smooth muscle contractile action of the venom from the crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci.the fraction (venom b) of spine venom from the crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) caused contractions of the uterus of rats and enhanced vascular permeability in rabbits. the venom b-induced contraction of the smooth muscle was depressed by inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis such as indomethacin or aspirin, but not by the anticholinergic agent, atropine. the fraction with the uterus contractile action was partially purified from venom b through column chromatography. this fraction ...19968852284
evidence from sediments of long-term acanthaster planci predation on corals of the great barrier reef.since 1962 the crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci, has caused the devastation of living coral in large tracts of the great barrier reef, australia. some authorities view this as a modern phenomenon, resulting from ecological disturbance caused by man. evidence from skeletal remains in sediment suggests that large a. planci populations have been part of the great barrier reef ecosystem for at least 8000 years. coral predation by a. planci is likely to have influenced the morphological f ...198917773362
fouling-resistant surfaces of tropical sea stars.qualitative evidence suggests sea stars are free of fouling organisms; however the presence of fouling-resistant surfaces of sea stars has not previously been documented. field surveys were conducted in northern queensland, australia, during the wet and dry seasons and several tropical sea star species were examined for surface-associated micro- and macro-organisms. mean bacterial abundances on seven sea star species were approximately 10(4) to 10(5) cells cm(-2) during both seasons. there were ...200717882628
assessment of three mitochondrial loci variability for the crown-of-thorns starfish: a first insight into acanthaster phylogeography.acanthaster planci (l.) is one of the major threats to coral reefs, whose genetic diversity has been mainly studied with allozymes. allozymes revealed the low genetic differentiation between a. planci populations in the indo-pacific area. we obtained sequences of a. planci from kenya, mayotte and madagascar at the three loci cytochrome oxydase subunit i (coi), 16s rdna (16s) and five trnas, analysed together with available sequences of acanthaster from the pacific ocean. the level of genetic div ...200818241806
a case of elevated liver function tests after crown-of-thorns (acanthaster planci) envenomation.the crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) inhabits coral reefs, largely throughout the indo-pacific region. its dorsal surface is covered with stout thorn-like spines. when handled or stepped on by humans, the spines can puncture the skin, causing an immediate painful reaction, followed by inflammation and possible infection. initial pain and swelling may last for days. effects of envenomation on the liver have been demonstrated previously in animal models, but hepatic toxicity has not p ...200819099322
refined identification of vibrio bacterial flora from acanthasther planci based on biochemical profiling and analysis of housekeeping genes.we used a polyphasic approach for precise identification of bacterial flora (vibrionaceae) isolated from crown-of-thorns starfish (cots) from lizard island (great barrier reef, australia) and guam (u.s.a., western pacific ocean). previous 16s rrna gene phylogenetic analysis was useful to allocate and identify isolates within the photobacterium, splendidus and harveyi clades but failed in the identification of vibrio harveyi-like isolates. species of the v harveyi group have almost indistinguisha ...201122013751
caspase-independent apoptosis induced in rat liver cells by plancitoxin i, the major lethal factor from the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci venom.plancitoxin i, the major lethal factor from the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci venom, is quite unique not only in exhibiting potent hepatotoxicity but also in sharing high sequence homology with mammalian deoxyribonulease ii. in this study, morphological and biochemical changes in rat liver epithelial cells (trl 1215 cells) treated with the toxin were examined to understand the mechanism by which plancitoxin i displays hepatotoxicity. alamarblue assay established that plancitoxin i ...200616973201
the marine biologist--bob endean.bob endean was a dedicated marine biologist with an extensive knowledge of coral reef communities in the great barrier reef and fauna in subtropical queensland waters. he commenced a study of venomous and poisonous marine animals dangerous to man at a time when the field was new, employing a variety of techniques to investigate the venom apparatus, mode of delivery of venom or toxin, mode of toxic action on excitable tissues, and biochemistry of venom or toxin. determination of the pharmacologic ...200616952385
molecular cloning of two toxic phospholipases a2 from the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci venom.the full-length cdnas encoding two toxic phospholipases a2 (ap-pla2-i and -ii) from the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci venom were individually cloned by rt-pcr, 3'race and 5'race. in common with both ap-pla2s, the precursor protein is composed of a signal peptide, a propeptide and a mature protein (136 and 135 residues for ap-pla2-i and -ii, respectively). the four motifs (ca2+-binding loop, ca2+-binding site, active site and catalytic network) characteristic of groups i and ii pla2 ...200616275035
[asteroidea, echinoidea y holothuroidea in shallow bottoms of bahía de loreto, baja california sur, mexico].to evaluate echinoderm distribution, abundance and density a double 50 m transect, with a side observation range of 2.5 m was used at each of 11 stations (bimonthly samplings, aug. 1997-febr. 1998). in bahía de loreto the phylum echinodermata consists of 26 taxa. the greatest mean abundance by transect and mean densities in order of importance for echinoidea were: echinometra vanbrunti (94.1 +/- 52.9 ind, 0.25 ind/m2), centrostephanus coronatus (38.15 +/- 9.15 ind, 0.06 ind/m2), tripneustes depr ...200011487923
skin and soft-tissue infections after injury in the ocean: culture methods and antibiotic therapy for marine bacteria.isolated organisms from two common indo-pacific marine animals (echinometra mathaei urchins and acanthaster planci sea stars) likely to cause puncture wounds to recreational beachcombers, diverse, or operational military forces during amphibious assaults demonstrate why practitioners should consider their first choice for potential antibiotic therapy differently from their usual favorite antibiotics. the effects of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose (tcbs) agar, varying salt concentrations in the ...199910091493
