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[the interrelations of the human and avian influenza viruses a(h2) determined by the mathematical processing of data on the antigenic structure of their hemagglutinin].mathematical methods were used to analyse the data on the antigenic specificity of h2 subtype hemagglutinin of human and avian influenza a viruses. this approach allowed the evaluation of possible evolutional relationships in this little-studied group of viruses. influenza a (h2) viruses isolated from birds in the usa were found to represent a sufficiently isolated group, whereas european avian strains (a/duck/germany/1215/73, a/pintail duck/primor'e/695/76, a/duck/marseilles/46/76) were close t ...19911785179
[detection and characterization of salmonella strains from laughing gulls (larus ridibundus)].25 and 17 salmonella strains could be isolated from 429 and 423 blackheaded gulls (larus ridibundus), respectively, during two years of examination. s. typhimurium was the most frequent serovar. all strains of s. typhimurium belonged to the biochemovar c (inosite and rhamnose negative), nearly a third of isolates caused a mannose-sensitive hemagglutination of guinea pig erythrocytes. this result is in contradiction to the literature. furthermore the phagovars, the plasmid profiles and the resist ...19911786042
[the "diseased" or "dead" guillemots (uria aalge), three-toed gulls (rissa tridactyla), silver gulls (larus argentatus) and laughing gulls (larus ridibundus) found in the area of the german bay, 1982-1985].between 1982 and 1985 the cadavers of 50 guillemots (uria aalge), 41 kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), 26 herring gulls (larus argentatus) and 34 black-headed gulls (larus ridibundus) were examined pathological, bacteriological and virological. the probable cause of death was established. parasitosis were particularly prevalent in herring gulls (49%), where the main infection--as in black-headed gulls--was with cestoides. in kittiwakes and guillemots mainly spiruroideae were recorded. the commonest ...19892752934
[enzyme histochemical and fine structural observations on the pecten oculi of the pigeon (columba livia) and laughing gull (larus ridibundus)]. 19724343361
[occurrence of salmonellae in the laughing gull (larus ridibundus)].in 1984-1994 black-headed gulls (larus ridibundus) from various localities in the czech republic were examined to assess the incidence of salmonellae. a total of 99 eggs from two nest colonies were examined. no salmonellae were detected. in examinations of 740 young birds from three colonies the total prevalence was 19.3%. in full grown gulls (number of examined birds 189) from five localities the total prevalence of salmonellae was 4.2%. in water specimens near the nest colonies, other habitats ...19957489134
susceptibility of laughing gulls (larus atricilla) to h5n1 and h5n3 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.this investigation detailed the clinical disease, gross and histologic lesions, and distribution of viral antigen in juvenile laughing gulls (larus atricilla) intranasally inoculated with either the a/tern/south africa/61 (h5n3) (tern/sa) influenza virus or the a/chicken/hong kong/220/97 (h5n1) (chicken/hk) influenza virus, which are both highly pathogenic for chickens. neither morbidity nor mortality was observed in gulls inoculated with either virus within the 14-day investigative period. gros ...200212495048
susceptibility of north american ducks and gulls to h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.since 2002, h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpa1) viruses have been associated with deaths in numerous wild avian species throughout eurasia. we assessed the clinical response and extent and duration of viral shedding in 5 species of north american ducks and laughing gulls (larus atricilla) after intranasal challenge with 2 asian h5n1 hpai viruses. birds were challenged at approximately equal to 10 to 16 weeks of age, consistent with temporal peaks in virus prevalence and fall migration. ...200617283615
species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury.we injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. for 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (lc(50)). based on the dose-response curves and lc(50)s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value ...200918421496
waterbirds (other than laridae) nesting in the middle section of laguna cuyutlán, colima, méxico.laguna de cuyutlán, in the state of colima, mexico, is the only large coastal wetland in a span of roughly 1150 km. despite this, the study of its birds has been largely neglected. between 2003 and 2006 we assessed the waterbirds nesting in the middle portion of laguna cuyutlán, a large tropical coastal lagoon, through field visits. we documented the nesting of 15 species of non-laridae waterbirds: neotropic cormorant (phalacrocorax brasilianus), tricolored egret (egretta tricolor), snowy egret ...200818624252
a nonlethal microsampling technique to monitor the effects of mercury on wild bird eggs.methylmercury is the predominant chemical form of mercury reported in the eggs of wild birds, and the embryo is the most sensitive life stage to methylmercury toxicity. protective guidelines have been based mainly on captive-breeding studies with chickens (gallus gallus), mallards (anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasants (phasianus colchicus) or on field studies where whole eggs were collected and analyzed and the effects of the mercury were measured based on the reproductive success of t ...200918937540
