentalis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.a method for rapid and reliable detection of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) (tospovirus, bunyaviridae) in its vector frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera thripidae) would be a useful tool for studying the epidemiology of this virus. a rt-pcr method developed for this purpose is reported. the method was tested on thrips involved in laboratory transmission trials and on thrips collected in the field, whose capability to transmit tswv was checked previously by leaf disk assays. the rt-pcr res ...200312668270
epidemiology and management of tomato spotted wilt in peanut.tomato spotted wilt caused by thrips-vectored tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) is a very serious problem in peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) production. tswv and the thrips frankliniella fusca and frankliniella occidentalis, which vector the virus, present a difficult and complicated challenge from the perspectives of both epidemiology and disease management. simply controlling the vector typically has not resulted in control of spotted wilt. no single measure can currently provide adequate control ...200312704217
characterisation of the feeding behaviour of western flower thrips in terms of electrical penetration graph (epg) waveforms.western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) causes damage to plants when they are feeding. also, this thrips species transmits tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) during stylet penetration. we investigated the penetration behaviour (probing) of thrips on pepper leaves and on liquid diet by electrical penetration graph (epg, dc-system) recording. in addition, we used high-magnification video observations to correlate epg waveforms with the insect's posture, head movements, and muscl ...200312769993
effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on oviposition rate of the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis.proteolytic activity in whole insect extracts of the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, was found to belong predominantly to the class of cysteine proteases. the ph optimum of the general proteolytic activity was determined to be 3.5, which is low when compared to other insects using cysteine proteases for protein digestion. the proteinaceous cysteine protease inhibitors chicken cystatin, potato cystatin and sea anemone equistatin inhibited in vitro more than 90% of the protease ...200212770064
integrated management tactics for frankliniella thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae) in field-grown pepper.in a 2-yr study, the impacts of different plastic soil mulches, insecticides, and predator releases on frankliniella thrips and their natural enemies were investigated in field-grown peppers. ultraviolet light (uv)-reflective mulch significantly reduced early season abundance of adult thrips compared with standard black plastic mulch. this difference diminished as the growing seasons progressed. late season abundance of thrips larvae was higher in uv reflective mulch compared with black mulch pl ...200314503592
influence of a short exposure to teflubenzuron residues on the predation of thrips by iphiseius degenerans (acari: phytoseiidae) and orius laevigatus (hemiptera: anthocoridae).a short duration (24h) leaf-disc bioassay was used to determine the effects of teflubenzuron residues on the predation levels of two predators, iphiseius degenerans (berlese) and orius laevigatus (fieber), foraging on nymphs of two species of thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) and heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (bouche), on a range of different species of plant. teflubenzuron did cause thrips mortality during the 24-h bioassay; it was more active against h haemorrhoidalis than f occident ...200314620054
the plant virus tomato spotted wilt tospovirus activates the immune system of its main insect vector, frankliniella occidentalis.tospoviruses have the ability to infect plants and their insect vectors. tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv), the type species in the tospovirus genus, infects its most important insect vector, frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips (wft). however, no detrimental effects on the life cycle or cytopathological changes have been reported in the wft after tswv infection, and relatively few viral particles can be observed even several days after infection. we hypothesized that tswv infect ...200415113877
fungus gnats, bradysia spp. (diptera: sciaridae), and other arthropods in commercial bagged soilless growing media and rooted plant plugs.fungus gnats, bradysia spp., in greenhouses cause economic losses to horticultural producers by damaging young root systems during plant propagation, by spreading soilborne diseases, and by reducing the marketability of the crop. in a greenhouse cage study, our observations suggested that bagged soilless growing media or rooted plant plugs from wholesale distributors may be sources for the introduction of fungus gnats into commercial greenhouse facilities. to evaluate these possibilities, carefu ...200415154474
comparing greenhouse sprayers: the dose-transfer process.three sprayers were evaluated for their affect on retention and efficacy: a carbon dioxide powered high-volume sprayer, a dramm coldfogger, and an electrostatic spraying systems (ess) sprayer with air-assistance. the active ingredients used were spinosad and azadirachtin. the plant canopy was constructed in the greenhouse using potted soybeans (glycine max (l) merrill cr pioneer 9392). application efficacy with spinosad was assessed using thrips [western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis ...200415154520
