contribution to the knowledge of swiss piroplasmas.the authors identify 3 species of babesia, which parasitize cattle in switzerland (babesia major, b. divergens and b. hovis). they also confirm the presence of b. canis in a dog in the proximity of geneva. finally, for the first time in switzerland, they point out the presence of non-identified babesia in various rodents (apodemus sylvaticus, a. flavicollis and clethrionomys glareolus).19757111
evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for babesia major and theileria mutans in britain.use of the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) tests is described to detect antibodies to theileria mutans and babesia major in the sera of infected cattle. when antisera against t mutans and b major were tested against homologous antigens high antibody titres were recorded: when they were tested against each other or against babesia divergens antigen insignificant titres (1/40 or less) were recorded. thus the test was found to be species specific. animals recovered from t mutans and b major inf ...1977327676
babesia major: protection of intact calves against homologous challenge by the injection of irradiated piroplasms. 1979447445
protection of cattle against babesia major by the inoculation of irradiated piroplasms.two experiments were carried out on babesia major in splenectomised calves. in the first one, the parasite was titrated and a linear relationship was observed between infective dose (10(2)--10(7) parasites) and onset of disease. in the second experiment aliquots of 1.2 x 10(10) parasites were irradiated at doses of 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 krads and inoculated into groups of calves, while control calves received 1.2 x 10(7) or 1.2 x 10(4) parasites. animals which received parasites irradiated at 24 ...1978749091
titration of babesia major piroplasms in intact calves. 1979761060
babesia major in britain: infectivity for cattle of cryopreserved parasites derived from haemaphysalis punctata nymphs.babesia major-infected haemaphysalis punctata nymphs, prefed for four days on rabbits, were ground in a modified eagle's minimum essential medium containing n-2 hydroxyethylpiperazine-n1-ethane-sulphonic acid (hepes) buffer using sterile sand or ground glass as triturating agents. the resultant supernatant fluids were shown to be infective for splenectomised calves. when attempts were made to cryopreserve the fluids using either dimethyl sulphoxide or glycerol to a final concentration of 10 per ...1977860093
redwater in american bison caused by babesia major. 1977867780
experimental transmission of babesia major by haemaphysalis punctata.using a newly isolated strain of babesia major and a clean strain of laboratory reared haemaphysalis punctata it was shown that adult female ticks could be alimentarily infected by feeding on infected calves but that larvae and nymphae could not. all stages were able to transmit the parasite. two syringe passages of b major resulted in a complete loss of infectivity to ticks.1977928992
ultrastructure of babesia major in the tick haemaphysalis punctata.haemaphysalis punctata ticks were infected with babesia major by allowing them to feed on an infected splenectomised calf. heavily infected ticks were dissected and the guts and the ovaries were processed to study the ultrastructure of b major in these organs. the morphology of the parasites in the gut and the ovary was identical. it was shown that the parasite contained a reduced form of an apical complex consisting of characteristic organelles such as the polar ring, rhoptries, micronemes and ...1976951514
babesia major in britain: infectivity of suspensions derived from ground-up haemaphysalis punct at a nymphs. 19744448585
the indirect fluorescent antibody test for the differentiation of infections with babesia divergens or babesia major. 19724567732
the effect of irradiation on intra-erythrocytic stages of babesia major. 19724621840
babesia major in britain: tick transmitted infections in splenectomised calves. 19734707898
serological evidence for the identification of babesia major in britain. 19714995826
the beta-tubulin gene of babesia and theileria parasites is an informative marker for species discrimination.a fragment of the beta-tubulin gene was polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplified from genomic dnas of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia divergens, babesia major, babesia caballi, babesia equi, babesia microti, theileria annulata and theileria sergenti. single amplification products were obtained for each of these species, but the size of the amplicons varied from 310 to 460 bp. sequence analysis revealed that this variation is due to the presence of a single intron, which ranged from 20 ...200011027785
tick-borne parasitic diseases in cattle: current knowledge and prospective risk analysis related to the ongoing evolution in french cattle farming systems.parasitic diseases, like babesiosis and theileriosis are transmitted by ticks: their occurrence is therefore linked to the size of the tick stock and the seasonality of the vectors. babesia divergens bovine babesiosis transmitted by ixodes ricinus is widespread and often reported in france. serological prevalence is high, ranging from 20 to 80% according to the farms. clinical incidence is low: around 0.4% for the whole cattle population. the endemic situation is unstable and clinical cases occu ...200212387492
