molecular phylogeny of south american screech owls of the otus atricapillus complex (aves: strigidae) inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.the cytochrome b gene of 6 south american screech owls of the genus otus (o. choliba, o. atricapillus, o. usta, o. sanctaecatarinae, o. guatemalae, and o. hoyi) and two old world species (otus scops and otus leucotis) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and partially sequenced (300 nucleotides). otus atricapillus, o. guatemalae, o. hoyi and o. sanctaecatarinae which are morphologically very similar, have been treated as belonging to a single species. a. atricapillus (sibley and monr ...19957766262
prevalence of blood parasites in japanese wild birds.the prevalence of blood parasites was investigated in 701 japanese wild birds for 13 years from january, 1988 to march, 2001. most of the injured or sick birds were caught in the suburbs of kobe city, hyogo prefecture and brought to the zoo for clinical care. among all the birds examined, 10.6% were infected with hematozoa belonging to three genera as plasmodium (1.7% of the samples), haemoproteus (5.1% of the samples) and leucocytozoon (4.6% of the samples), and two birds (0.29% of the samples) ...200212399602
phylogenetic comparison of leucocytozoon spp. from wild birds of japan.eight species of japanese birds were found to be infected with leucocytozoon species using microscopic analysis. we used pcr and sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) to compare the genetic background among these detected protozoa species. in 20 individuals of 22 samples, a single amplified band was detected from 6 of 8 bird species; 9 japanese rock ptarmigans (lagopus mutus japonicus), 4 large-billed crows (corvus macrorhynchos), 2 carrion crows (c. corone), 2 scops o ...200717283401
isolation of a recent korean epizootic strain of newcastle disease virus from eurasian scops owls affected with severe diarrhea.velogenic newcastle disease virus (ndv) was recovered from two dead eurasian scops owls (otus scops) from a wildlife rescue center in korea during 2005. phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the partial fusion (f) protein revealed that the isolates had the highest level of homology to recent korean ndv strains from poultry.200818263840
avian haemosporidian parasites infection in wild birds inhabiting minami-daito island of the northwest pacific, japan.haemosporidian parasites infection among wild birds inhabiting minami-daito island was studied. blood films from 183 birds representing 4 species of 4 families were examined microscopically. avian haemosporidian parasites were detected in 3 species with an overall prevalence of 59.6%. none of the 30 daito scops owls (otus scops interpositus) examined were infected. either haemoproteus sp. or plasmodium sp. infection was found in 14 of 31 (45.2%) borodino islands white-eyes (zosterops japonicus d ...200818525175
avian mycobacteriosis in free-living raptors in majorca island, spain.avian mycobacteriosis is a chronic, infectious disease caused by different species of mycobacteria, usually belonging to the mycobacterium avium complex. from 2004 to 2007, 589 raptors brought dead or sick to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in majorca (balearic islands, spain) were necropsied. the birds belonged to 12 different species, chiefly common kestrel (falco tinnunculus) (n=297), scops owl (otus scops) (n=109), barn owl (tyto alba) (n=75), long-eared owl (asio otus) (n=58), peregrine fa ...201020390529
cryptosporidium baileyi infection associated with an outbreak of ocular and respiratory disease in otus owls (otus scops) in a rehabilitation centre.cryptosporidiosis has been reported in more than 30 avian species worldwide. although some cases of cryptosporidiosis have been described in captive birds of prey in the order falconiformes, to date there have been no reports of the disease in wild raptors. here we describe for first time an ocular and respiratory disease associated with cryptosporidium baileyi in wild scops owl (otus scops, order: strigiformes). sixteen otus owl fledglings born in the wild during the summer of 2008 were admitte ...201020544422
seropositivity and risk factors associated with toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from spain.toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. to date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of t. gondii and the risk factors associated with t. gondii infection in wild bird populations. in the present study, t. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including falconiformes (nā€Š=ā€Š610), strigiformes (nā€Š=ā€Š260), ciconi ...201122216311
gongylonema sp. infection in the scops owl (otus scops).since 1997, it has been observed that fledging scops owls often develop necrotic plaques in their oral cavities, which in severe cases can even affect bone tissue. this condition has been defined as a necrotic oropharyngeal disease based on gross lesions. in 2011 alone, thirty-five cases were identified at the brinzal owl rescue centre (madrid, spain), of which four were chosen to perform a complete diagnostic study. histopathology was carried out in three cases and cytology in one case. using m ...201323872068
genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered from birds of prey in portugal.wild animal populations in contact with antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistant bacteria that are daily released into the environment are able to become unintentional hosts of these resistant microorganisms. to clarify this issue, our study evaluated the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants on coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered from birds of prey and studied their genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). the unusual vga(a) and erm(t) genes, which confe ...201626990729
genetic characterization of oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates from wild birds indicates that genotype is associated with host species, diet and presence of pathognomonic lesions.oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates of wild birds from spain were studied. a total of 1688 samples (1214 of predator birds and 474 of prey species) from wildlife recovery centres and scientific bird-ringing campaigns were analysed from 2011 to 2013. the overall infection prevalence was 20.3% (11.4% in predator birds and 43.3% in prey species). pathognomonic lesions were present in 26% of the infected birds (57.3% in predator birds and 4.9% in prey species). the most commonly parasitized species w ...201425262786
[parasite fauna of austrian owls (strigiformes)].during the examination of 182 owls--asio otus (51), strix aluco (44), bubo bubo (34), nyctea scandiaca (15), athene noctua (14), otus scops (9), tyto alba (4), aegolius funereus (3), glaucidium passerinum (2), asio flammeus (2), indigenous "owls" (4)--5 protozoan species, 3 trematode species, 1 cestode species, 6 nematode species, 3 acanthocephalan species, 2 acaride species and 7 insect species could be discovered. dermanyssus hirundinis was proved on the long-eared owl and carnus hemapterus on ...19827165130