effect of the spine venom from the crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci, on drug-metabolizing enzyme in rat liver.the effect of spine venom from the crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) on drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver was studied. the spine venom was prepared by saturation of spine homogenate with ammonium sulfate and the protein fraction precipitating 50% saturation was used as venom b. venom a was the protein precipitated between 50 and 100% saturation. when venom b (100-200 mg/kg) was given to rats, liver microsomal gsh s-transferase and cytochrome p450 activities decreased while cytos ...19989922945
analysis for sites of anticoagulant action of plancinin, a new anticoagulant peptide isolated from the starfish acanthaster planci, in the blood coagulation cascade.1. effects of plancinin, a new anticoagulant peptide, on the human blood coagulation cascade were investigated. 2. plancinin prolonged both activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, and it significantly inhibited factor x activation by both intrinsic (factor ixa-factor viiia-phospholipids-ca2+) and extrinsic (factor viia-tissue factor-phospholipids-ca2+) tenase complexes and prothrombin activation by prothrombinase complex (factor xa-factor va-phospholipids-ca2+) to 13.8%, 4.8% ...19989688472
purification of anticoagulant factor from the spine venom of the crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci.the fraction with anticoagulant activity was purified from the spine venom of acanthaster planci by fractionation with ammonium sulfate followed by column chromatography and designated plancinin. its molecular weight determined by tricine-sds polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 7500 in native form and about 3000 in reduced conditions. plancinin showed neither platelet aggregation nor an enhancement of vascular permeability. fibrin formation time was prolonged by 25 micrograms of plancin ...19968875774
haemodynamic and haematologic effects of acanthaster planci venom in dogs.this study was designed to examine haemodynamic and haematologic effects of the crown-of-thorns starfish venom (acanthaster planci venom: apv) in dogs. severe systemic hypotension, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were induced by apv (1.0 mg protein/kg i.v.), followed by gradual return to the baseline level within 60 min. hypotension was presumably caused by two factors: an early decrease in systemic vascular resistance and the large reduction in cardiac output due to reduced ventricular filling. ...19947846692
liver damage by the crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) lethal factor.upon autopsy of mice injected with the crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) lethal factor, a change in color of the liver, swelling of the gall bladder and jaundice were observed. after administration of the lethal factor into mice, activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (got), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (gpt), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), acid phosphatase (acp) and alkaline phosphatase (alp) were significantly elevated in serum. hepatic alp also increased markedly but hepat ...19902389250
cardiovascular effects of acanthaster planci venom in the rat: possible involvement of paf in its hypotensive effect.cardiovascular effects of the crowns-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) venom were examined in rats. the crude venom extracted from the spines of a. planci caused systemic hypotension associated with an increase in heart rate and a decrease in renal cortical blood flow when given i.v. the hypotensive effect of the venom was not inhibited by pretreatment with atropine, indomethacin or aprotinin, but was significantly inhibited by sri 63-441, a platelet activating factor (paf) antagonist. the ...19921440631
joint estimation of crown of thorns (acanthaster planci) densities on the great barrier starfish (cots; acanthaster spp.) are an outbreaking pest among many indo-pacific coral reefs that cause substantial ecological and economic damage. despite ongoing cots research, there remain critical gaps in observing cots populations and accurately estimating their numbers, greatly limiting understanding of the causes and sources of cots outbreaks. here we address two of these gaps by (1) estimating the detectability of adult cots on typical underwater visual count (uvc) surve ...201627635314
coral recovery in the central maldives archipelago since the last major mass-bleaching, in 1998.increasing frequency and severity of disturbances is causing global degradation of coral reef ecosystems. this study examined temporal changes in live coral cover and coral composition in the central maldives from 1997 to 2016, encompassing two bleaching events, a tsunami, and an outbreak of acanthaster planci. we also examined the contemporary size structure for five dominant coral taxa (tabular acropora, acropora muricata, acropora humilis, pocillopora spp, and massive porites). total coral co ...201627694823
pyrrole oligoglycosides from the starfish acanthaster planci suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in raw264.7 macrophages.two new pyrrole oligoglycosides, plancipyrrosides a and b (1 and 2), were isolated from methanol extract of the vietnamese starfish acanthaster planci using various chromatographic procedures. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one and two dimensional (1d- and 2d)-nmr and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ft-icr)-ms. the finding of 1 and 2 represents the third case of pyrrole oligoglycosides obtaining reported to date. moreover, plancipyrroside b (2) exh ...201627600480
the potential for self-seeding by the coral pocillopora spp. in moorea, french polynesia.coral reefs in moorea, french polynesia, suffered catastrophic coral mortality through predation by acanthaster planci from 2006 to 2010, and cyclone oli in 2010, yet by 2015 some coral populations were approaching pre-disturbance sizes. using long-term study plots, we quantified population dynamics of spawning pocillopora spp. along the north shore of moorea between 2010 and 2014, and considered evidence that population recovery could be supported by self-seeding. results scaled up from study p ...201627867759
three new steroid biglycosides, plancisides a, b, and c, from the starfish acanthaster planci.three new steroid biglycosides, plancisides a-c (1-3), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the starfish acanthaster planci. the structures of 1-3 were determined by extensive nmr and esi-ms techniques, as (24s)-28-o-[β-d-galactofuranosyl-(1-->5)-α-l-arabinofuranosyl]-24-methyl-5α-cholestane-3β, 4β, 6α, 8, 15α,16α, 28-heptol (1), (24s)-28-o-[α-l-fucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-3-o-methy-β-d-xylopyranosy]-24-methy-5α-cholestane-3β, 4β,6α,8,15β,16β,28- heptol (2) and (24s)-28-o-[2,4-di-o-methyl-β-d ...201425918789
