coffee senna (senna occidentalis) poisoning in cattle in brazil.four 4-5-y-old cows out of a group of 20 developed a toxic myopathy approximately 10 d after being started on a ration contaminated with 21.5% senna occidentalis beans. clinical signs included progressive muscle weakness, incoordination of hindlimbs, reluctance to move, dragging of the tip of the hooves of the hindlimbs, and sternal and lateral recumbency. gross lesions included white to whitish-yellow discolored areas of several groups of skeletal muscle in various regions of the body, but more ...19947900275
experimental mitochondrial myopathy induced by chronic intoxication by senna occidentalis seeds.histochemical and electron microscopic studies of biceps femoris, pectoralis major and rectus femoris of chronically treated birds with seeds of the poisonous plant senna occidentalis (0.2% external/internal tegment), were performed. the muscles had similar features of human mitochondrial myopathy as ragged-red fibers, cytochrome-oxidase negative fibers, and weak activity of the oxidative enzymes. fibers with lipid storage were also present. acid phosphatase activity in rare muscle fibers was al ...19979077488
mitochondrial myopathy in senna occidentalis-seed-fed chicken.plants of the genus senna (formerly cassia) have been recognized as the cause of a natural and experimental syndrome of muscle degeneration frequently leading to death in animals. histologically, it demonstrated skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis, with floccular degeneration and proliferation of sarcolemmal nuclei. recently, it was described as an experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy in hens chronically treated with senna occidentalis. currently, skeletal muscles of chicks intoxicated ...19979262958
toxic peripheral neuropathy of chicks fed senna occidentalis seeds.plants of the genus senna (formerly cassia) are poisonous to livestock and other laboratory animals, leading to a syndrome of a widespread muscle degeneration, incoordination, recumbence, and death. the main histologic lesion is necrosis of skeletal muscle fibers. recently, a mitochondrial myopathy with ragged-red and cytochrome oxidase (cox)-negative muscle fibers was recognized in hens chronically intoxicated with parts of seeds of s. occidentalis. the purpose of the present work was to invest ...19989515072
muscle atrophy induced in broiler chicks by parts of senna occidentalis seeds.senna occidentalis (formerly cassia occidentalis) is a common contaminant of agricultural commodities. it is toxic to cattle and poultry, reportedly being responsible for skeletal myodegeneration in these animals. all parts of the plant present toxicity, but the seeds are the most toxic. the toxin(s) responsible for the myodegeneration have not been definitively identified, nor is it known which part of the seeds is most toxic. intoxication by this plant leads to weight loss with considerable ec ...19989686441
the lysosomal enzymes acid phosphatase and cathepsin d in rats intoxicated with senna occidentalis seeds.chronic administration of senna occidentalis seeds induces an experimental toxic myopathy characterized by skeletal muscle fibers atrophy, decrease in histochemical activity of cytochrome oxidase, and increase of the acid phosphatase activity in muscle fibres at the light microscopic level. the mechanisms that lead to the increase of this lysosomal enzyme activity are not known and could be related to other biochemical disturbs than the mitochondrial function impairment. the main aim of the pres ...199910457611
mitochondrial metabolism impairment in muscle fibres of rats chronically intoxicated with senna occidentalis seeds.the chronic administration of s. occidentalis seeds was found to induce a mitochondrial myopathy in hens. this study was undertaken to determine if the chronic treatment with s. occidentalis seeds of rats (as a mammalian model) would induce a mitochondrial myopathy similar to those described in humans and to determine if the histological changes could be correlated with the amount of ingested seeds. twenty-one days old rats were fed s. occidentalis seeds at different diet concentrations (1, 2, 3 ...200010987191
toxicity testing of senna occidentalis seed in rabbits.the effect was investigated of administering ground senna occidentalis seeds to rabbits in different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) in the ration. the experiment lasted 30 days and the toxic effects of the plant were evaluated on the basis of weight gain, histopathological, biochemical and morphometric parameters, as well as histochemistry and electron microscopy. animals that received the ration containing 4% ground s. occidentalis seeds gained less weight (p < 0.05) and died in the third w ...200011305748
distribution of cox-negative mitochondria in myofibers of rats intoxicated with senna occidentalis seeds.we have described that administration of seeds or parts of the seed of senna occidentalis (coffee senna) for long periods, induces histochemical changes in the skeletal muscles of hens and rats that are characteristic of a mitochondrial myopathy--as decrease of sdh and cox activity, with some cox negative fibers. in this experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy, as in many human mitochondrial diseases, there is a random distribution of cox negative fibers. some fibers are completely cox nega ...200212117285
the effects of low doses of senna occidentalis seeds on broiler chickens.the effects of 0.5%, 0.3% and 0.1% w/w concentrations of senna occidentalis (so) seed mixed with commercial ration were studied in 18 groups of 32 broiler chicks each, from 1 day to 49 days of age. three groups were fed one of the rations throughout their lives (tl). three other groups were fed one of the rations from the 1st to the 28th day of life (starter phase, sp), and the final 3 groups were fed one of the rations from the 29th to 49th day (finisher phase, fp). each experimental group was ...200312872832