insecticidal properties of a chenopodium-based botanical.the emulsifiable concentrate uda-245 based on an essential oil extract from chenopodium ambrosioides variety near ambrosioides, a north american herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control green peach aphid, myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae), western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae), and greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorium (westwood) (homoptera: aleyrodidae). side e ...200415384351
diet-dependent effects of gut bacteria on their insect host: the symbiosis of erwinia sp. and western flower thrips.studies on bacteria in the gut of insect species are numerous, but their focus is hardly ever on the impact on host performance. we showed earlier that erwinia bacteria occur in the gut of western flower thrips, most probably acquired during feeding. here, we investigate whether thrips gain a net benefit or pay a net cost because of these gut bacteria. on a diet of cucumber leaves, the time to maturity is shorter and the oviposition rate is higher in thrips with bacteria than in thrips without ( ...200415475338
ontogenetic shifts in intraguild predation on thrips by phytoseiid mites: the relevance of body size and diet specialization.in greenhouse agroecosystems, a guild of spider mite predators may consist of the oligophagous predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot, the polyphagous predatory mite neoseiulus californicus mcgregor (both acari: phytoseiidae) and the primarily herbivorous but facultatively predatory western flower thrips frankliniella occidentalis pergande (thysanoptera: thripidae). diet-specialization and the predator body size relative to prey are crucial factors in predation on f. occidentalis ...200415541196
tactics for management of thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae) and tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato.four studies were conducted in georgia during spring 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 to evaluate various management tactics for reducing thrips and thrips-vectored tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) in tomato and their interactions relative to fruit yield. populations of thrips vectors of tswv, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) and frankliniella fusca (hinds), were determined using flower and sticky trap samples. the management practices evaluated were host plant resistance, insecticide treatments, ...200415568355
the efficacy of spinosad against the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, and its impact on associated biological control agents on greenhouse cucumbers in southern ontario.insecticides are the most commonly used tactic to control western flower thrips (wft), frankliniella occidentalis pergande (thysanoptera: thripidae), on greenhouse cucumber. however, wft has developed resistance to several of the insecticides presently in use. in addition, some of these insecticides adversely affect greenhouse biological control agents used to control wft, resulting in subsequent pest resurgence. therefore, there is a need to identify novel insecticides with unique modes of acti ...200515619719
expression of a viral polymerase-bound host factor turns human cell lines permissive to a plant- and insect-infecting virus.tospoviruses are the only plant-infecting members of the bunyaviridae family of ambisense ssrna viruses. tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (tswv), the type-member, also causes mild infection on its main insect vector, frankliniella occidentalis. herein, we identified an f. occidentalis putative transcription factor (fotf) that binds to the tswv rna-dependent rna polymerase and to viral rna. using in vitro rna synthesis assays, we show that addition of purified fotf improves viral replication, but n ...200515657123
oral toxicity of photorhabdus toxins against thrips species.the oral toxicity of excretion products of several photorhabdus and xenorhabdus strains was tested on two thrips species: frankliniella occidentalis and thrips tabaci. out of 46 photorhabdus isolates and six xenorhabdus isolates only six north american p. temperata isolates were toxic to the thrips species. after 7 days of drinking from p. temperata supernatant a mortality of 90% could be reached. thrips were also killed after sucking from leaves covered with the toxins. toxins have a negative e ...200515955338
development of a novel bioassay for estimation of median lethal concentrations (lc50) and doses (ld50) of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana, against western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis.to conduct laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying secondary acquisition of fungal conidia by western flower thrips (frankliniella occidentalis), an efficient assay technique using beauveria bassiana as the model fungus was developed. various application protocols were tested and it was determined that the percent mortality did not vary among protocols. peak mortality of second-instar nymphs, under constant exposure to conidia, occurred 5 days post-inoculation. second-instar thrips that were ...200516039665
cadmium hyperaccumulation protects thlaspi caerulescens from leaf feeding damage by thrips (frankliniella occidentalis).metal hyperaccumulation has been proposed as a plant defensive strategy. here, we investigated whether cadmium (cd) hyperaccumulation protected thlaspi caerulescens from leaf feeding damage by thrips (frankliniella occidentalis). two ecotypes differing in cd accumulation, ganges (high) and prayon (low), were grown in compost amended with 0-1000 mg cd kg(-1) in two experiments under glasshouse conditions. f2 and f3 plants from the prayon x ganges crosses were grown with 5 mg cd kg(-1). plants wer ...200516101917
acquisition of lethal doses of beauveria bassiana conidia by western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, exposed to foliar spray residues of formulated and unformulated conidia.secondary acquisition of beauveria bassiana conidia was recorded on the whole bodies and selected body parts of second-instar nymphs and adult female western flower thrips exposed to foliar spray residues of three differently formulated conidial preparations, for 24 h. conidia were formulated in emulsifiable oil or with clay (wettable powder), or were essentially unformulated conidia (technical grade powder suspended in water with a surfactant). formulation had no significant effect on dose acqu ...200516165151