assessing different causes of crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks and appropriate responses for management on the great barrier reef.the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci (cots) has contributed greatly to declines in coral cover on australia's great barrier reef, and remains one of the major acute disturbances on indo-pacific coral reefs. despite uncertainty about the underlying causes of outbreaks and the management responses that might address them, few studies have critically and directly compared competing hypotheses. this study uses qualitative modelling to compare hypotheses relating to outbreak initiation, ex ...201628036360
neuropeptides encoded within a neural transcriptome of the giant triton snail charonia tritonis, a crown-of-thorns starfish predator.neuropeptides represent a diverse class of signaling molecules originating from neural tissues. these chemical modulators orchestrate complex physiological events including those associated with growth and reproduction. de novo transcriptome sequencing of a cerebral ganglion library of the endangered giant triton snail (charonia tritonis) was undertaken in an effort to identify key neuropeptides that control or influence its physiology. the giant triton snail is considered a primary predator of ...201728082215
superstars: assessing nutrient thresholds for enhanced larval success of acanthaster planci, a review of the starfish, acanthaster planci (cots), predation is a major cause of coral reef decline, but the factors behind their population outbreaks remain unclear. increased phytoplankton food resulting from eutrophication is suggested to enhance larval survival. we addressed the hypothesis that larval success is associated with particular chl-a levels in tightly controlled larval:algal conditions. we used chl-a conditions found on coral reefs (0.1-5.0μgchl-al(-1)), including nominal thresh ...201728094041
environmental and biological cues for spawning in the crown-of-thorns starfish.sporadic outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish are likely to be due, at least in part, to spatial and temporal variation in reproductive and settlement success. for gonochoric and broadcast spawning species such as crown-of-thorns starfish, spawning synchrony is fundamental for achieving high rates of fertilization. highly synchronized gamete release within and among distinct populations is typically the result of the entrainment of neurohormonal endogenous rhythms by cues from ...201728355236
antioxidative and anticancer activities of various ethanolic extract fractions from crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci).many studies currently researching marine invertebrates to determine the therapeutic potential of their bioactive materials have been showing very promising results. the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci, an echinodermata of the class asteroidea, is infamous as the unique venomous starfish and as a destroyer of coral reefs. starfish possesses many useful pharmacological and biological characteristics. in this study, a. planci was extracted with 70% ethanol and lyophilized to obtain an ...201425305737
the crown-of-thorns starfish genome as a guide for biocontrol of this coral reef pest.the crown-of-thorns starfish (cots, the acanthaster planci species group) is a highly fecund predator of reef-building corals throughout the indo-pacific region. cots population outbreaks cause substantial loss of coral cover, diminishing the integrity and resilience of reef ecosystems. here we sequenced genomes of cots from the great barrier reef, australia and okinawa, japan to identify gene products that underlie species-specific communication and could potentially be used in biocontrol strat ...201728379940
interspecific transmission and recovery of tcbs-induced disease between acanthaster planci and linckia guildingi.the susceptibility of the coral-feeding crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci to disease may provide an avenue with which to effectively control population outbreaks that have caused severe and widespread coral loss in the indo-pacific. injecting thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose (tcbs) agar into a. planci tissues induced a disease characterized by dermal lesions, loss of skin turgor, collapsed spines, and accumulation of mucus on spine tips. moreover, the symptoms (and presumably the agent ...201222968793
exploring the chemodiversity and biological activities of the secondary metabolites from the marine fungus neosartorya pseudofischeri.the production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. to explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (glypy) and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (glupy) media were used to culture this fungus. when cultured in glypy medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins a and b (1 and 2), toget ...201425421322
two chlorinated benzofuran derivatives from the marine fungus pseudallescheria boydii.the marine fungus pseudallescheria boydii was isolated from the inner tissue of the starfish acanthaster planci. this fungus was cultured in a high salinity glucose-peptone-yeast extract (gpy) medium. two new chlorinated benzofuran derivatives, 6-chloro-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5 hydroxybenzofuran (1) and 7-chloro-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxybenzofuran (2), were obtained from the extract of the culture broth. their structures were determined by analysis of the nmr a ...201525973491
purification and characterization of a lethal factor in venom from the crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci).a lethal factor in venom of the crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) was obtained in an electrophoretically pure state by chromatography on cm-cellulose and sephadex g-100. the purified lethal factor is a basic (pi 10.6) glycoprotein (carbohydrate content 3.5%). the mol. wt was estimated to be 20,000 by gel filtration or 25,000 by sds-disc electrophoresis, suggesting that the lethal factor has no subunit structure. despite its basicity, the lethal factor was richer in acidic amino acids ...20113245052
habitat degradation and fishing effects on the size structure of coral reef fish communities.overfishing and habitat degradation through climate change pose the greatest threats to sustainability of marine resources on coral reefs. we examined how changes in fishing pressure and benthic habitat composition influenced the size spectra of island-scale reef fish communities in lau, fiji. between 2000 and 2006 fishing pressure declined in the lau islands due to declining human populations and reduced demand for fresh fish. at the same time, coral cover declined and fine-scale architectural ...201020405798
