effects of hypoxia on contents of essential elements in pika and rat heart.the effects of hypoxia on the levels of essential macroelements and trace elements (k, na, ca, mg, cu, zn, fe, and mn) in the heart muscles of wistar rats and plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) were studied by atomic absorption spectrometry. unlike the rat, the plateau pika is tolerant to hypoxia. the levels of k, na, and the trace element mn were not significantly changed in rat or pika hearts after exposure to hypoxia for 1, 10, or 25 d at simulated altitudes of 5000 and 7000 m. other minerals ...200515772438
echinococcus shiquicus n. sp., a taeniid cestode from tibetan fox and plateau pika in china.the taeniid cestode echinococcus shiquicus n. sp. was found from the tibetan fox vulpes ferrilata and the plateau pika ochotona curzoniae in the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china. in the adult stage, e. shiquicus from the foxes is morphologically similar to echinococcus multilocularis. however, the new species is differentiated by its smaller rostellar hooks, fewer segments, distinct position of genital pore in the mature segment and fewer eggs in the gravid segment. hydatid cysts of e. shiq ...200515862582
echinococcus shiquicus, a new species from the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china: discovery and epidemiological shiqu county of the qinghai-tibet plateau, many wild and domestic mammals are involved in the transmission cycles of echinococcus spp. echinococcus multilocularis and echinococcus granulosus genotype g1 (sheep strain) are sympatrically distributed in the plateau. in 1995, we identified a unique strobilate stage of echinococcus from the tibetan fox, vulpes ferrilata, but considered it to be a variant of e. multilocularis. subsequent molecular genetic studies revealed that a hydatid cyst from t ...200616337180
dual infection of animal hosts with different echinococcus species in the eastern qinghai-tibet plateau region of china.the eastern qinghai-tibet plateau of china is a highly endemic region of echinococcosis where echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (sheep strain), echinococcus multilocularis, and echinococcus shiquicus are distributed sympatrically. we developed a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) method for the identification of the three species in this region. the pcr-rflp showed the dual infection of animals with different echinococcus spp. the first case w ...200616896135
the protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha is increased in the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) inhabiting high altitudes.the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) is a high hypoxia-tolerant species living only at 3,000-5,000 m above sea-level on the qinghai-tibetan plateau. hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (hif-1) is a key transcription factor that regulates a variety of cellular and systemic adaptations to hypoxia. to investigate how the plateau pika adapts to a high-altitude hypoxic environment at the molecular level, we examined the expression pattern of the hif-1alpha protein in the pika by western blot and immunohistoc ...200919048601
parasite species associated with wild plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) in southeastern qinghai province, china.a survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and seasonal abundance of egg, larval, and adult stages of helminths; oocyts of protozoans; and ectoparasites of plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) in seven areas of southeastern qinghai province, china, during august 2006 and may 2007. fecal samples collected from 430 plateau pikas were examined by the modified mcmaster technique, which revealed that 83% of the samples contained eggs from two or more helminth species. mean fecal egg counts were ...200919395738
[epidemiological survey on echinococcosis in darlag county of qinghai province].to make an epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis in darlag county, guoluo tibetan autonomous prefecture of qinghai province.200919459494
[study on the natural foci of marmota himalayana plague in sichuan province].to explore the existence of natural foci on marmota himalayana plague in sichuan province and to provide basis for prevention and control of the disease.200919957628
distribution of the intermediate hosts of echinococcus multilocularis in shiqu county, sichuan, china.the rodentia and lagomorpha animals are the intermediate hosts of echinococcus multilocularis, their distribution and infection of this parasite may facilitate the infection of definitive hosts such as dogs. the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of the intermediate hosts of echinococcus multilocularis in shiqu county, sichuan, china.201122040488
surveillance of echinococcus isolates from qinghai, china.echinococcosis is highly endemic over large parts of the qinghai-tibet plateau (qtp), china. based on a large number of samples, we present data on the current presence, host distribution, and genetic diversity of echinococcus in the qinghai province, located in the northeastern corner of the qtp and constituting >25% of the area of the plateau. we used 521 samples (including 451 newly collected samples and 70 samples from our previous study) from humans, yaks, sheep, goats, dogs, fox, plateau p ...201525480467
molecular identification of echinococcus species from eastern and southern qinghai, china, based on the mitochondrial cox1 gene.the qinghai-tibetan plateau (qtp, in western china), which is the largest and highest plateau on earth, is a highly epidemic region for echinococcus spp. we collected 70 echinococcus samples from humans, dogs, sheep, yaks, plateau pikas, and voles in eastern and southern qinghai and genotyped them using the mitochondrial dna marker cytochrome oxidase subunit i gene and maximum parsimony and bayesian reconstruction methods. based on the 792-bp sequence matrix, we recorded 124 variable sites, of w ...201222258080
a random forest approach for predicting the presence of echinococcus multilocularis intermediate host ochotona spp. presence in relation to landscape characteristics in western china.understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western china. landsat etm+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generat ...201425386042
transmission ecosystems of echinococcus multilocularis in china and central asia.from continental to regional scales, the zoonosis alveolar echinococcosis (ae) (caused by echinococcus multilocularis) forms discrete patches of endemicity within which transmission hotspots of much larger prevalence may occur. since the late 80s, a number of hotspots have been identified in continental asia, mostly in china, wherein the ecology of intermediate host communities has been described. this is the case in south gansu, at the eastern border of the tibetan plateau, in south ningxia, in ...201323734823
functional evolution of leptin of ochotona curzoniae in adaptive thermogenesis driven by cold environmental stress.environmental stress can accelerate the directional selection and evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins to bring about new or altered functions, enhancing an organism's fitness to challenging environments. plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), an endemic and keystone species on qinghai-tibetan plateau, is a high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis to cope in this harsh plateau environment. leptin is a key horm ...201121698227