signal signature and transcriptome changes of arabidopsis during pathogen and insect attack.plant defenses against pathogens and insects are regulated differentially by cross-communicating signaling pathways in which salicylic acid (sa), jasmonic acid (ja), and ethylene (et) play key roles. to understand how plants integrate pathogen- and insect-induced signals into specific defense responses, we monitored the dynamics of sa, ja, and et signaling in arabidopsis after attack by a set of microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects with different modes of attack. arabidopsis plants were e ...200516167763
identification of a male-produced aggregation pheromone in the western flower thrips frankliniella occidentalis.two major components have been detected in the headspace volatiles of adult male frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae) that are not present in the headspace volatiles of adult females. the compounds were identified as (r)-lavandulyl acetate and neryl (s)-2-methylbutanoate by comparison with synthetic standards using gas chromatography (gc), gc mass spectrometry (ms), and chiral gc. field trials were conducted with synthetic compounds in naturally infested crops of sweet ...200516222777
summer weeds as hosts for frankliniella occidentalis and frankliniella fusca (thysanoptera: thripidae) and as reservoirs for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus in north carolina.in north carolina, tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (family bunyaviridae, genus tospovirus, tswv) is vectored primarily by the tobacco thrips, frankliniella fusca (hinds), and the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae). tswv overwinters in winter annual weeds from which it is spread to susceptible crops in spring. because most susceptible crops are destroyed after harvest before winter weeds emerge in the fall, infected summer weeds are thought to be ...200516539098
host plant, temperature, and photoperiod effects on ovipositional preference of frankliniella occidentalis and frankliniella fusca (thysanoptera: thripidae).host plant effects of tomato, lycopersicon esculentum mill., and chickweed, stellaria media (l.) vill., foliage infected and uninfected with tomato spotted wilt virus (family bunyaviridae, genus tospovirus, tswv) on the ovipositional preferences of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), and tobacco thrips, frankliniella fusca (hinds), were investigated for whole plants in the greenhouse. in addition, the preference for leaf disks from the same host plants was investigated ...200516539139
mode of action of a novel nonchemical method of insect control: atmospheric pressure plasma discharge.atmospheric pressure plasma discharge (appd) has been applied to a number of industrial applications, including the bacterial sterilization of medical equipment of bacteria. appd may also have applications in insect control. a positive correlation was found between exposure time to appd and mortality of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande); tobacco thrips, frankliniella fusca (hinds); asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse); twospotted spider mite, tetranychus urti ...200616573321
relationship between esterase activity and acrinathrin and methiocarb resistance in field populations of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis.the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), is a serious pest in the south-east of spain owing to its direct feeding on crops, transmission of the tomato spotted wilt virus and its very high level of resistance to insecticides. mechanisms of resistance were examined using field populations of f. occidentalis with different susceptibilities to acrinathrin, methiocarb (selective insecticides), endosulfan, metamidophos and deltamethrin (broad-spectrum insecticides). esterase a ...200616929461
specific cysteine protease inhibitors act as deterrents of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), in transgenic potato.in this study, the effects of the accumulation of cysteine protease inhibitors on the food preferences of adult female western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), were investigated. representative members of the cystatin and thyropin gene families (stefin a, cystatin c, kininogen domain 3 and equistatin) were expressed in potato (solanum tuberosum) cv. impala, kondor and line v plants. in choice assays, a strong time- and concentration-dependent deterrence from plants expressin ...200417168890
engineered multidomain cysteine protease inhibitors yield resistance against western flower thrips (frankliniella occidentalis) in greenhouse trials.western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae), cause very large economic damage on a variety of field and greenhouse crops. in this study, plant resistance against thrips was introduced into transgenic potato plants through the expression of novel, custom-made, multidomain protease inhibitors. representative classes of inhibitors of cysteine and aspartic proteases [kininogen domain 3 (k), stefin a (a), cystatin c (c), potato cystatin (p) and equistatin (e ...200417168891
induction of plant volatiles by herbivores with different feeding habits and the effects of induced defenses on host-plant selection by thrips.induced plant responses to attack by chewing insects have been intensively studied, but little is known about plant responses to nonchewing insects or to attack by multiple herbivores with different feeding habits. we examined volatile emissions by tobacco, nicotiana tabacum, in response to feeding by the piercing-sucking insect western flower thrips (wft), frankliniella occidentalis, the chewing herbivore heliothis virescens, and both herbivores simultaneously. in addition, we examined the effe ...200717415625