crown-of-thorns starfish have true image forming vision.photoreceptors have evolved numerous times giving organisms the ability to detect light and respond to specific visual stimuli. studies into the visual abilities of the asteroidea (echinodermata) have recently shown that species within this class have a more developed visual sense than previously thought and it has been demonstrated that starfish use visual information for orientation within their habitat. whereas image forming eyes have been suggested for starfish, direct experimental proof of ...201627605999
the role of vision for navigation in the crown-of-thorns seastar, acanthaster planci.coral reefs all over the indo-pacific suffer from substantial damage caused by the crown-of-thorns seastar acanthaster planci, a voracious predator that moves on and between reefs to seek out its coral prey. chemoreception is thought to guide a. planci. as vision was recently introduced as another sense involved in seastar navigation, we investigated the potential role of vision for navigation in a. planci. we estimated the spatial resolution and visual field of the compound eye using histologic ...201627476750
active control of the visual field in the starfish acanthaster planci.photoreception in echinoderms has been studied for several years with a focus on the dermal photoreceptors of echinoids. even though spatial vision has been proposed for this dermal photosystem, by far the most advanced system is found in a number of asteroids where an unpaired tube foot at the tip of each arm carries a proper eye, also known as the optical cushion. the eyes resemble compound eyes, except for the lack of true optics, and they typically have between 50 and 250 ommatidia each. the ...201627450160
the role of maternal nutrition on oocyte size and quality, with respect to early larval development in the coral-eating starfish, acanthaster planci.variation in local environmental conditions can have pronounced effects on the population structure and dynamics of marine organisms. previous studies on crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci, have primarily focused on effects of water quality and nutrient availability on larval growth and survival, while the role of maternal nutrition on reproduction and larval development has been overlooked. to examine the effects of maternal nutrition on oocyte size and early larval development in a. ...201627327627
marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.with marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. marine protected areas (mpas) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. here, we demonstrate that mpas can increase the resilience of coral reef communitie ...201627038889
five new cytotoxic metabolites from the marine fungus neosartorya pseudofischeri.the marine fungus neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from acanthaster planci from the south china sea. in a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm spodoptera frugiperda. five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene a (1), 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene a (4), deacetylsesquiterpene (7), 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9) and 6,8-dihydrox ...201626771621
controlling range expansion in habitat networks by adaptively targeting source populations.controlling the spread of invasive species, pests, and pathogens is often logistically limited to interventions that target specific locations at specific periods. however, in complex, highly connected systems, such as marine environments connected by ocean currents, populations spread dynamically in both space and time via transient connectivity links. this results in nondeterministic future distributions of species in which local populations emerge dynamically and concurrently over a large are ...201626633077
explained and unexplained tissue loss in corals from the tropical eastern pacific.coral reefs rival rainforest in biodiversity, but are declining in part because of disease. tissue loss lesions, a manifestation of disease, are present in dominant pocillopora along the pacific coast of mexico. we characterized tissue loss in 7 species of pocillopora from 9 locations (44 sites) spanning southern to northern mexico. corals were identified to species, and tissue loss lesions were photographed and classified as those explainable by predation and those that were unexplained. a foca ...201526480915
evidence for multiple stressor interactions and effects on coral reefs.concern is growing about the potential effects of interacting multiple stressors, especially as the global climate changes. we provide a comprehensive review of multiple stressor interactions in coral reef ecosystems, which are widely considered to be one of the most sensitive ecosystems to global change. first, we synthesized coral reef studies that examined interactions of two or more stressors, highlighting stressor interactions (where one stressor directly influences another) and potentially ...201424166756
environmental triggers for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish on the great barrier reef, this paper, we postulate a unique environmental triggering sequence for primary outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (cots, acanthaster planci) on the central great barrier reef (gbr, australia). notably, we extend the previous terrestrial runoff hypothesis, viz. nutrient-enriched terrestrial runoff → elevated phytoplankton 'bloom' concentrations → enhanced cots larval survival, to include the additional importance of strong larvae retention around reefs or within reef groups (clusters) that ...201526460182
competitors as accomplices: seaweed competitors hide corals from predatory sea stars.indirect biotic effects arising from multispecies interactions can alter the structure and function of ecological communities--often in surprising ways that can vary in direction and magnitude. on pacific coral reefs, predation by the crown-of-thorns sea star, acanthaster planci, is associated with broad-scale losses of coral cover and increases of macroalgal cover. macroalgal blooms increase coral-macroalgal competition and can generate further coral decline. however, using a combination of man ...201526311663