distribution of sialic acid receptors and experimental infections with different subtypes of influenza a viruses in qinghai-tibet plateau wild pika.the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) is a small rabbit-like mammal that lives at high altitudes in the qinghai-tibet plateau and is in close contact with birds. following the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 during 2005 in the migratory birds of qinghai lake, two clades of h5n1 have been found in pikas. however, the influenza virus receptor distribution in different tissues of this animal and its susceptibility to influenza a viruses have remained unclear.201525880060
[food habits and hunting patterns of tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in kekexili region on qinghai-tibetan plateau].tibetan brown bear (ursus arctos pruinosus) is an endemic subspecies of brown bear on the qinghai-tibetan plateau. we once reported a preliminary study on the summer food habit of tibetan brown bear from july to august, 2005 in the kekexili (hoh xil).. however, the hunting modes of the tibetan brawn bear have not been reported. from july to august, 2009, we collected additional data on food habits and hunting patterns of tibetan brown bear in the kekexili region. we found tibetan brown bears are ...201021174359
a modified enrichment method to construct microsatellite library from plateau pika genome (ochotona curzoniae).a microsatellite-enriched library of plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) was constructed according to the strong affinity between biotin and streptavidin. firstly, genomic dna was fragmented by ultrasonication, which is a major improvement over traditional methods. linker-ligated dna fragments were hybridized with biotinylated microsatellite probes, and then were subjected to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. pcr amplification was performed to obtain double-stranded dna fragments containing micr ...201020451163
genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from qinghai vole, plateau pika and tibetan ground-tit on the qinghai-tibet plateau, china.the distribution of genetic diversity of toxoplasma gondii in wildlife is of interest to understand the transmission of this parasite in the environment. limited information on t. gondii genotypes has been reported in wildlife in china. the objective of this study was to carry out the genetic characterization of t. gondii isolates from wild animals on the qinghai-tibet plateau.201324192458
ecology and geographic distribution of yersinia enterocolitica among livestock and wildlife in china.the results in this study show the prevalence of yersinia enterocolitica varies in different animal species and regions of china. the highest prevalence is among pigs (12.91%), followed by dogs (9.80%), ochotona curzoniae (plateau pica) (6.76%), chickens (4.50%), rodents (3.40%), cattle (2.78%) and sheep (0.89%). pathogenic isolates comprised the majority of the y. enterocolitica recovered from pigs (73.50%) and dogs (59.44%); whereas the nonpathogenic y. enterocolitica made up most of poultry a ...201525987302
[difference in oxygen uptake in skeletal muscles between plateau zokor (myospalax rufescens baileyi) and plateau pika (ochotona curzoniac).].to investigate the difference between the functions of oxygen uptake in skeletal muscle and living habits of plateau zokor (myospalax rufescens baileyi) and plateau pika (ochotona curzoniac), the microvessel densities (mvd) of skeletal muscle of plateau zokor, plateau pika and sprague-dawley (sd) rat were measured by immunohistochemical staining; the numerical density on area (n(a)) of mitochondria, and surface density (s(v), external surface area density of mitochondria per unit volume of skele ...200919701590
long-term ventilatory adaptation and ventilatory response to hypoxia in plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae): role of nnos and dopamine.we assessed ventilatory patterns and ventilatory responses to hypoxia (hvr) in high-altitude (ha) plateau pikas, repetitively exposed to hypoxic burrows, and control rats. we evaluated the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nnos) and dopamine by using s-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (smtc) inhibitor and haloperidol antagonist, respectively. ventilation (vi) was measured using a whole body plethysmograph in conscious pikas (n = 9) and low-altitude (la) rats (n = 7) at different pi(o(2)) (56, 80, 1 ...200919641133
eimeria spp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from the plateau pika, ochotona curzoniae, from haibei area, qinghai province, china, with the description of two new species.fifty-two fecal samples from the plateau pika, ochotona curzoniae, collected in the haibei area, qinghai province, china, were examined for the presence of coccidia (apicomplexa: eimeriidae). five distinct morphotypes, all eimeria species, were distinguished based on the structure of their sporulated oocysts. three of these included eimeria banffensis, eimeria calentinei, and eimeria cryptobarretti, all of which have been described previously from other ochotona species. we also studied 2 morpho ...200919413368
mitochondrial genome analysis of ochotona curzoniae and implication of cytochrome c oxidase in hypoxic adaptation.pikas originated in asia and are small lagomorphs native to cold climates. the plateau pika, ochotona curzoniae is a keystone species on the qinghai-tibet plateau and an ideal animal model for hypoxic adaptation studies. altered mitochondrial function, especially cytochrome c oxidase activity, is an important factor in modulation of energy generation and expenditure during cold and hypoxia adaptation. in this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the o. curzoniae mitochondrial ...200818722554
[hypoxic adaptation of the hearts of plateau zokor (myospalax baileyi) and plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).].plateau zokor (myospalax baileyi) and plateau pika (ochotona curzniae) are native to the qinghai-tibet plateau. to study their adaptive mechanisms, the ratios of heart weight to body weight (hw/bw) and right to left ventricular plus septum weights [rv/(lv+s)] were determined; the microvessel density (mvd) of cardiac muscle were measured by immunohistochemical staining; the numerical density on area (n(a)), volume density (v(v)), specific surface (delta), and surface density (s(v)) of mitochondri ...200818560725
molecular cloning and characterization of hemoglobin alpha and beta chains from plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) living at high altitude.hemoglobin (hb) plays an important role in oxygen transfer from lung to tissues. possession of a hb with high oxygen affinity helps highland animals to adapt to high altitude, has been studied profoundly. plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), a native species living at 3,000-5,000 m above sea level on qinghai-tibet plateau, is a typical hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal. to investigate the possible mechanisms of plateau pika hb in adaptation to high altitude, the complete cdna and amino a ...200717900824
cdna cloning, gene organization and variant specific expression of hif-1 alpha in high altitude yak (bos grunniens).hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (hif-1) is a heterodimeric basic-helix-loop-helix-per-arnt-sim (bhlh-pas) transcription factor consisting of hif-1alpha and hif-1beta subunits. hif-1alpha is the oxygen-regulated subunit of hif-1, which regulates the transcription of genes involved in oxygen homeostasis in response to hypoxia. yak (bos grunniens), a mammal native to high altitude (ha) region ( approximately 3500-5500 m), has successfully adapted over many generations to the chronic hypoxia of ha. in th ...200717045424