activity of an essential oil derived from chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.this study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (qrd 400) derived from chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. ambrosioides l. (chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, planococcus citri (risso); longtailed mealybug, pseudococcus longispinus (targioni tozzetti); western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), and fungus gnats (bradysia spp.). treatments were applied ...200717461071
resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), in greenhouses of south-eastern spain.susceptibility to spinosad of western flower thrips (wft), frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), from south-eastern spain was determined. lc(50) values of the field populations without previous exposure to spinosad collected in murcia in 2001 and 2002 ranged from 0.005 to 0.077 mg l(-1). the populations collected in almeria in 2003 in greenhouses were resistant to spinosad (lc(50) > 54 mg l(-1)) compared with the authors' highly susceptible laboratory strain. the highly sensitive laboratory str ...200717487830
friend or foe?: a plant's induced response to an omnivore.omnivorous natural enemies of herbivores consume plant-based resources and may elicit induced resistance in their host plant. a greater induction threshold for damage produced by omnivorous predators than for strict herbivores might be expected if omnivore performance is enhanced on noninduced plants, allowing them to reduce future levels of herbivory. currently, it is not known if a plant responds to feeding by omnivorous predators and by herbivores similarly. to examine this question, we chose ...200717540074
interactions of bacillus thuringiensis cry1ac toxin in genetically engineered cotton with predatory heteropterans.a number of cotton varieties have been genetically transformed with genes from bacillus thuringiensis (bt) to continuously produce bt endotoxins, offering whole plant and season-long protection against many lepidopteran larvae. constant whole-plant toxin expression creates a significant opportunity for non-target herbivores to acquire and bio-accumulate the toxin for higher trophic levels. in the present study we investigated movement of cry1ac toxin from the transgenic cotton plant through spec ...200817570072
a tritrophic effect of host plant on susceptibility of western flower thrips to the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana.adult female western flower thrips (frankliniella occidentalis) were exposed 12-24h to bean (phaseolus vulgaris) and impatiens (impatiens wallerana) leaf disks treated with beauveria bassiana conidia and then transferred to clean bean or impatiens at various times post-treatment. significantly greater levels of fungal infection were observed when thrips were treated on bean versus impatiens, but exposure to impatiens following treatment had no effect on fungal infection (percent mortality). this ...200717572438
effects of proportion and configuration of bacillus thuringiensis cotton on pest abundance, damage, and yield.bacillus thuringiensis (bt) transgenic cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., kills several economically important pests, reducing injury and increasing yields. refuges of non-bt cotton are currently planted with bt cotton in different designs to slow pest resistance evolution. to compare the effects of differences in bt/non-bt plant heterogeneity found in different refuge designs on square (flower bud) damage, abscissions, sap-feeding herbivore densities, and yield in cotton, four types of 24-row cotto ...200717849898
effects of contrasting diets and temperatures on reproduction and prey consumption by proprioseiopsis asetus (acari: phytoseiidae).proprioseiopsis asetus (chant) (acari: phytoseiidae) is a relatively unknown predacious mite with potential as a biological control agent of frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae) and tetranychus urticae koch (acari: tetranychidae). in this study, the developmental rate and other biological parameters of p. asetus were investigated. development of p. asetus was temperature dependent from 10 to 40 degrees c. nonlinear models were fitted to development rate (1/time) data f ...200818247141
stability of spinosad resistance in frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) under laboratory conditions.the stability of spinosad resistance in western flower thrips (wft), frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), populations with differing initial frequencies of resistance was studied in laboratory conditions. the stability of resistance was assessed in bimonthly residual bioassays in five populations with initial frequencies of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of resistant individuals. there were no consistent changes in susceptibility of the susceptible strain after eight months without insecticide pressur ...200818279567
herbivore benefits from vectoring plant virus through reduction of period of vulnerability to predation.herbivores can profit from vectoring plant pathogens because the induced defence of plants against pathogens sometimes interferes with the induced defence of plants against herbivores. plants can also defend themselves indirectly by the action of the natural enemies of the herbivores. it is unknown whether the defence against pathogens induced in the plant also interferes with the indirect defence against herbivores mediated via the third trophic level. we previously showed that infection of pla ...200818392858