pseudoalteromonas xishaensis sp. nov., isolated from acanthaster planci in the xisha islands.a gram-negative, aerobic, motile by means of single polar flagellum, short rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain e418t, was isolated from the spines on the body surface of starfish acanthaster planci in the xisha islands, china. cells of strain e418t were found to grow optimally at ph 7–8, at 25–37 °c, and in the presence of 2–5 % (w/v) nacl. phylogenetic analysis based on the comparison of 16s rrna gene sequences revealed that strain e418t is a member of the genus pseudoalteromonas. th ...201324022397
lethal doses of oxbile, peptones and thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (tcbs) for acanthaster planci; exploring alternative population control options.effective control of outbreaks of acanthaster planci represents the most immediate and practical intervention to reverse sustained declines in coral cover on reefs in the indo-pacific. this study explored the minimum doses of oxbile, oxgall, and thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (tcbs) that result in reliable and comprehensive mortality when injected into adult a. planci. the minimum doses required to induce 100% mortality among starfish (n=10) were 4 g l(-1) of oxbile, 8 g l(-1) of oxgall a ...201323972677
ecologically based targets for bioavailable (reactive) nitrogen discharge from the drainage basins of the wet tropics region, great barrier reef.a modelling framework is developed for the wet tropics region of the great barrier reef that links a quantitative river discharge parameter (viz. dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration, din) with an eutrophication indicator within the marine environment (viz. chlorophyll-a concentration, chl-a). the model predicts catchment-specific levels of reduction (%) in end-of-river din concentrations (as a proxy for total potentially reactive nitrogen, prn) needed to ensure compliance with chl-a 'trig ...201526072049
plancitoxin i from the venom of crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) induces oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress associated cytotoxicity in a375.s2 cells.the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci is a venomous starfish whose venom provokes strong cytotoxicity. in the present study, the purified cytotoxic toxin of a. planci venom (cav) was identified as plancitoxin i protein by mass spectrum analyses. this study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the cytotoxicity function of plancitoxin i by focusing on the oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (er) stress pathway in human melanoma a375.s2 ...201525952364
trichodermaerin, a new diterpenoid lactone from the marine fungus trichoderma erinaceum associated with the sea star acanthaster planci.trichodermaerin (1), a novel diterpenoid lactone, together with the known compound, harziandione (2) were isolated from the culture broth of the fungus trichoderma erinaceum associated with the sea star acanthaster planci. their structures were determined by analysis of the nmr and ms data. 1 was the baeyer-villiger monooxygenase catalyzed oxidation product of 2. compound 2 did not show cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines.201323472462
larval starvation to satiation: influence of nutrient regime on the success of acanthaster planci.high density populations of the crown-of-thorns seastar, acanthaster planci, are a major contributor to the decline of coral reefs, however the causes behind periodic outbreaks of this species are not understood. the enhanced nutrients hypothesis posits that pulses of enhanced larval food in eutrophic waters facilitate metamorphic success with a flow-on effect for population growth. the larval resilience hypothesis suggests that a. planci larvae naturally thrive in tropical oligotrophic waters. ...201525790074
climate change as an unexpected co-factor promoting coral eating seastar (acanthaster planci) outbreaks.coral reefs face a crisis due to local and global anthropogenic stressors. a large proportion of the ~50% coral loss on the great barrier reef has been attributed to outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns-seastar (cots). a widely assumed cause of primary cots outbreaks is increased larval survivorship due to higher food availability, linked with anthropogenic runoff . our experiment using a range of algal food concentrations at three temperatures representing present day average and predicted future i ...201525672480
de novo assembly of the transcriptome of acanthaster planci testes.a key strategy to reduce coral loss is the development of effective control method for the corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star (acanthaster planci), an omnipresent scourge and threat to the biodiversity of reefs in the indo-pacific region. limited genetic resources are available for this highly fecund species. in this study, we explored one aspect at the heart of a. planci outbreaks, the male reproductive system. using high-throughput sequencing technology, we report for first time the produc ...201525494938
genomic organization of hox and parahox clusters in the echinoderm, acanthaster planci.the organization of echinoderm hox clusters is of interest due to the role that hox genes play in deuterostome development and body plan organization, and the unique gene order of the hox complex in the sea urchin strongylocentrotus purpuratus, which has been linked to the unique development of the axial region. here, it has been reported that the hox and parahox clusters of acanthaster planci, a corallivorous starfish found in the pacific and indian oceans, generally resembles the chordate and ...201425394327
species and size diversity in protective services offered by coral guard-crabs.coral guard-crabs in the genus trapezia are well-documented defenders of their pocilloporid coral hosts against coral predators such as the crown-of-thorns seastar (acanthaster planci complex). the objectives of this study were to examine the protective services of six species of trapezia against corallivory, and the extent of functional diversity among these trapezia species. studies conducted in mo'orea, french polynesia showed the trapezia-coral mutualism protected the host corals from multip ...201425289176
coral reef disturbance and recovery dynamics differ across gradients of localized stressors in the mariana islands.the individual contribution of natural disturbances, localized stressors, and environmental regimes upon longer-term reef dynamics remains poorly resolved for many locales despite its significance for management. this study examined coral reefs in the commonwealth of the northern mariana islands across a 12-year period that included elevated crown-of-thorns starfish densities (cots) and tropical storms that were drivers of spatially-inconsistent disturbance and recovery patterns. at the island s ...201425268750
operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. in this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability ( ...201525196132