diversities in hepatic hif-1, igf-i/igfbp-1, ldh/icd, and their mrna expressions induced by cocl(2) in qinghai-tibetan plateau mammals and sea level mice.ochotona curzoniae and microtus oeconomus are the native mammals living on the qinghai-tibetan-plateau of china. the molecular mechanisms of their acclimatization to the plateau-hypoxia remain unclear. expressions of hepatic hypoxia-inducible factor (hif)-1alpha, insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i)/igf binding protein (bp)-1(igfbp-1; including genes), and key metabolic enzymatic genes [lactate dehydrogenase (ldh)-a/isocitrate dehydrogenase (icd)] are compared in qinghai-tibetan-plateau mammals ...200716990490
leptin cdna cloning and its mrna expression in plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) from different altitudes on qinghai-tibet plateau.leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays an important role in body energy homeostasis. plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), an endemic and keystone species living only at 3000-5000 m above sea level on qinghai-tibet plateau, is a typically high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate (rmr), non-shivering thermogenesis (nst), and high ratio of oxygen utilization to cope with harsh plateau environment. to explore the molecular mechanism of ecological acclimati ...200616730654
molecular authentication of the animal crude drug sailonggu (bone of myospalax baileyi).two pairs of allele-specific diagnostic primers (sl1l/sl1h and sl2l/sl2h) for distinguishing the chinese crude drug sailonggu (bone of plateau zokor, myospalax baileyi) from its substitutes were designed based on complete sequences of mitochondrial 12s rrna and cytochrome b genes of the original animals of myospalacinae, bamboo rat rhizomys sinensis and black lipped pika ochotona curzoniae. total dna was extracted from crude drug samples and original animals. allele-specific diagnostic pcrs were ...200415516736
cloning of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha cdna from a high hypoxia tolerant mammal-plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a transcription factor composed of hif-1alpha and hif-1beta. it plays an important role in the signal transduction of cell response to hypoxia. plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) is a high hypoxia-tolerant and cold adaptation species living only at 3000-5000 m above sea level on the qinghai-tibet plateau. in this study, hif-1alpha cdna of plateau pika was cloned and its expression in various tissues was studied. the results indicated that plateau pika hif-1alpha cdna ...200415020255
cold adaptive thermogenesis in small mammals from different geographical zones of china.the mechanisms of thermogenesis and thermoregulation were studied in the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) and greater vole (eothenomys miletus) of the subtropical region, and brandt's vole (microtus brandti), mongolian gerbil (meriones unguiculatus), daurian ground squirrel (spermophilus dauricus) and plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) of the northern temperate zone. resting metabolic rate (rmr) and non-shivering thermogenesis (nst) increased significantly in t. belangeri, e. miletus, m. brandti and ...200111440879
[inhibition effect of hypoxia on humoral immunity of rats].to study the effect of hypoxia on humoral immunity function of rat and ochotona curzoniae (pika), the specific antibody production to novel antigen igg and immunoresponse to sheep red blood cell (hemolysin forming) were measured. the results show that hypoxia at altitude of 5 km and 7 km for 10 d resulted respectively in 10.3% (p < 0.05) and 21.9% (p < 0.05) decrement in hemolysin formation in rats, as compared with the control group kept at 2.3 km. when the rats were secondarily immunized and k ...19979812852
blunted hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictive response in the rodent ochotona curzoniae (pika) at high investigate the possible mechanisms of adaptation to chronic hypoxia in the pulmonary circulation, we made direct measurements of pulmonary arterial pressure (ppa) in 10 awake pika rodents that were transported to xining, people's republic of china (altitude 2,260 m) after being captured at 4,300 m and in 10 wistar rats in a decompression chamber (simulated altitudes of 4,300 and 5,000 m) in xining. ppa was obtained at 1 h of exposure to each simulated altitude. the histology and immunohistoc ...19989612392
[cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase c4 from pika ochotona curzoniae].lactate dehydrogenase c4 (ldh-c4) is considered to be a good target protein for the development of contraceptive drugs. to develop contraceptive rodenticide against pika (ochotona curzoniae) ldh-c4, the pika ldh-c gene was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. the recombinant protein was purified and characterized. the cdna of pika ldh-c gene was cloned by race method. the cdna was 1498 bp in length containing an orf of 996 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 332 amino acids. the orf of pika l ...201525842833
shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) on the qinghai-tibetan plateau, china.shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. ruminants are the natural reservoir of stec. in this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the stec in plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) on the qinghai-tibetan plateau, china. a total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from may to august in the years 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. t ...201627047483
[biological features of a new echinococcus species (echinococcus shiquicus) in the east of qinghai-tibet plateau].in the eastern qinghai-tibet plateau region, a variety of domestic and wild mammals are involved in the transmission cycles of echinococcus species. e. granulosus and e. multilocularis are known being sympatrically distributed in the plateau region. recently, an unknown echinococcus species was isolated from infected plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) and tibetan fox (vulpes ferrilata). the species shows quite distinct characteristics on morphology, genetics, host specificity and geographical dis ...200824818378
genetic diversity in echinococcus shiquicus from the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) in darlag county, qinghai, china.the metacestode of echinococcus shiquicus has been recorded previously in the lung and liver of its intermediate host, the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), but there is limited information regarding other organ sites. there is also limited evidence of intra-specific genetic variation within e. shiquicus. a pcr-amplified mitochondrial (mt) nad1 gene fragment (approximately 1400bp in size), with unique ecori and sspi restriction sites, was used to distinguish cysts or cyst-like lesions of e. shi ...201627282470
herbivory and competition of tibetan steppe vegetation in winter pasture: effects of livestock exclosure and plateau pika reduction.rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western china on the qinghai-tibetan plateau (qtp). numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. as well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. however, vegetation on the qtp evolved in the ...201526208005