effects of temperature and molecular oxygen on the use of atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel method for insect control.helium atmospheric pressure plasma discharge (appd) was previously shown to have insecticidal activity with a possible site of action on the insect nervous, neuromuscular system, or both. in the current study, methods to increase the insecticidal activity of plasma by using increased appd temperature and the introduction of molecular oxygen were investigated for the first time. an increase in the helium plasma temperature from 37 to 50 degrees c increased the insecticidal activity of plasma for ...200818459392
evaluation of the predatory mite, neoseiulus californicus, for spider mite control on greenhouse sweet pepper under hot arid field conditions.the efficacy of neoseiulus californicus (a generalist predatory mite) for the biological control of tetranychus urticae, was compared to release of phytoseiulus persimilis (a specialist predatory mite) and an acaricide treatment in sweet pepper plants grown in greenhouse tunnels in a hot and arid climate. to ensure uniform pest populations, spider mites were spread on pepper plants in two seasons; a natural infestation occurred in one season. predators were released prophylactically and curative ...200818584132
4-pyridyl carbonyl compounds as thrips lures: effectiveness for western flower thrips in y-tube bioassays.in a search for chemical lures to manage the cosmopolitan crop pest western flower thrips (wft), frankliniella occidentalis, a y-tube olfactometer was used to screen 20 compounds, including 18 4-pyridyl compounds. comparison of y-tube results for new zealand flower thrips (nzft), thrips obscuratus, with field trapping data for ethyl nicotinate and ethyl isonicotinate, suggested that the minimum attractive dose (mad) of an odor compound, where significantly ( p < 0.05) more than 50% of thrips wal ...200818598035
esterase isoenzymes and insecticide resistance in frankliniella occidentalis populations from the south-east region of spain.frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) is among the most important crop pests in the south-east region of spain; its increasing resistance to insecticides constitutes a serious problem, and understanding the mechanisms involved is therefore of great interest. to this end, f. occidentalis populations, collected from the field at different locations in south-east spain, were studied in terms of total esterase activity and esterase isoenzyme pattern.200818688781
characterization of bacterial symbionts in frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), western flower thrips.many insects have associations with bacteria, although it is often difficult to determine the intricacies of the relationships. in one such case, facultative bacteria have been discovered in a major crop pest and virus vector, the western flower thrips (wft), frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae). several bacterial isolates have been studied in netherlands greenhouse thrips populations, with molecular data indicating that these bacteria were similar to escherichia coli, ...200818809409
thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae, phlaeothripidae) damaging peach in paranapanema, são paulo state, brazil.seeking to identify thrips species associated to peach and the injuries they cause, plants of aurora and tropic beauty cultivars were weekly monitored, from may to august of 2005, in holambra ii district, in paranapanema, sp. flowers and fruits from six plants per hectare were sampled by the hitting technique. frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), f. schultzei (trybom), f. gardenia (moulton), f. condei john, f. insularis (franklin) and thrips tabaci lindeman, in thripidae, and haplothrips gowde ...200818813753
a soluble form of the tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) glycoprotein g(n) (g(n)-s) inhibits transmission of tswv by frankliniella occidentalis.tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) is an economically important virus that is transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by its thrips vector, frankliniella occidentalis. previously, we found that a soluble form of the envelope glycoprotein g(n) (g(n)-s) specifically bound thrips midguts and reduced the amount of detectable virus inside midgut tissues. the aim of this research was to (i) determine if g(n)-s alters tswv transmission by thrips and, if so, (ii) determine the duration of this effe ...200818943237
dynamics of tomato spotted wilt virus replication in the alimentary canal of two thrips species.abstract transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) is dependent on virus uptake in the midgut prior to virus movement to the salivary glands. replication of tswv in the alimentary canal of tobacco thrips (tt, frankliniella fusca) and western flower thrips (wft, f. occidentalis) was investigated by immunolocalization of the nonstructural protein (nss) encoded by the small rna of tswv and fluorescence microscopy. analysis of cohorts during development from larva to adults following virus ac ...200218943268
replication of tomato spotted wilt virus after ingestion by adult thrips setosus is restricted to midgut epithelial cells.abstract if acquisition access feeding (aaf) is first given after adult eclosion, none of the nine thrips species able to serve as tospovirus vectors can become infective. the previous cellular investigations of this phenomenon, carried out only in frankliniella occidentalis, suggested that infectivity was prevented because the type member of the tospoviruses, tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv), was unable to enter the midgut of adult thrips. the present study extends a cellular view of tospovirus ...200118943329
tomato spotted wilt virus infection improves host suitability for its vector frankliniella occidentalis.abstract the effect of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) infection on plant attractiveness for the western flower thrips (frankliniella occidentalis) was studied. significantly more thrips were recovered on infected than were recovered on noninfected pepper (capsicum annuum) plants in different preference tests. in addition, more offspring were produced on the virus-infected pepper plants, and this effect also was found for tswv-infected datura stramonium. thrips behavior was minimally influenced ...200418943902