coral reef disturbance and recovery dynamics differ across gradients of localized stressors in the mariana islands.the individual contribution of natural disturbances, localized stressors, and environmental regimes upon longer-term reef dynamics remains poorly resolved for many locales despite its significance for management. this study examined coral reefs in the commonwealth of the northern mariana islands across a 12-year period that included elevated crown-of-thorns starfish densities (cots) and tropical storms that were drivers of spatially-inconsistent disturbance and recovery patterns. at the island s ...201425165893
spine venom of crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) induces antiproliferation and apoptosis of human melanoma cells (a375.s2).the crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) is a venomous starfish. in this study, the extraction of a. planci spine venom (asv) was performed by phosphate saline buffer, followed by assaying the cytotoxicity on human normal and tumor cells. it was found that human melanoma cells (a375.s2) were the most sensitive to the asv solution. the cells, after incubation with asv, significantly appeared to decrease cell viability and increase lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) release with a dose-dependent ...201425159188
an integrative approach to the taxonomy of the crown-of-thorns starfish species group (asteroidea: acanthaster): a review of names and comparison to recent molecular data.the scientific names published for species and subspecies in the genus acanthaster gervais (asteroidea: valvatida: acanthasteridae) are reviewed, with particular attention to the a. planci species group (crown-of-thorn starfish, cots). several problems with earlier nomenclatural and bibliographic data are resolved. the available name for the type species of acanthaster in the original combination is asterias echinites ellis & solander in watt, 1786; the often-cited "asterias echinus" and "acanth ...201425082040
cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the plancitoxin i from the venom of crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) on a375.s2 cells.this study reports on a cytotoxic toxin derived from the venom of the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci (cav). the protein toxin was isolated through both ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography, and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and mass spectrum analyzes. the cav was identified as plancitoxin i protein. the mechanistic role of the cav toxin was explored in human malignant melanoma a375.s2 cell death. the results indicated ...201525047904
pseudaboydins a and b: novel isobenzofuranone derivatives from marine fungus pseudallescheria boydii associated with starfish acanthaster planci.two novel isobenzofuranone derivatives, pseudaboydins a (1) and b (2), along with five known compounds, including (r)-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxybenzofuran (3), (r)-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxybenzofuran (4), 3,3'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethyldiphenyl ether (5), 3-(3-methoxy-5-methylphenoxy)-5-methylphenol (6) and (-)-regiolone (7), were isolated from the culture broth of the marine fungus, pseudallescheria boydii, associated with the starfish, acanthaster planci. ...201425026266
carotenoids in marine invertebrates living along the kuroshio current coast.carotenoids of the corals acropora japonica, a. secale, and a. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail drupella fragum were investigated. the corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. the crown-of-thorns starfish and ...201121892355
coral reef community composition in the context of disturbance history on the great barrier reef, australia.much research on coral reefs has documented differential declines in coral and associated organisms. in order to contextualise this general degradation, research on community composition is necessary in the context of varied disturbance histories and the biological processes and physical features thought to retard or promote recovery. we conducted a spatial assessment of coral reef communities across five reefs of the central great barrier reef, australia, with known disturbance histories, and a ...201424983747
violapyrones h and i, new cytotoxic compounds isolated from streptomyces sp. associated with the marine starfish acanthaster planci.two new α-pyrone derivatives, violapyrones h (1) and i (2), along with known violapyrones b (3) and c (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine actinomycete streptomyces sp. the strain was derived from a crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci, collected from chuuk, federated states of micronesia. the structures of violapyrones were elucidated by the analysis of 1d and 2d nmr and hr-esims data. violapyrones (1-4) exhibited cytotoxicity against 10 human cancer cell lines with ...201424886866
high-molecular weight protein toxins of marine invertebrates and their elaborate modes of action.high-molecular weight protein toxins significantly contribute to envenomations by certain marine invertebrates, e.g., jellyfish and fire corals. toxic proteins frequently evolved from enzymes meant to be employed primarily for digestive purposes. the cellular intermediates produced by such enzymatic activity, e.g., reactive oxygen species or lysophospholipids, rapidly and effectively mediate cell death by disrupting cellular integrity. membrane integrity may also be disrupted by pore-forming tox ...201020358685
structure of minor carotenoids from the crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci.four new carotenoids, named 4-ketodeepoxyneoxanthin (1), 4-keto-4'-hydroxydiatoxanthin (2), 3'-epigobiusxanthin (3), and 7,8-dihydrodiadinoxanthin (4), were isolated from the crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci. their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data.201020180541
adaptive management of the great barrier reef: a globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves.the great barrier reef (gbr) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. ...201020176947
larvae of the coral eating crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci in a warmer-high co2 ocean.outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (cots), acanthaster planci, contribute to major declines of coral reef ecosystems throughout the indo-pacific. as the oceans warm and decrease in ph due to increased anthropogenic co2 production, coral reefs are also susceptible to bleaching, disease and reduced calcification. the impacts of ocean acidification and warming may be exacerbated by cots predation, but it is not known how this major predator will fare in a changing ocean. because larval success i ...201424615941