monitoring piroplasms infection in three cattle farms in minorca (balearic islands, spain) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis.bovine piroplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases caused by parasites of the genera theileria and babesia. three friesian cattle farms (f1-f3) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis were selected in minorca (balearic islands, spain). blood samples were collected from 8 to 11 animals every two months throughout a year and, a newly developed multiplex dna bead-based suspension array based on the luminex(®) xmap technology was used to monitor for the presence of piroplasms. the assay i ...201222884914
identification of piroplasm infection in questing ticks by rlb: a broad range extension of tick-borne piroplasm in china?sensitive and specific diagnostic method for rapid and simultaneous detection and discrimination of the different species is needed for an effective control of piroplasmosis. here, a reverse line blot (rlb) assay was developed for piroplasm detection. a general pair of primer based on 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene was used to amplify v4 region of 18s rrna gene. general and specific probes for 13 piroplasm species were cited from previous publications or designed according to the alignment of 18s ...201626896077
serological relationship between a large babesia found in japanese cattle and babesia major, b bigemina and b bovis.immunofluorescent methods were used to study the serological relationships between a japanese babesia species and three other babesia species (b major, b bigemina and b bovis). all the sera were obtained at intervals from five splenectomised calves each infected experimentally with five strains of the four parasites. the antibody titre of each serum was determined by the use of homologous and heterologous antigens. the reactions between homologous antigens and their serial antisera were consiste ...19807008125
babesia major in britain: blood-induced infections in splenectomized and intact calves. 19734741643
maintenance of in vitro cultures of babesia divergens and babesia major at low temperatures.cultures of erythrocytes parasitized by babesia divergens and babesia major were stored in medium cooled to 4 degrees c for up to 8 weeks. there was a marked decrease in parasitaemia and an increase in the number of free extra-erythrocytic, unagglutinated merozoites, during the cooled period. cultures stored in this way and returned to 38 degrees c resumed growth, with or without sub-culture. at the low temperature, only one sub-culture is required per week.19854013467
babesia major in britain: cross-immunity trials with babesia divergens in splenectomised calves.splenectomised calves infected with babesia major were shown to have no resistance to challenge with babesia divergens; however, initial infection with b divergens provided a good protection against subsequent challenge with b major. it is suggested that this might mean that b divergens would be the dominant and most commonly encountered species in areas where both occur.19761025635
[occurrence of the tick haemaphysalis punctata (can. et fanz., 1877) and of babesia major in cattle in north germany]. 19761008781
a differential diagnostic criterion for babesia major and babesia bigemina vermicules from tick haemolymph.babesia major mature and immature vermicules in the haemolymph of haemaphysalis punctata were measured and found to be significantly larger than vermicules of babesia bigemina. mature b. major vermicules had a mean length of 15.53 micrometer and mature b. bigemina vermicules had a mean length of 11.79 micrometer. this difference provides a new criterion for the differentiation of the two species.1977906629
the ultrastructure of penetrating stages of babesia major infecting the ovary of haemaphysalis punctata.the ultrastructure of penetrating stages of babesia major merozoites responsible for causing trans-ovarian infection of the tick haemaphysalis punctata was studied. these merozoites were different from forms of other babesia species previously described in the tick in that they were highly pleomorphic. most of the organelles found in these forms were similar to those found in other stages: however, the apical complex was found to be very active. micronemes were found to be predominant in the cyt ...1977563562
cryopreservation of bovine blood infected with babesia major for use in the indirect fluorescent antibody test.washed erythrocytes infected with babesia major were mixed with glycerol and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. after thawing, these cells were used for the preparation of antigen slides for immunofluorescence studies.1978353926
introduction and multiplication of bovine babesia in human cells.bovine erythrocytes parasitised with babesia major were fused with human hela cells by means of sendai virus. b major parasites entered the hela cell cytoplasm and in some cases underwent multiplication over a period of three days.1979230557
ultrastructure of babesia major vermicules from the tick haemaphysalis punctata as demonstrated by negative staining.the ultrastructure of babesia major vermicules was studied in samples derived from the haemolymph of haemaphysalis punctata adults and negatively stained with phosphotungstic acid. most of the organelles observed were typical of those found in apicomplexan parasites. these were the apical complex with the polar ring and the ribs, micronemes and subpellicular microtubules. the number of ribs was 27 or 28. the outer membrane of the pellicle was composed of a large number of fibrils running along t ...197877093
a highly sensitive dna bead-based suspension array for the detection and species identification of bovine piroplasms.piroplasms are among the most harmful tick-borne pathogens for livestock and sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for rapid detection and identification of the different species are needed for effective control. reverse line blot has been the molecular technique of choice but it is laborious, time-consuming and highly susceptible to subjective variation in the interpretation of the hybridisation signal. here, an oligonucleotide multiplex suspension microarray (luminex® microsphere system) w ...201122233830