acquisition of tomato spotted wilt virus by adults of two thrips species.abstract only larval thrips that acquire tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv), or adults derived from such larvae, transmit the virus. nonviruliferous adults can ingest virus particles while feeding on tswv-infected plants, but such adult thrips have not been shown to transmit tswv. immunofluorescence microscopy was used to show that thrips 1, 5, 10, and 20 days after adult emergence (dae) fed on tswv-infected plants acquired tswv with virus replication and accumulation occurring in both epithelial ...200418944108
thrips resistance in pepper and its consequences for the acquisition and inoculation of tomato spotted wilt virus by the western flower thrips.abstract different levels of thrips resistance were found in seven capsicum accessions. based on the level of feeding damage, host preference, and host suitability for reproduction, a thrips susceptible and a resistant accession were selected to study their performance as tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) sources and targets during thrips-mediated virus transmission. vector resistance did not affect the virus acquisition efficiency in a broad range of acquisition access periods. inoculation effic ...200318944162
restricted spread of tomato spotted wilt virus in thrips-resistant pepper.abstract spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) and population development of its vector frankliniella occidentalis were studied on the pepper accessions cpro-1 and pikante reuzen, which are resistant and susceptible to thrips, respectively. viruliferous thrips were released on plants of each accession (nonchoice tests) or on plants in a 1:1 mixture of both accessions (choice tests) in small cages containing 8 or 16 plants. significantly fewer cpro-1 plants became infected in the primary inf ...200318944320
impeded thrips transmission of defective tomato spotted wilt virus isolates.two defective rna-containing isolates (pe-1 and 16-2) and an envelope-deficient (env ) isolate of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) were tested for their transmissibility by frankliniella occidentalis. the pe-1 isolate contained a truncated l rna segment that barely interfered with symptom expression and replication of the wild-type (wt) l rna segment. this isolate was transmitted with an efficiency of 51%, a value comparable to that found for wt tswv (54%). isolate 16-2, which contained a genuin ...200018944549
interaction of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (tswv) glycoproteins with a thrips midgut protein, a potential cellular receptor for tswv.abstract interactions between viral and cellular membrane fusion proteins mediate virus penetration of cells for many arthropod-borne viruses. electron microscope observations and circumstantial evidence indicate insect acquisition of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) (genus tospovirus, family bunyaviridae) is receptor mediated, and tswv membrane glycoproteins (gp1 and gp2) serve as virus attachment proteins. the tospoviruses are plant-infecting members of the family bunyaviridae and are transmit ...199818944977
binding of tomato spotted wilt virus to a 94-kda thrips protein.abstract using protein blot assays, a 94-kda thrips protein was identified that exhibited specific binding to tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) particles. renaturation of the 94-kda protein, which is conserved among the two major vector species of tswv, frankliniella occidentalis and thrips tabaci, was crucial for its virus-binding properties, whereas under the same conditions no specific binding was observed with aphid (myzus persicae) proteins. the 94-kda protein species was present in all deve ...199818945001
impact of production system on development of insecticide resistance in frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae).the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae), has become one of the most difficult insects to control in the intensive agriculture of southeastern spain. however, resistance problems are quite different in two neighboring areas, murcia and almeria, with distinct production systems. thirty-six field populations of western flower thrips from sweet pepper crops were collected in two different dates in murcia and almeria in 2005 and 2006. western flower ...200818950052
first detection of wolbachia in arrhenotokous populations of thrips species (thysanoptera: thripidae and phlaeothripidae) and its role in reproduction.insects in the order thysanoptera are known for their haplodiploid reproduction, with most species reproducing by arrhenotoky. a few species, however, have only female populations and reproduce by thelytoky. seven thrips species reproducing either by arrhenotoky [frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), echinothrips americanus morgan, suocerathrips linguis mound and marullo, gynaikothrips ficorum (marchal)] or thelytoky [hercinothrips femoralis (o.m. reuter) and parthenothrips dracaenae (heeger)] ...200819161685
variation in tomato spotted wilt virus titer in frankliniella occidentalis and its association with frequency of transmission.tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) is transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips. while it is well established that vector competence depends on tswv acquisition by young larvae and virus replication within the insect, the biological factors associated with frequency of transmission have not been well characterized. we hypothesized that the number of transmission events by a single adult thrips is determined, in part, by the amount of vi ...200919271982