anaphylactic shock caused by sting of crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci).a 40s-year-old woman with previous history of injury due to contact with crown-of-thorns starfish, acanthaster planci, was stung on the right middle finger. after immediately losing consciousness, she died 13 h after injury despite intensive medical treatment. examination of the respiratory system revealed narrowing due to severe edema of the laryngopharynx, as well as alveolar hemorrhage, eosinophilic infiltration, and extensive neutrophil and eosinophil aggregation in the intravascular lumen o ...201424491916
impacts of ocean acidification on early life-history stages and settlement of the coral-eating sea star acanthaster planci.coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (cots) are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the great barrier reef. here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (oa) conditions can affect early life history stages of cots, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility ...201324358240
crown-of-thorns starfish. 201324200316
understanding the spatio-temporal response of coral reef fish communities to natural disturbances: insights from beta-diversity decomposition.understanding how communities respond to natural disturbances is fundamental to assess the mechanisms of ecosystem resistance and resilience. however, ecosystem responses to natural disturbances are rarely monitored both through space and time, while the factors promoting ecosystem stability act at various temporal and spatial scales. hence, assessing both the spatial and temporal variations in species composition is important to comprehensively explore the effects of natural disturbances. here, ...201526393511
lime juice and vinegar injections as a cheap and natural alternative to control cots outbreaks.outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar acanthaster planci (cots) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the indo-pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. while injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control cots densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. we tested a ...201526356840
coral population trajectories, increased disturbance and management intervention: a sensitivity analysis.coral reefs distant from human population were sampled in the red sea and one-third showed degradation by predator outbreaks (crown-of-thorns-starfish = cots observed in all regions in all years) or bleaching (1998, 2010). models were built to assess future trajectories. they assumed variable coral types (slow/fast growing), disturbance frequencies (5,10,20 years), mortality (equal or not), and connectivity (un/connected to un/disturbed community). known disturbances were used to parameterize mo ...201323610643
background mortality rates for recovering populations of acropora cytherea in the chagos archipelago, central indian ocean.this study quantified background rates of mortality for acropora cytherea in the chagos archipelago. despite low levels of anthropogenic disturbance, 27.5% (149/541) of a. cytherea colonies exhibited some level of partial mortality, and 9.0% (49/541) of colonies had recent injuries. a total of 15.3% of the overall surface area of physically intact a. cytherea colonies was dead. observed mortality was partly attributable to overtopping and/or self-shading among colonies. there were also low-densi ...201323518368
species-diverse coral communities on an artificial substrate at a tuna farm in amami, japan.tuna-farming is expanding worldwide, necessitating the monitoring/managing of its effects on the natural environment. in japan, tuna-farming is conducted on coral reefs that have been damaged by mass-bleaching events and crown-of-thorns starfish (cots) outbreaks. this study focused on the coral community on an artificial substrate of tuna-farm to reveal the possible effects of tuna-farming on the natural environment. corals flourished on ropes suspended in the farm in the amami islands, southern ...201323321299
sulfated glycosaminoglycans from crown-of-thorns acanthaster planci - extraction and quantification this article, the novel inventive steps for the extraction and quantification of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (gag) from acanthaster planci starfish, generally known as crown-of-thorns (cot), are reported. starfish have been implicated with collagenous distributions within their body anatomy, thus making it a prima facie fact searching for the possibility that gags can be isolated from cot. in this study, total-, n-, and o-sulfated gags were extracted from three anatomical regions of the cot (i ...201324804017
novel sorbicillin analogues from the marine fungus trichoderma sp. associated with the seastar acanthaster planci.two novel sorbicillinoid analogues, (4'z)-sorbicillin (1) and (2s)-2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-[(e)-prop-1-enyl]-chroman-4-one (2), together with three known compounds, (2s)-2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-6,8-dimethyl-2-[(e)-prop-1-enyl]-chroman-4-one (3), sorbicillin (4), and 2',3'-dihydrosorbicillin (5), were isolated from the culture broth of the fungus trichoderma sp. associated with the seastar acanthaster planci. their structures were determined by analysis of the nmr and ms data. compound i w ...201223157004
specialization in habitat use by coral reef damselfishes and their susceptibility to habitat loss.while it is generally assumed that specialist species are more vulnerable to disturbance compared with generalist counterparts, this has rarely been tested in coastal marine ecosystems, which are increasingly subject to a wide range of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. habitat specialists are expected to be more vulnerable to habitat loss because habitat availability exerts a greater limitation on population size, but it is also possible that specialist species may escape effects of distur ...201223139876
predator crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci) outbreak, mass mortality of corals, and cascading effects on reef fish and benthic communities.outbreaks of the coral-killing seastar acanthaster planci are intense disturbances that can decimate coral reefs. these events consist of the emergence of large swarms of the predatory seastar that feed on reef-building corals, often leading to widespread devastation of coral populations. while cyclic occurrences of such outbreaks are reported from many tropical reefs throughout the indo-pacific, their causes are hotly debated, and the spatio-temporal dynamics of the outbreaks and impacts to ree ...201223056635