a comparative study of corneal sensitivity in birds of determine and compare the corneal sensitivity in healthy wild diurnal and nocturnal birds of prey (bp) indigenous to catalonia (spain), and to establish if age is a determining factor in corneal sensitivity in those species.201423750555
helminth communities of owls (strigiformes) indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes) in southern italy.we compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from calabria (italy) and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. the latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from galicia (spain). a total of 19 helminth taxa were found in ow ...201223300921
alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community.animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current repro ...201222279165
ocular consequences of blunt trauma in two species of nocturnal raptors (athene noctua and otus scops).to determine the type, prevalence, and prognosis of ocular and periocular lesions in free-living little owls (lo) and scops owls (so), injured by blunt trauma.201222151088
predation risk determines breeding territory choice in a mediterranean cavity-nesting bird community.non-direct effects of predation can be an important component of the total effect of predation, modulating animal population and community dynamics. the isolated effects of predation risk on the spatial organisation of the breeding bird community, however, remains poorly studied. we investigated whether an experimentally increased predation risk prior to reproduction affected breeding territory selection and subsequent reproductive strategies in three mediterranean cavity-nesting birds, i.e., th ...201120652593
a new species of extinct scops owl (aves: strigiformes: strigidae: otus) from são miguel island (azores archipelago, north atlantic ocean).the extinct são miguel scops owl otusfrutuosoi n. sp. is described from fossil bones found in gruta de água de pau, a volcanic tube in são miguel island (azores archipelago, north atlantic ocean). it is the first extinct bird described from the azores and, after the madeiran scops owl (o. mauli rando, pieper, alcover & olson 2012a), the second extinct species of strigiformes known in macaronesia. the forelimb elements of the new taxon are shorter, the hindlimb elements are longer, and the pelvis ...201326295111
reprising the taxonomy of cyprus scops owl otus (scops) cyprius, a neglected island endemic.the endemic cyprus scops owl otus (scops) cyprius has been treated as a subspecies of the widespread eurasian scops owl o. scops since at least the 1940s. however, its song is distinct from that of all other subspecies of o. scops in being double-noted, rather than single-noted. its plumage also differs, most obviously in being consistently darker than other subspecies and in lacking a rufous morph. however, it shows no biometric differences from o. s. cycladum and southern populations of o. s. ...201526624667
interspecific and geographical differences in anticoagulant rodenticide residues of predatory wildlife from the mediterranean region of spain.we studied the prevalence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ars) in the liver of 344 individuals representing 11 species of predatory wildlife that were found dead in the mediterranean region of spain (catalonia and majorca island). six different ars (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen, difethialone, warfarin) were found in the liver of 216 (62.8%) animals and >1 ar co-occurred in 119 individuals (34.6%). the occurrence of ars was positively correlated with the human population dens ...201525546464
visual cues and parental favouritism in a nocturnal bird.visual signals are crucial for parent-offspring communication, although their functioning has been neglected for nocturnal birds. here, we investigated parental preference for nestling coloration in nocturnal conditions--a question hitherto unexplored--in a nocturnal raptor, the scops owl (otus scops). we assessed how parents allocated food during the night in relation to a manipulation of ultraviolet (uv) reflectance of the cere (skin above the beak) of their offspring. reflectance of the cere ...201019864276
scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the oriental scops owl (otus scops).the dorsal lingual surface of an adult owl (otus scops) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. the tongue of the adult owl was about 1 cm long. three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. the conical region between the lingual apex and lingual root was very wide area. the conical papillae of the lingual body were inclined toward the posterior of the tongue. at low magnification of scanning electron microscopy, the desq ...200919522300
global changes and animal phenotypic responses: melanin-based plumage redness of scops owls increased with temperature and rainfall during the last century.the ecological effects of global climate changes include shifts of species' distribution and changes in migration strategies and phenotype. colour polymorphism, which can be envisaged as a species' evolutionary response to alternating conditions or to a wide range of habitats, may be affected by climate changes as well. the scops owl (otus scops) shows two main colour morphs, dark- and pale-reddish, as well as intermediate morphs. we investigated temporal trends in an index of plumage colour of ...200919411274
melanism influences the use of social information in a polymorphic information use has well-known fitness benefits. however, causes underlying the apparent inter-individual variability in the propensity to use social information are poorly studied. melanins are pigments responsible for most of intra-specific color variation in vertebrates and their variation is often associated with changes in behaviour. here, we explored whether melanism is related to individual propensity to use social information in the color polymorphic scops owl otus scops. we manip ...202032024960
phaeomelanin matters: redness associates with inter-individual differences in behaviour and feather corticosterone in male scops owls (otus scops).individuals within populations often show consistent variation in behavioural and physiological traits which are frequently inter-correlated, potentially leading to phenotypic integration. understanding the mechanisms behind such integration is a key task in evolutionary ecology, and melanin based colouration has been suggested to play a pivotal role. in birds, most of plumage colour variation is determined by two types of melanin, eumelanin and phaeomelanin, but the role of phaeomelanin in avia ...202033175892
epicoccum nigrum-induced respiratory infection in a wild eurasian scops owl (otus scops).a wild adult eurasian scops owl (otus scops), which was unable to fly, was rescued. physical examination revealed a sticky exudate around the glottis. heterophilic leukocytosis was identified through complete blood count, and radiography revealed a marked elevated density of posterior air sacs and inner cavities in both sides of the humerus and femur. fungal cultures of samples taken from the owl suggested a respiratory fungal infection. through molecular typing, the fungus was identified as epi ...201931341135
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