population abundance of frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae) and natural enemies on plant hosts in central chile.populations of the invasive frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) are serious pests of agricultural crops in the aconcagua valley of central chile. an extensive survey was conducted of 55 plant species in 24 families to identify plant hosts of f. occidentalis and to determine its relative abundance on each host during each season. a more intensive study was conducted on selected plant species serving as reproductive hosts to determine the population dynamics of f. occidentalis and to evaluate th ...200919389281
flower-inhabiting frankliniella thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae), pesticides, and fusarium hardlock in cotton.cotton hardlock caused by fusarium verticillioides (sacc. nirenberg) can reduce cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., yields > 70% in the southeastern united states. the spores infect flowers on the day of pollination, resulting in hardlock, which is the failure of the fiber to fluff as the boll opens at maturity. frankliniella spp. thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae) inhabiting the flowers are hypothesized to increase hardlock by spreading the conidia or by creating entranceways for the germinating fusar ...200919610399
effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from environmental protection agency registration under section 25(b) of the federal insecticide fungicide and rodenticide act. however, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. in fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not bee ...200919736770
metabolomic analysis of host plant resistance to thrips in wild and cultivated tomatoes.western flower thrips (frankliniella occidentalis) are among the most serious crop pests worldwide. control of thrips mainly depends on pesticides, excessive use of which leads to human health risks and environmental contamination. as an alternative, we study host plant resistance to thrips.201019866459
a distinct tospovirus causing necrotic streak on alstroemeria sp. in colombia.a tospovirus causing necrotic streaks on leaves was isolated from alstroemeria sp. in colombia. infected samples reacted positively with tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) antiserum during preliminary serological tests. further analysis revealed a close serological relationship to tomato chlorotic spot virus (tcsv) and groundnut ringspot virus (grsv). a major part of the s-rna segment, encompassing the nucleocapsid (n) protein gene, the 5' untranslated region and a part of the intergenic region 3' ...201020151164
ecology and behavior of pezothrips kellyanus (thysanoptera: thripidae) on citrus.the most common thrips species found in cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were pezothrips kellyanus (bagnall) (thysanoptera: thripidae), frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae), and thrips tabaci (lindeman) (thysanoptera: thripidae). only pezothrips kellyanus, kelly's citrus thrips (kct) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in cyprus. kct adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. the attractiv ...201020214367
onion thrips, thrips tabaci, have gut bacteria that are closely related to the symbionts of the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis.it has been shown that many insects have enterobacteriaceae bacteria in their gut system. the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis pergande [thysanoptera: thripidae], has a symbiotic relation with erwinia species gut bacteria. to determine if other thripidae species have similar bacterial symbionts, the onion thrips, thrips tabaci, was studied because, like f. occidentalis, it is phytophagous. contrary to f. occidentalis, t. tabaci is endemic in europe and biotypes have been describ ...200820298113
comparison of life history parameters of two frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae) strains in new zealand.two strains of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), are reputedly found in new zealand. one strain was recorded in 1934, and it is most common in flowers of lupinus arboreus outdoors (lupin strain); the other strain was first recorded in new zealand in 1992 and is found mostly indoors on greenhouse crops (greenhouse strain). laboratory studies were conducted to compare the life history parameters of these two strains. thrips from each strain were fed sucrose solution and ...201020388257
analysis of expressed sequence tags for frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips.thrips are members of the insect order thysanoptera and frankliniella occidentalis (the western flower thrips) is the most economically important pest within this order. f. occidentalis is both a direct pest of crops and an efficient vector of plant viruses, including tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv). despite the world-wide importance of thrips in agriculture, there is little knowledge of the f. occidentalis genome or gene functions at this time. a normalized cdna library was constructed from fi ...201020522119
the risk of exotic and native plants as hosts for four pest thrips (thysanoptera: thripinae).interactions among insect pests, crops and weeds are well recognised. in fact, the elimination of weed hosts outside of the crop is a common practice to control many insect-vectored viruses. however, little is known about interactions among insect pests, crops and native vegetation, and whether native plants may be used to revegetate areas where weed hosts have been eliminated as part of horticultural management regimes. we used the northern adelaide plains horticultural region (south australia, ...201020569517
flufenerim, a novel insecticide acting on diverse insect pests: biological mode of action and biochemical aspects.a new chemical compound was tested for its insecticidal activity against several major insect pests. the compound, called "flufenerim", has a core pyrimidine structure and an unknown mode of action and showed potent activity against the sweet potato whitefly bemisia tabaci (gennadius), the green peach aphid myzus persicae (sulzer), and the african cotton leafworm spodoptera littoralis (boisduval); however, it did not show any activity against two thrips species: western flower thrips frankliniel ...201020958045