distribution and sequestration of palytoxin in coral reef the reefs off the colombian coast (caribbean sea) and around lizard island, australia (pacific), palytoxin (ptx), which has been detected in zoanthid species of the genus palythoa, also occurred in various other marine organisms living in close association with zoanthid colonies, e.g. sponges (porifera), soft corals (alcyonaria), gorgonians (gorgonaria), mussels, and crustaceans. predators, e.g. polychaete worms (hermodice carunculata), a starfish (acanthaster planci) and fish (chaetodon spec ...199910482387
the 27-year decline of coral cover on the great barrier reef and its causes.the world's coral reefs are being degraded, and the need to reduce local pressures to offset the effects of increasing global pressures is now widely recognized. this study investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of coral cover, identifies the main drivers of coral mortality, and quantifies the rates of potential recovery of the great barrier reef. based on the world's most extensive time series data on reef condition (2,258 surveys of 214 reefs over 1985-2012), we show a major decline in ...201223027961
evaluation of anti-cancer activity of acanthester planci extracts obtained by different methods of extraction.acanthaster planci, the crown-of-thorns starfish, naturally endowed with the numerous toxic spines around the dorsal area of its body. scientific investigations demonstrated several toxico-pharmacological efficacies of a. planci such as, myonecrotic activity, hemorrhagic activity, hemolytic activity, mouse lethality, phospholipase a2 (pla2) activity, capillary permeability-increasing activity, edema-forming activity, anticoagulant activity and histamine-releasing activity from mast cells. the pr ...201223009983
[our investigation on the chemistry of biologically active natural products. with the object of exploitation for structure determination methods, and elucidation of vital function].our investigation on the chemistry of biologically active natural products during the last 40 years since 1953 are reviewed in this paper. the following subjects are discussed: i. photochemical relationship between rhodopsin and compounds related to areca alkaloid, ii. furanoid diterpenoid constituents from dioscoreaceae plants and colombo root, iii. field desorption and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of biologically active natural glycosides and glycosphingolipids, iv. investigation of ...19938509990
lipolytic enzymes of the digestive organs of the crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci): comparison of the stomach and pyloric caeca.1. stomach and pyloric caeca homogenates from the crown-of-thorns starfish hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl esters, alpha-naphthyl esters, cholesteryl oleate and tributyrin. the pyloric caeca contained the highest activities. 2. the p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolytic activity eluted at 0.23 m nacl on ion exchange chromatography while the p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolytic activity eluted between 0.2 and 1.0 m nacl. 3. polyacrylamide gel zymograms for alpha-naphthyl acetate hydrolytic activity revealed one ...19892721155
phylogeography of the crown-of-thorns starfish in the indian ocean.understanding the limits and population dynamics of closely related sibling species in the marine realm is particularly relevant in organisms that require management. the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci, recently shown to be a species complex of at least four closely related species, is a coral predator infamous for its outbreaks that have devastated reefs throughout much of its indo-pacific distribution.201222927975
acanthaster planci outbreak: decline in coral health, coral size structure modification and consequences for obligate decapod assemblages.although benthic motile invertebrate communities encompass the vast majority of coral reef diversity, their response to habitat modification has been poorly studied. a variety of benthic species, particularly decapods, provide benefits to their coral host enabling them to cope with environmental stressors, and as a result benefit the overall diversity of coral-associated species. however, little is known about how invertebrate assemblages associated with corals will be affected by global perturb ...201222530026
hybrid crown-of-thorns starfish (acanthaster planci xa. brevispinus) reared to maturity in the laboratory. 1976972678
aversive behaviour of crown-of-thorns starfish to coral evoked by food-related chemicals. 19769591
isolation and partial characterization of steroid glycosides from the starfish acanthaster planci. 1976175992
wax digestion in a crown-of-thorns starfish. 19751175363
spawning pheromone in crown-of-thorns starfish. 19751117997
polychlorinated biphenyls in the seastar acanthaster planci. 19734203182
estimating growth and mortality rates from size data.a method is presented for estimating rates of individual growth and population mortality utilizing average individual size at two times during a year. the model assumes a constant rate of mortality, brody-bertalanffy growth, a stationary age distribution, and recruitment confined to one month each year. a hypothetical example is presented to show the interrelationships of the growth and mortality constants, size at recruitment, asymptotic size and average individual size. three examples are pres ...197328307167
organochlorines in the seastar acanthaster planci. 19724669497
5 -pregn-9(11)-ene-3 ,6 -diol-20-one and 5 -cholesta-9(11),20(22)-diene-3 ,6 -diol-23-one. two novel steroids from the starfish acanthaster planci. 19725032505
crown-of-thorns starfish wounds--some observations on injury sites. 20055033350
larval development and metamorphosis of acanthaster planci (asteroidea). 197116063148
there's no place like home: crown-of-thorns outbreaks in the central pacific are regionally derived and independent of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, acanthaster planci. although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. this secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of a. planci and the assertion that outb ...201222363570
injection of acanthaster planci with thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (tcbs). ii. histopathological changes.we assessed histological changes in the tissues of the crown-of-thorns starfish acanthaster planci (cots) after injection of thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (tcbs) which was used as a disease inducer (potential outbreak control method), by conventional and scanning electron microscopy. digestive glands were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to describe the histological architecture of the intestinal epithelium. subsequently comparison of healthy versus infected tissues and g ...201122303626
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