effects of senna occidentalis on chick bursa of fabricius.senna occidentalis (l) link (formerly called cassia occidentalis) is a toxic leguminous plant found ubiquitously as a contaminant of crops. all parts of the plant are toxic, but most of the s. occidentalis toxicity is found in the seeds. s. occidentalis has been shown to be toxic to several animal species, causing degenerative lesions mainly in muscles. this is the first report describing alterations in chick lymphoid organs caused by s. occidentalis seeds. the objectives of this study were to d ...200314676015
effects of long-term administration of senna occidentalis seeds in the large bowel of rats.plants of the genus senna that contain anthranoides derivatives are frequently used as cathartics. radiological studies have demonstrated that patients with chronic constipation who have used stimulant laxative have colonic redundancy and dilatation more frequently than patients who have not. the objective of the present work was to study morphological and histochemical changes of the lower gut after administration of senna occidentalis seeds for a long period to rats, as observed in skeletal mu ...200314708639
sub-acute intoxication by senna occidentalis seeds in rats.senna occidentalis (so) is a weed that grows in pastures along fences and in fields cultivated with cereals such as corn and soybean, and many reports have been showing intoxication with this plant in different animal species. it is also used in many medicinal purposes. the objective of the present study was to better evaluate the toxic effects of prolonged administration of so seeds to rats. forty male wistar rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each, three of them respectively fed ...200515721195
plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in brazil (caboclo-river dweller, indian and quilombola).a detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the brazilian flora. this study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to po ...200717196776
effect of senna occidentalis seeds on immunity in broiler chickens.this study investigated possible immunotoxic effects of senna occidentalis (so) seeds incorporated in broiler chicken rations at different concentrations (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75%), for 28 or 42 days. we evaluated innate immune function (macrophage activities of spreading, phagocytosis, peroxide and nitric oxide production) and acquired immune function (humoral and cellular immune responses), as well as lymphoid organ weights and pathology. there was enhanced macrophage activity, as hydrogen ...200717493163
muscle degeneration in chicks caused by senna occidentalis seeds.acute intoxication with senna occidentalis seeds was studied in chicks. seven-day-old chicks were fed ground dried seeds of this plant mixed with regular chicken ration at a concentration of 4% by weight for 15 days. feed intake and body weight were markedly affected and a high level of lethality was observed. necropsy examination of chicks from the experimental group revealed paleness and atrophy of thoracic muscles. degenerative and necrotic fibres were observed in skeletal muscle by histologi ...199818484012
alternate hosts of african cassava mosaic virus and east african cassava mosaic cameroon virus in nigeria.cassava mosaic disease (cmd) caused by african cassava mosaic virus (acmv) and east african cassava mosaic cameroon virus (eacmcv) is the major constraint to cassava production in nigeria. sequences of the dna-a component of acmv and eacmcv isolates from leguminous plant species (senna occidentalis, leucana leucocephala and glycine max), castor oil plant (ricinus communis), a weed host (combretum confertum) and a wild species of cassava (manihot glaziovii) were determined. all acmv isolates from ...200818661095
intoxication by senna occidentalis seeds in pregnant goats: prenatal and postnatal evaluation.senna occidentalis is a weed toxic to different animal species. very little is known about the effects of prolonged exposure to low doses of s. occidentalis on developmental toxicology. thus, the present study proposes an approach to evaluate the perinatal toxicity of s. occidentalis seeds in goats. twenty-one pregnant goats were fed rations containing 0% (control), 1% (so1 group), 2% (so2 group) and 4% (so4 group) mature s. occidentalis seeds from pregnancy detection on day 27 after mating unti ...201120138744
acute and subacute toxicity of cassia occidentalis l. stem and leaf in wistar rats.cassia occidentalis l. (syn. senna occidentalis; leguminosae) has been used as natural medicine in rainforests and tropical regions as laxative, analgesic, febrifuge, diuretic, hepatoprotective, vermifuge and colagogo. herein, we performed a pre-clinical safety evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of cassia occidentalis stem and leaf in male and female wistar rats.201121571057
in vitro anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of five medicinal plants against egg-hatching and larval development of haemonchus contortus.ethnopharmacological relevance: senna occidentalis, leonotis ocymifolia, leucas martinicensis, rumex abyssinicus, and albizia schimperiana are traditionally used for treatment of various ailments including helminth infection in ethiopia. materials and methods: in vitro egg hatch assay and larval development tests were conducted to determine the possible anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of senna occidentalis, aerial parts of leonotis ocymifolia, leu ...201121605649
senna occidentalis leaf extract possesses antitrypanosomal activity and ameliorates the trypanosome-induced anemia and organ damage.the in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of the ethanol extract of senna occidentalis leaf were investigated. the crude extract exhibited an in vitro activity against trypanosoma brucei brucei as it completely eliminated parasites' motility within 10 minutes postincubation with 6.66 mg/ml of effective extract concentration. the extract was further used to treat experimentally t. brucei brucei infected rats at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, beginning on day 5 post infec ...201021808562