genetic characterization of h9n2 avian influenza virus in plateau pikas in the qinghai lake region of china.qinghai lake is a major migratory-bird breeding site that has experienced several highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (aiv) epizootics. plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) have previously been implicated in the ecology of avian influenza virus in this region. we first isolated an h9n2 aiv (a/pika/menyuan/01/2008) from plateau pikas between november 2008 and october 2009. sequence analysis showed that the a/pika/menyuan/01/2008 aiv was closely related to the h9n2 aiv strain (a/turkey/wisconsin ...201727990566
[gene coding and mrna expression of vascular endothelial growth factor as well as microvessel density in brain of plateau zokor: comparison with other rodents.]vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) plays an important role in tissues angiogenesis. the adaptation of animals to hypoxic environment is relative to the microvessel density (mvd) in tissues. to further explore the adaptation mechanisms of plateau zokor (myospalax baileyi) to the hypoxic-hypercapnic burrows, the vegf mrna and the mvd in cerebral tissues of the plateau zokor were studied. total rna was isolated from liver, and vegf cdna was obtained by rt-pcr, then the vegf cdna was cloned a ...201121505731
actinomyces gaoshouyii sp. nov., isolated from plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).two strains (pika_113t and pika_114) of a previously undescribed actinomyces-like bacterium were recovered from the intestinal contents of plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) on the tibet-qinghai plateau, china. results from biochemical characterization indicated that the two strains were phenotypically homogeneous and distinct from other previously described species of the genus actinomyces. based on the comparison of 16s rrna gene sequences and genome analysis, the bacteria were determined to be ...201728857023
lowly pathogenic avian influenza (h9n2) infection in plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), qinghai lake, china.avian influenza viruses (aivs) are globally important contagions. several domestic mammals can be infected with aivs and may play important roles in the adaptation and transmission of these viruses in mammals, although the roles of wild mammals in the natural ecology of aivs are not yet clear. here, we performed a serological survey of apparently healthy plateau pikas at qinghai lake in china to assess the prevalence of exposure to aivs. ninety-two of 293 (31%) of wild plateau pikas possessed se ...201425069623
natural selection and adaptive evolution of leptin in the ochotona family driven by the cold environmental stress.environmental stress can accelerate the evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins and create new functions specialized for different environments, enhancing an organism's fitness to stressful environments. pikas (order lagomorpha), endemic, non-hibernating mammals in the modern holarctic region, live in cold regions at either high altitudes or high latitudes and have a maximum distribution of species diversification confined to the qinghai-tibet plateau. variations in energy metabol ...200818213380
testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase is expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pikas.ldh-c4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate with lactate. in mammals the, ldh-c gene was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), belonging to the genus ochotona of the ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living at 3000-5000 m above sea levelon the qinghai-tibet plateau. we found that the expression pattern of six ldh isoenzymes in the somatic tissues of female and male plateau pikas to ...201323772382
the plateau zokors' learning and memory ability is related to the high expression levels of foxp2 in the brain.plateau zokor (myospalax baileyi) is a subterranean mammal. plateau zokor has high learning and memory ability, and can determine the location of blocking obstacles in their tunnels. forkhead box p2 (foxp2) is a transcription factor implicated in the neural control of orofacial coordination and sensory-motor integration, particularly with respect to learning, memory and vocalization. to explore the association of foxp2 with the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor, the cdna of foxp2 ...201424777403
differences of glycolysis in skeletal muscle and lactate metabolism in liver between plateau zokor (myospalax baileyi) and plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) and plateau zokor (myospalax baileyi) are specialized native species of the qinghai-tibetan plateau. the goal of this study was to examine physiological differences in skeletal muscle glycolysis and hepatic lactate metabolism between these two species. the partial sequence of pyruvate carboxylase (pc) gene was cloned and sequenced. the mrna expression levels of pc and lactate dehydrogenases (ldh-a, ldh-b) were determined by real-time pcr. the enzymatic activ ...201323788184
[functional difference of malate-aspartate shuttle system in liver between plateau zokor (myospalax baileyi) and plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae)].to explore the adaptive mechanisms of plateau zokor (myospalax baileyi) to the enduring digging activity in the hypoxic environment and of plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) to the sprint running activity, the functional differences of malate-aspartate shuttle system (ma) in liver of plateau zokor and plateau pika were studied. the ratio of liver weight to body weight, the parameters of mitochondria in hepatocyte and the contents of lactic acid in serum were measured; the open reading frame of cy ...201222513468
host species shapes the co-occurrence patterns rather than diversity of stomach bacterial communities in pikas.the mammalian stomach acts as an important barrier against ingested pathogens into the entire gastrointestinal tract, thereby playing a key role in host health. however, little is known regarding to the stomach microbial compositions in wild mammals and the factors that may influence the community compositions. using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rrna gene, we characterized the stomach bacterial community compositions, diversity, and interactions in two common pika (ochotona sp.) species ...201728365795
[species identification of echinococcus isolates collected from canines and tibetan foxes in chengduo county, qinghai province].to identify echinococcus isolates collected from tibetan foxes(vulpes ferrilata) and dogs in chengduo county, yushu prefecture, qinghai province.201324812854
intermittent cold exposure results in visceral adipose tissue "browning" in the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).the plateau pika has developed tolerance to cold and hypoxia in order to adapt to living in the extreme environment of the qinghai-tibetan plateau. one mammalian mechanism for cold adaptation is thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue (bat), but the degree to which pika exploits this mechanism or how it may be modified by the additional stresses of high altitude is not known. intermittent cold exposure (ice) is an approachable method to study cold adaptation in rodents. to investigate the role of ...201525662677
new flexible growth function and its application to the growth of small mammals.the function [formula: see text] where a is the upper asympotic weight and b, c, k are constants, is derived as a new flexible growth equation and evaluated using commonly applied growth functions such as monomelecular, gompertz, logistic, richards, france, janoschek and hill. three sets of observations on growth of small mammal species (microtus brandti and ochotona curzoniae) are used to evaluate the fits of these functions. in addition, points of inflexion of these growth equations are also d ...20069666354