evaluating an indirect rmpsp enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine theileria infection in china.bovine theileriosis, a tick-borne protozoan disease caused by theileria annulata, theileria orientalis and theileria sinensis, is widespread in china and is a serious economic problem for the chinese livestock industry. in this study, recombinant major piroplasma surface proteins (mpsp) of t. annulata, t. orientalis and t. sinensis based on mpsp genes were expressed in escherichia coli bl21(de3). the immunogenicity and specificity of the three purified recombinant mpsp proteins were evaluated wi ...201727942962
comparison of diagnostic methods to detect piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle.this study was carried out to compare different diagnostic techniques to reveal the presence of piroplasms in asymptomatic cattle kept at pasture. nineteen blood samples were collected from animals of two different areas of emilia romagna region of italy and processed for microscopic observation, pcr, serological test (ifat) for babesia bovis and babesia bigemina antibodies and in vitro cultivation. the cultures were performed on both bovine and ovine erythrocytes. seventeen blood smears (89%) w ...201221846583
attempted transmission of babesia major by boophilus microplus.two experiments was carried out to determine if babesia major could be transmitted by boophilus microplus. in experiment 1, a babesia-free batch of laboratory reared bo. microplus larvae were applied to an intact calf infected by inoculation with a b. major stabilate. the calf showed a b. major parasitaemia while the larvae, nymphs and adult ticks were engorging. the engorged females were cultured and batches were incubated at one of the three following temperatures: 24, 28 or 32 degrees c. appr ...19979512741
experiments on the transmission of babesia major and babesia bigemina by haemaphysalis punctata.experiments on the transmission by haemaphysalis punctata of three large babesia strains were carried out. three babesia-free batches of laboratory reared h. punctata ticks were infected with two strains of babesia major, b. major (xingjiang strain), isolated with adult ticks of h punctata and b. major (henan strain), isolated with h. longicornis) and a strain of babesia bigemina by feeding them on the calves infected by inoculation of blood stabilates. h. punctata was shown to be capable of tra ...19969011018
piroplasms of domestic animals in the macedonia region of greece. 2. piroplasms of cattle.a study was carried out on piroplasms of cattle in the macedonia region of greece. during 1984-1986, 602 serum samples were collected from cattle in 33 localities. blood smears were also prepared from 50 of the animals in 13 localities. the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test revealed that 41.4% of cattle sera were positive to theileria orientalis, 2.0% to theileria annulata, 21.6% to babesia bovis, 15.2% to babesia bigemina, 5.1% to babesia major and 2.7% to babesia divergens. some of the ...19968792580
babesia major: abomasal transmural potential difference, and antroduodenal motility changes associated with experimental infection in calf.transmural potential difference, ph and ionic concentrations of the abomasal contents were measured in three calves. antroduodenal motor patterns were recorded using electrodes and strain-gauge transducers fixed on the antrum and the duodenum. the calves were infected with 8 x 10(9) babesia major intravenously and a significant drop in transmural potential difference, concomitant with a steady increase in na+ and k+ concentrations of the abomasal contents occurred within 2 days. the onset of fev ...19883232941
discrimination of babesia major and babesia ovata based on its1-5.8s-its2 region sequences of rrna gene.babesia ovata and babesia major are two newly identified large babesia species infective to cattle in china. there is a demand for specific tools for discrimination between the two species due to the confusion of their classification based on traditionally classification methods, such as tick vector, morphology, and pathogenicity. in this study, the internal transcribed spacers (its including its1, 5.8s coding region and its2) were originated from four isolates of b. ovata and one of b. major fr ...200818066598
molecular diagnosis of theileria and babesia species infecting cattle in northern spain using reverse line blot macroarrays.piroplasmosis in cattle is caused by tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites of the genera theileria and babesia. molecular detection techniques offer higher sensitivity and specificity than microscopy examination methods and serological tests. a reverse line blot (rlb) macroarray that included generic and species-specific probes for theileria annulata, theileria buffeli, babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia divergens and babesia major was used to study the presence and identity of the piroplasm ...200616684356
retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern italy by reverse line blot hybridization.tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. in order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization. the study had been carried out in three regions of southern italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. rlb showed that ...201424614604
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