orientation of anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae) to plant-host volatiles in a novel diffusion-cage olfactometer.a novel diffusion-cage olfactometer tested the responses of anopheles gambiae giles to plant volatiles. green-leaf volatiles are often released from cut or injured plant tissue and may alter the headspace of plants used in olfactometer assays. the diffusion-cage olfactometer is designed for use with whole, intact plants, hence giving a more realistic behavioral assay. its simple plastic construction, ease of assembly, and accommodation to whole plants makes it a useful tool for measuring mosquit ...201526502752
cardiotoxicity of senna occidentalis in sheep (ovis aries).the cardiotoxicity of coffee senna (senna occidentalis) was investigated in sheep that were fed diets containing its seeds, which are recognized as the most poisonous part of such weed. dianthrone, the main toxic component of s. occidentalis, is known to impair mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to myofiber degeneration. in this study, fifteen ewes were fed 0%, 2% or 4% of seeds of s. occidentalis for 63 days. non-specific markers of myocyte injury and electrocardiograms were under ...201626894038
mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity of senna occidentalis (cassiae) and ocimum basilicum (lamiaceae) from maruthamalai hills against anopheles stephensi and plasmodium falciparum.each year, mosquito-borne diseases infect nearly 700 million people, resulting to more than 1 million deaths. in this study, we evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and smoke toxicity of senna occidentalis and ocimum basilicum leaf extracts against the malaria vector anopheles stephensi. furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts was evaluated against chloroquine (cq)-resistant (cq-r) and cq-sensitive (cq-s) strains of plasmodium falciparum. in larvicidal and pupicidal experiment ...201526122992
survival value and sugar access of four east african plant species attractive to a laboratory strain of sympatric anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae).mosquitoes derive energy from plant sugar, thereby promoting survival and reproduction. its survival value to females plays a key role in the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations. previous olfactometry assays of responsiveness demonstrated that senna didymobotrya fresenius, parthenium hysterophorus, l. senna occidentalis, (l) and lantana camara l were among the most attractive plants for the mbita strain of anopheles gambiae s.s. giles in eastern africa. here, we provide experimental evide ...201627247348
plant products used as mosquito repellents in guinea bissau, west standardized interviews of people in 23 rural villages, in the oio region of guinea bissau, we collected data on which plant species and plant derived products or methods people use to reduce mosquito biting activity. the following plants were used to reduce numbers of mosquitoes indoors at night: fresh or smouldering hyptis suaveolens poit. (lamiaceae), smoke of the bark of daniellia oliveri rolfe (caesalpiniaceae), smoke of the infructescence of elaeis guineensis jacq. (arecaceae), smoke of ...19999924960
an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the caribbean island of trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions.201526369926
control of mannose/galactose ratio during galactomannan formation in developing legume seeds.galactomannan deposition was investigated in developing endosperms of three leguminous species representative of taxonomic groups which have galactomannans with high, medium and low galactose content. these were fenugreek (trigonella foenum-graecum l.; mannose/galactose (man/gal) = 1.1), guar (cyamopsis tetragonoloba (l.) taub.; man/gal = 1.6) and senna occidentalis (l.) link. (man/gal = 3.3), respectively. endosperms were analysed at different stages of seed development for galactomannan conten ...199224177968
an ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat liver diseases in the maritime region of togo, many persons still rely on plants for healing, however very little is known about the medicinal practices of the indigenous people. the present study aimed to document the medicinal plant utilization for the management of liver diseases in the maritime region of the country.201626732630
toxicity of senna occidentalis seeds in laying hens and its effects on egg production.senna occidentalis is a toxic leguminous plant found in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes poisoning mainly in confined animals. the seeds are the most toxic part of the plant and may be present in animal rations. the main toxic component of the s. occidentalis seed is a dianthrone, an anthraquinone-derived compound that affects mitochondrial function. this study evaluated the effects on egg production of low-level contamination of the s. occidentalis in the laying hen ...201728161970
biological and molecular characterization of a putative new potexvirus infecting senna this work, we report the complete genome sequence of, production of polyclonal antibodies against, and development of biological assays for a putative new potexvirus, named senna mosaic virus (senmv), found infecting senna occidentalis in the state of são paulo, brazil. the complete genome sequence of senmv comprises 6775 nucleotides excluding the poly(a) tail. the genome organization is similar to those of other potexviruses, with five open reading frames coding for rna-dependent rna polymer ...201727796545
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