effects of temperature and photoperiod on thermogenesis in plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) and root voles (microtus oeconomus).we examined the effects of temperature and photoperiod on metabolic thermogenesis and the thermogenic characteristics of brown adipose tissue in plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) and root voles (microtus oeconomus), the dominant species of small mammals in the alpine meadow ecosystems on the qinghai-tibetan plateau. pikas and voles were acclimated in the following groups: (1) long day-warm temperature (16l:8d, 23 degrees c) (2) long day-cold temperature (16l:8d, 5 degrees c), (3) short day-warm ...199910093908
inhibitor screening of lactate dehydrogenase c4 from black-lipped pika in the western sichuan plateau.studies indicated that lactate dehydrogenase c4 (ldh-c4) was a good target protein for development of contraceptive drugs. virtual screening and in vitro enzyme assay using pika ldh-c4 as target protein revealed nsc61610, nsc215718, and nsc345647 with ki of 7.8, 27, and 41 μm separately. this study might be helpful for development of pika contraceptive drugs.201425036963
morphological and molecular characterization of oestromyia leporina (pallas, 1778) (diptera: hypodermatinae) from wild plateau pikas(ochotona curzoniae) in qinghai province, china.the objective of this article was to investigate the morphological and molecular characterization of oestromyia leporina (pallas, 1778) from wild plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) in qinghai province, china. the third-stage larvae of o. leporina were examined by scanning electron microscopy revealing morphology characteristics of the spines on the cephalic, the thoracic segments, the abdominal segments and the spiracular plates. the coding regions of 25 cytochrome oxidase i (coi) genes of o. le ...201626708934
[impacts of ochotona pallasi disturbance on alpine grassland community characteristics].plateau pika is the main fossorial mammal in the alpine grassland in qinghai lake watershed of northwest china. based on the field investigation data from 18 alpine grassland quadrats in the watershed, and by using redundancy analysis (rda) and the surface fitting offered by 'r-vegan' , the disturbance intensity of plateau pika (ochotona pallasi) was classified as four levels. in order to explore the impacts of plateau pika disturbance on the alpine grassland ecosystem and its grazing quality, t ...201324380328
differential responsiveness in vegf receptor subtypes to hypoxic stress in various tissues of plateau animals.with hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (hif-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) are elevated and their responses are altered in skeletal muscles of plateau animals [china qinghai-tibetan plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae)] as compared with control animals [normal lowland sprague-dawley (sd) rats]. the results indicate that hif-1alpha and vegf are engaged in physiological functions under hypoxic environment. the purpose of the current study was to examine the prote ...201727982675
cardiac adaptation to high altitude in the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).the aim of this study was to assess maximal heart rate (hr) and heart morphological changes in high altitude living "plateau pikas" and rats bred at 2260 m. rats and pikas were catheterized to measure hr (2260 m). after baseline measurements, 1 mg/kg of atropine (at) and increasing doses of isoproterenol (isop) (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg kg) were injected into animals. right (rv) and left ventricles (lv) were removed to calculate fulton's ratio (lv + septum (s) to rv weights) and to assess mrna exp ...201324303117
testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (ldh-c4) in skeletal muscle enhances a pika's sprint-running capacity in hypoxic environment.ldh-c4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. in mammals, ldh-c was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), which belongs to the genus ochotona of the ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living 3000-5000 m above sea level on the qinghai-tibet plateau, an environment which is strongly hypoxic. ldh-c is expressed not only in testis and sperm but also in somatic tissues of plateau pi ...201526262630
novel genomic resources for a climate change sensitive mammal: characterization of the american pika transcriptome.when faced with climate change, species must either shift their home range or adapt in situ in order to maintain optimal physiological balance with their environment. the american pika (ochotona princeps) is a small alpine mammal with limited dispersal capacity and low tolerance for thermal stress. as a result, pikas have become an important system for examining biotic responses to changing climatic conditions. previous research using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (aflps) has revealed ...201323663654
[contraction responses of isolated aortic rings of pika (ochotona curzoniae) and sprague-dawley rat to hypoxia].the aim of the present study was to observe the effects of hypoxia on tensions of aortic rings of pika (ochotona curzoniae) and sprague-dawley (sd) rat. the aortic rings were prepared, and in vitro vascular ring perfusion was used to assay the effects of hypoxia or different drugs on contraction responses of the rings with or without endothelium. the results showed that, there was no difference of the contractions to kcl (80 mmol/l) between the aortic rings of the pikas and sd rats. after pre-co ...201323598866
postnatal ontogenetic size and shape changes in the craniums of plateau pika and woolly hare (mammalia: lagomorpha).in the present study, postnatal ontogenetic size and shape changes in the cranium of two lagomorph species, the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) and woolly hare (lepus oiostolus), were investigated by geometric morphometrics. the ontogenetic size and shape changes of their cranium exhibited different growth patterns in response to similar environmental pressures on the qinghai-tibetan plateau. the overall size change in the cranium of the plateau pika was slower than that of the woolly hare. th ...201425017747
behavioral mechanisms of male sterilization on plateau pika in the qinghai-tibet plateau.fertility control is an alternative non-lethal method in the management of rodents. previous modeling suggests that the efficacy of male sterilization depends on mating systems of animals, but behavioral mechanisms of male sterilization have not been investigated. here we investigated the behavioral mechanism of the sterilant quinestrol in reducing the fertility of plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) inhabiting the qinghai-tibet plateau. male pikas treated with quinestrol showed reduced aggression ...201222206991
effectiveness of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers for parentage and pedigree analysis in plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) is an underground-dwelling mammal, native to the tibetan plateau of china. a set of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci has been developed earlier. its reliability for parentage assignment has been tested in a plateau pika population. two family groups with a known pedigree were used to validate the power of this set of markers.201021062500