evolution and structure of tomato spotted wilt virus populations: evidence of extensive reassortment and insights into emergence processes.tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv; genus tospovirus, family bunyaviridae) genetic diversity was evaluated by sequencing parts of the three rna genome segments of 224 isolates, mostly from pepper and tomato crops in southern europe. eighty-three per cent of the isolates showed consistent clustering into three clades, corresponding to their geographical origin, spain, france or the usa, for the three rna segments. in contrast, the remaining 17% of isolates did not belong to the same clade for the th ...201021169211
leaf chemistry and foliage avoidance by the thrips frankliniella occidentalis and heliothrips haemorrhoidalis in glasshouse collections.observational studies on foliage avoidance by the polyphagous thrips species frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) and heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (bouché) (thysanoptera: thripidae) identified six non-host species (allagopappus dichotomus (asteraceae), gardenia posoquerioides (rubiaceae), plectranthus aff. barbatus, plectranthus strigosus, plectranthus zuluensis (lamiaceae), and sclerochiton harveyanus (acanthaceae) among plants growing within a major glasshouse botanical collection. the effects ...201121331569
a natural m rna reassortant arising from two species of plant- and insect-infecting bunyaviruses and comparison of its sequence and biological properties to parental species.reassortment allows multicomponent viruses to exchange genome segments, a process well-documented in the vertebrate- and arthropod-infecting members of the family bunyaviridae but not between distinct species of the plant- and insect-infecting members of the genus tospovirus. genome sequence comparisons of a virus causing severe tospovirus-like symptoms in florida tomato with groundnut ringspot virus (grsv) and tomato chlorotic spot virus (tcsv) demonstrated that reassortment has occurred, with ...201121382631
infection with a plant virus modifies vector feeding behavior.vector infection by some animal-infecting parasites results in altered feeding that enhances transmission. modification of vector behavior is of broad adaptive significance, as parasite fitness relies on passage to a new host, and vector feeding is nearly always essential for transmission. although several plant viruses infect their insect vectors, we have shown that vector infection by a plant virus alters feeding behavior. here we show that infection with tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv), type ...201121606372
phytophagous arthropods and a pathogen sharing a host plant: evidence for indirect plant-mediated interactions.in ecological systems, indirect interactions between plant pathogens and phytophagous arthropods can arise when infestation by a first attacker alters the common host plant so that although a second attacker could be spatially or temporally separated from the first one, the former could be affected. the induction of plant defense reactions leading to the production of secondary metabolites is thought to have an important role since it involves antagonistic and/or synergistic cross-talks that may ...201121611161
epidemiology of spotted wilt disease of peanut caused by tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern u.s.spotted wilt disease of peanut (arachis hypogaea) (swp), caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) (genus tospovirus, family bunyaviridae), was first observed in alabama, florida, and georgia in the late 1980s and rapidly became a major limiting factor for peanut production in the region. tobacco thrips (frankliniella fusca) and western flower thrips (frankliniella occidentalis) both occur on peanut throughout the southeastern u.s., but f. fusca is the predominant species that reproduces on pea ...201121620508
detection, discrimination and absolute quantitation of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates using real time rt-pcr with taqman(®)mgb probes.a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) procedure using a general primer set and three taqman(®)mgb probes was developed for general and genotype-specific detection and quantitation of the genomic m segment of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv). standard curves using rna transcripts homologous to the three probes allowed reproducible quantitative assays with a wide dynamic range (10(3)-10(10) tswv m segment rna copies/ng of total rna) and high sensitivity ...201121635923
Antagonistic plant defense system regulated by phytohormones assists interactions among vector insect, thrips, and a tospovirus.The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a polyphagous herbivore that causes serious damage to many agricultural plants. In addition to causing feeding damage, it is also a vector insect that transmits tospoviruses such as Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). We previously reported that thrips feeding on plants induces a jasmonate (JA)-regulated plant defense, which negatively affects both the performance and preference (i.e., host plant attractiveness) of the thrips. The antagonis ...201122180600
generating thermotolerant colonies by pairing beauveria bassiana isolates.low thermotolerance in entomopathogenic fungi is the main impediment to their industrialization. this research, for the first time, describes the generation of a thermotolerant colony by pairing and subculturing (cycling) two beauveria bassiana isolates without sexual reproduction. a mixture of b. bassiana erl1578 and erl1576 was inoculated on quarter-strength sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (¼sday). the paired culture (erl1578 + 1576) was cycled three times to increase the frequency ...201122092818
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