molecular cloning and tissue distribution of uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1) in plateau pika (ochotona dauurica).uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1) is present exclusively in brown adipose tissue, and contributes to body temperature control during cold exposure. we cloned ucp1 cdna of plateau pika (ochotona dauurica), a small, non-hibernating, diurnal lagomorph that inhabits in relatively cold climates and at high altitudes in mongolia and in northern china. the nucleotide sequence of pika ucp1 was highly homologous to ucp1 of other species, and the deduced amino acid sequence had some common domains for ucp, incl ...200717984595
gut region influences the diversity and interactions of bacterial communities in pikas (ochotona curzoniae and ochotona daurica).the mammalian microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract (git) play important roles in host nutrition and health. however, we still lack an understanding of how these communities are organized across git in natural environments. here, using 16s rrna gene sequencing, we analyzed the bacterial community diversity, network interactions and ecosystem stability across five gut regions (mouth, stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon) emanating from two common pika species in china, includin ...201729106508
genetic diversity and sex-bias dispersal of plateau pika in tibetan plateau.dispersal is an important aspect in organism's life history which could influence the rate and outcome of evolution of organism. plateau pika is the keystone species in community of grasslands in tibetan plateau. in this study, we combine genetic and field data to character the population genetic pattern and dispersal dynamics in plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae). totally, 1,352 individual samples were collected, and 10 microsatellite loci were analyzed. results revealed that plateau pika posses ...201729043027
the expression ofldh-cin the skeletal muscle of plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) enhances adaptation to a hypoxic environment.the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) is a species of sprint-running alpine animals in the qinghai-tibet plateau, which is a harsh highland hypoxic environment.ldh-cis expressed in the testis, sperm and somatic tissues of plateau pika. to reveal the role and physiological mechanisms of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (ldh-c4), in plateau pika to adapt to hypoxic environment, an adenoviral line of pmultirnai-ldhcwas constructed and injected into the bilateral biceps femoris of the hind legs. ...201728916706
metabolic alterations of qinghai-tibet plateau pikas in adaptation to high altitude.cao, xue-feng, zhen-zhong bai, lan ma, shuang ma, and ri-li ge. metabolic alterations of qinghai-tibet plateau pikas in adaptation to high altitude. high alt med biol. 18:219-225, 2017.-to determine specific metabolic alterations in the myocardium of plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) and potential metabolic biomarkers involved in their adaptation to the high-altitude environment of the qinghai-tibet plateau. ten pikas were captured by traps in the kekexili reserve (4630 m a.s.l; n = 5) and at t ...201728846033
seasonal dynamics of the tick haemaphysalis tibetensis in the tibetan plateau, china.the tick haemaphysalis tibetensis (acari: ixodidae) hoogstraal is an important arthropod vector widespread in the qinghai-tibet plateau, and knowledge of its seasonal dynamics is still poor. the current study investigated the seasonal dynamics of the parasitic and non-parasitic h. tibetensis over a 2-year period from march 2014 to february 2016 in the tibetan plateau, china. during this timeframe, non-parasitic ticks were collected weekly by flag-dragging in grassland and shrubland areas, and pa ...201728714569
[establishment of rp-hplc detection method of n-isopropyl oxamate in the serum of plateau pikas].to explore the intergrating of n-isopropyl oxamate and serum protein and establish a high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) detection method of n-isopropyl oxamate (specific inhibitor of testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (ldh-c4)) in the blood of plateau pikas.201526827545
changes in the morphology and protein expression of germ cells and sertoli cells in plateau pikas testes during non-breeding season.plateau pikas are seasonally breeding small herbivores that inhabit the meadow ecosystem of the qinghai-tibetan plateau. testis regression in plateau pikas begins in early june, and the male pikas are completely infertile, with a dramatically reduced testis size, in late july. in this study, a decreased germ cell number in the testes was first noted in early june. by late june, only sertoli cells and a small number of spermatogonia remained. interestingly, large gonocyte-like germ cells were obs ...201626939551
pika gut may select for rare but diverse environmental bacteria.the composition of the mammalian gut bacterial communities can be influenced by the introduction of environmental bacteria in their respective habitats. however, there are no extensive studies examining the interactions between environmental bacteriome and gut bacteriome in wild mammals. here, we explored the relationship between the gut bacterial communities of pika (ochotona spp.) and the related environmental bacteria across host species and altitudinal sites using 16s rrna gene sequencing. p ...201627582734
diet diversity is associated with beta but not alpha diversity of pika gut microbiota.wild mammals often consume different food sources as they become geographical available. this change in diet composition is likely to influence the gut microbial community, yet it remains unclear what the relationship looks like-particularly in small herbivores-under natural conditions. we used dna sequencing approaches to characterize the diet composition and gut microbial community of wild plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) collected from three altitudes. we tested if diet and gut microbiota c ...201627512391
pika population density is associated with the composition and diversity of gut population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. however, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. the abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated with ...201627242770
enzymatic kinetic properties of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme c₄ of the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (ldh-c₄) is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. ldh-c₄ in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) belongs to the genus ochotona of the ochotonidea family. it is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000-5000 m above sea level on ...201626751442
[the expression of the sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase gene ldh-c in plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) cardiac muscle and its effect on the anaerobic glycolysis].the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) has a strong adaptability to hypoxic plateau environment. we found that the sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (ldh-c4) gene ldh-c expressed in plateau pika cardiac muscle. in order to shed light on the effect of ldh-c4 on the anaerobic glycolysis in plateau pika cardiac muscle, 20 pikas were randomly divided into the inhibitor group and the control group, and the sample size of each group was 10. the pikas of inhibitor group were injected with 1 ml 1 mol/ ...201526109304
comparative ventilatory strategies of acclimated rats and burrowing plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) in response to hypoxic-hypercapnia.the objective of this study was to compare the different ventilatory strategies that help in coping with hypoxic-hypercapnia environment among two species: use acclimated rats and plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) that live in tibetan plateaus, and have been well adjusted to high altitude. arterial blood samples taken at 4100 m of elevation in acclimatized rats and adapted pikas revealed inter-species differences with lower hemoglobin and hematocrit and higher blood ph in pikas. a linear and si ...201525988712
role of glutamate and serotonin on the hypoxic ventilatory response in high-altitude-adapted plateau pika.the highland "plateau pika" is considered to be adapted to chronic hypoxia. we hypothesized that glutamate n-methyl-d-aspartate (nmda) and non-nmda receptors, nitric oxide (no) synthase, and serotonin are involved in hypoxic ventilatory response (hvr) in pikas. we tested the effects of nmda (memantine) and non-nmda receptors (dnqx) antagonists, no synthase inhibitor (l-name), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine) on ventilation and hvr in pikas. ventilatory parameters were mea ...201525890014
effect of hypoxia on ldh-c expression in somatic cells of plateau pika.sperm specific lactate dehydrogenases (ldh-c₄) is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. in mammals, ldh-c was originally thought to be expressed only in testes and spermatozoa. plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), which belongs to the genus ochotona of the ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia-tolerant mammal living 3000-5000 m above sea level on the qinghai-tibet plateau, an environment which is strongly hypoxic. ldh-c is expressed not only in testes and sperm, ...201627490559
expression of hif-1alpha and vegf in skeletal muscle of plateau animals in response to hypoxic stress.hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (hif-1alpha) transcriptionally regulates expression of several target genes in protecting tissues against hypoxia. with hypoxic stress, vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is a signal protein produced by cells and further contributes to improvement of vascular functions and restoring the oxygen supply to tissues. in this current study, we first hypothesized that the protein levels of hif-1alpha and vegf are reduced in skeletal muscles of plateau animals [chi ...201425535647
the pika and the watershed: the impact of small mammal poisoning on the ecohydrology of the qinghai-tibetan plateau.with approximately 20 % of the world's population living in its downstream watersheds, the qinghai-tibetan plateau (qtp) is considered "asia's water tower." however, grasslands of the qtp, where most of asia's great rivers originate, are becoming increasingly degraded, which leads to elevated population densities of a native small mammal, the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae). as a result pikas have been characterized as a pest leading to wide-spread poisoning campaigns in an attempt to restore ...201525331028
inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) at high altitude on qinghai-tibet plateau.nitric oxide (no), a potent vasodilator, plays an important role in preventing hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension. endogenous no is synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (noss) from l-arginine. in mammals, three different noss have been identified, including neuronal nos (nnos), endothelial nos (enos) and inducible nos (inos). plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) is a typical hypoxia tolerant mammal that lives at 3000-5000 m above sea level on the qinghai-tibet plateau. the aim of this study wa ...201424632467
vegf189 expression is highly related to adaptation of the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) inhabiting high altitudes.the plateau pika (ochotona curzonia) has adapted to high-altitude hypoxia during evolution. higher microvessel density in specific tissues and a blunted hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction response are the critical components of this adaptation. vegf, vascular endothelial growth factor, has proved to be a key regulator of angiogenesis in response to tissue hypoxia and to play an important role in vascular vasodilation. however, the role of vegf in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia in the platea ...201324377347
degradation of the potential rodent contraceptive quinestrol and elimination of its estrogenic activity in soil and water.quinestrol has shown potential for use in the fertility control of the plateau pika population of the qinghai-tibet plateau. however, the environmental safety and fate of this compound are still obscure. our study investigated degradation of quinestrol in a local soil and aquatic system for the first time. the results indicate that the degradation of quinestrol follows first-order kinetics in both soil and water, with a dissipation half-life of approximately 16.0 days in local soil. microbial ac ...201423818077
bartonella species detected in the plateau pikas (ochotona curzoiae) from qinghai plateau in china.bartonella species can infect a variety of mammalian hosts and cause a broad spectrum of diseases in humans, but there have been no reports of bartonella infection in ochotonidae. this is the first study to detect bartonella in plateau pikas in the qinghai plateau, providing baseline data for the risk assessment of human bartonella infection in this area. we obtained 15 bartonella strains from 79 pikas in binggou and maixiu areas of qinghai with a positive rate of 18.99%. based on the phylogenet ...201526464255
neisseria weixii sp. nov., isolated from rectal contents of tibetan plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).three independent isolates (10022t, 10 009 and 10011) of a novel catalase-positive, gram-stain-negative coccus in the genus neisseria were obtained from the rectal contents of plateau pika on the qinghai-tibet plateau, pr china. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, our newly identified organisms were most closely related to neisseria iguanae, neisseria flavescens and neisseria perflava with similarities ranging from 98.02 to 98.45 %, followed by seven other species in the genus neisseria. p ...201931162020
biogeographical study of plateau pikas ochotona curzoniae (lagomorpha, ochotonidae).we reconstructed the demographic history of the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) on the qinghai-tibetan plateau by using genetic variation data obtained from spatially distributed populations across much of the plateau. we obtained sequence data, including cob (1,140 bp) and d-loop sequences (732 bp), from 144 individuals at sites ranging from the high-altitude interior to the relatively low-altitude northeastern plateau, and identified 37 and 42 unique haplotypes, respectively. phylogenetic an ...201222873810
effects of quinestrol and levonorgestrel on populations of plateau pikas, ochotona curzoniae, in the qinghai-tibetan plateau.plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae, hodgson, 1858) are viewed as a pest in the tibetan plateau meadow ecosystem when their population densities are high. traditional culling using rodenticides often poses a high risk to non-target species and even to humans. in this study, an investigation was made of the infertility effects of quinestrol (e), levonorgestrel (p) and a combination of the two (ep, ratio e:p = 1:2) on plateau pikas during 2007 and 2008.201222232019
functional-trait ecology of the plateau pika ochotona curzoniae (hodgson, 1858) in the qinghai-tibetan plateau ecosystem.understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. the functional trait ecology of the plateau pika ochotona curzoniae (hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the qinghai-tibetan plateau (qtp). the key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensiv ...201829316275
the mating system and gene dynamics of plateau pikas.evolutionary theory suggests that mating systems should have substantial effects on gene dynamics of local populations. in polygynous species, local 'breeding groups' may produce significant genetic structure, due to genetic differences among groups, and rate of loss of genetic variation from such populations may be considerably slowed. we examined possible influences of the variable mating system and family group structure on genetic properties of a population of plateau pikas (ochotona curzoni ...200011074315
rearing of plateau pika (ochotona daurica) captured in mongolia.we attempted to rear and breed plateau pikas (ochotona daurica) captured in mongolia in 1994 and 1995. in rearing indoors, though coitus was observed, none of the females became pregnant. in rearing outdoors, males began to make high-pitched, continuous cries and the first offspring (3 newborns) were obtained in june, 1997. the body weight averaged 8.4 g at birth, and 75.8 g at 4 weeks of age. they were weaned at 4 weeks of age. in august the testes, which had descended into the scrotum, atrophi ...19989816498
echinococcus multilocularis and echinococcus shiquicus in a small mammal community on the eastern tibetan plateau: host species composition, molecular prevalence, and epidemiological implications.the eastern part of the tibetan plateau is now recognized as an endemic region with the highest reported human infection rates in the world of human alveolar echinococcosis (ae) caused by echinococcus multilocularis. existing epidemiological studies on ae have mainly focused on the synanthropic environment, while basic parasitological and ecological aspects in wildlife host species remain largely unknown, especially for small mammal hosts. therefore, we examined small mammal host species composi ...201829769131
the first report of cryptosporidium spp. in microtus fuscus (qinghai vole) and ochotona curzoniae (wild plateau pika) in the qinghai-tibetan plateau area, china.cryptosporidium is one of the most important genera of intestinal zoonotic pathogens, which can infect various hosts and cause diarrhoea. there is little available information about the molecular characterisation and epidemiological prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. in microtus fuscus (qinghai vole) and ochotona curzoniae (wild plateau pika) in the qinghai-tibetan plateau area of qinghai province, northwest china. therefore, the aim of this study was to determine cryptosporidium species/genotyp ...201829532219
chronic cold exposure results in subcutaneous adipose tissue browning and altered global metabolism in qinghai-tibetan plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae).the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), one of the indigenous animals of the qinghai-tibet plateau, is adapted to life in a cold and hypoxic environment. we conducted a series of genomic, proteomic and morphological studies to investigate whether changes in energy metabolism contribute to adaptation of the plateau pika to cold stress by analyzing summer and winter cohorts. the winter group showed strong morphological and histological features of brown adipose tissue (bat) in subcutaneous white ad ...201829626477
aeromicrobium chenweiae sp. nov. and aeromicrobium yanjiei sp. nov., isolated from tibetan antelope (pantholops hodgsonii) and plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae), respectively.four novel strains (592t, s592, mf47t and smf47) were isolated from tibetan antelopes (pantholops hodgsonii) and plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae), respectively. the cells were aerobic, non-motile, gram-stain- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. the 16s rrna gene sequences of the four strains showed highest similarities to aeromicrobium fastidiosum dsm 10552t (98.1, 98.6, 98.7 and 98.7 %, respectively), and the phylogenetic analyses based on 16s rrna gene and genomic sequences indicated ...202032692642
enterotypes of the gut microbial community and their response to plant secondary compounds in plateau pikas.animal gut microbiomes can be clustered into "enterotypes" characterized by an abundance of signature genera. the characteristic determinants, stability, and resilience of these community clusters remain poorly understood. we used plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) as a model and identified three enterotypes by 16s rdna sequencing. among the top 15 genera, 13 showed significantly different levels of abundance between the enterotypes combined with different microbial functions and distinct fecal s ...202032872148
gut microbiome adaptation to extreme cold winter in wild plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) on the qinghai-tibet plateau.the qinghai-tibet plateau is a harsh environment characterized by low temperature, high altitude and hypoxia, although some native mammals may adapt well to the extreme climate. however, how animal gut microbial community structure and function adapt to extreme cold climates is not well understood. plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) is an ideal animal model with which to study the effects of climate change on host adaptation by studing intestinal microorganisms. here, we used 16s rrna sequencing ...202032840567
seasonal abundance and activity of the tick dermacentor everestianus (acari: ixodidae) in the tibetan plateau, china.dermacentor everestianus is an important vector for several pathogens endemic in the qinghai-tibet plateau. however, knowledge of its seasonal activity and abundance is limited. hence, the seasonal dynamics of questing and host-feeding d. everestianus were investigated from march 2014 to february 2016 in damxung county, north of lhasa city in tibet. during the 2-year period, questing ticks were collected weekly from two habitats (grassland and shrubs) by flag-dragging. host-feeding ticks were re ...202032740688
risk assessment in the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae): intensity of behavioral response differs with predator species.the ability of a prey species to assess the risk that a predator poses can have important fitness advantages for the prey species. to better understand predator-prey interactions, more species need to be observed to determine how prey behavioral responses differ in intensity when approached by different types of predators. the plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) is preyed upon by all predators occurring in its distribution area. therefore, it is an ideal species to study anti-predator behavior. in ...202032680498
molecular detection of bartonella in ixodid ticks collected from yaks and plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) in shiqu county, china.bartonella bacteria have been associated with an increasingly wide range of human and animal diseases. these emerging pathogens have been identified as being globally dispersed. ticks and small rodents are known hosts of bartonella and play a significant role in the preservation and circulation of bartonella in nature. this study investigated the occurrence of hoist spp. in ticks (acari: ixodidae) and plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) in shiqu county, which is located on the eastern qinghai-tib ...202032646425
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