new species of parasitic quill mites of the genus picobia (acari: syringophilidae: picobiinae) from north american birds.five new species of the genus picobia are described and illustrated: (1) p. leucophaeus sp. nov. from the laughing gull leucophaeus atricilla l. (charadriiformes: laridae) from texas; (2) p. troglodytes sp. nov. from the house wren troglodytes aedon vieillot (passeriformes: troglodytidae) from california; (3) p. cardinalis sp. nov. from the northern cardinal cardinalis cardinalis (l.) (passeriformes: cardinalidae) from texas; (4) p. carpodacus sp. nov. from the purple finch carpodacus purpureus ...201020939365
variation in viral shedding patterns between different wild bird species infected experimentally with low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses that originated from wild birds.the prevalence of infection with avian influenza (ai) virus varies significantly between taxonomic orders and even between species within the same order. the current understanding of ai infection and virus shedding parameters in wild birds is limited and largely based on trials conducted in mallards (anas platyrhynchos). the objective of the present study was to provide experimental data to examine species-related differences in susceptibility and viral shedding associated with wild bird-origin ...201121500030
constraints on nest site selection: a comparison of predator and flood avoidance in four species of marsh-nesting birds (genera: catoptrophorus, larus, rallus, and sterna).nest site characteristics associated with flood and predator avoidance were compared for four nonpasserine species of marsh-nesting birds: clapper rails, willets, laughing gulls, and common terns. species with short nests, willets and terns, minimized flood damage by nesting on higher ground than did gulls and rails that build tall nests. species with dispersed, cryptic nests had taller surrounding grass than did open-nesting colonial species. total nest height was similar for species with tall ...20123365941
antibodies to influenza a viruses in gulls at delaware bay, usa.gulls are the known reservoir for h13 and h16 influenza a viruses (iav) but also host a diversity of other iav subtypes. gulls also share habitats with both ducks and shorebirds, increasing the potential for cross-species iav transmission. we serologically tested laughing gulls (leucophaeus atricilla) collected at delaware bay during may when they were in direct contact with iav-infected shorebirds; both species feed on horseshoe crab (limulus polyphemus) eggs on beaches during this month. from ...201627309077
avian influenza virus infection dynamics in shorebird hosts.to gain insight into avian influenza virus (aiv) transmission, exposure, and maintenance patterns in shorebirds at delaware bay during spring migration, we examined temporal aiv prevalence trends in four charadriiformes species with the use of serial cross-sectional data from 2000 through 2008 and generalized linear and additive models. prevalence of aiv in ruddy turnstones (arenaria interpres morinella) increased after arrival, peaked in mid-late may, and decreased prior to departure. antibody ...201222493108
[craniogenesis in the laughing gull (larus ridibundus l.). the reconstruction of the basic plan of the bird].to contribute to the knowledge of the cranium of older bird embryos, the chondrocranium and osteocranium of the black-headed gull (larus ridibundus) are described. the chondrocranium of the black-headed gull is compared with the chondrocranium of other bird species with special consideration of functional and phylogenetic aspects. as a result a "grundplan" of the bird chondrocranium is reconstructed. most of the chondrocranial autapomorphies of birds are connected with the enlargement of the eye ...19902242817
widespread detection of antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis, west nile, st. louis encephalitis, and turlock viruses in various species of wild birds from across the united states.wild birds serve as amplifying hosts for many arboviruses, and are thought to be responsible for introducing these viruses into new areas during migration as well as reintroducing them to places where winter temperatures disrupt mosquito-borne transmission. to learn more about four mosquito-borne arboviruses of concern to human or animal health, we tested sera from 997 wild birds of 54 species and 17 families across 44 states of the united states collected from january 1, 2013, through september ...201627162269
laughing gull chicks: recognition of their parents' voices.laughing gull chicks between 6 and 13 days old responded to the calls of their own parents with orientation toward the sound, approach, increased locomotion, and vocalization. in response to the same kinds of calls from other adults they tended to orient away from the sound, withdraw, and sit or crouch. chicks as young as 6 days can identify their parents from individual characteristics in the calls of adult gulls.196917758068
the role of stimulus-orientation in eliciting the begging response from newly-hatched chicks of the laughing gull (larus atricilla). 19715150478
metabolism during flight in the laughing gull, larus atricilla. 19725058361
the effects of testosterone and estrogen on the rate of long-calling vocalization in juvenile laughing gulls, larus atricilla. 19761278847
environmentally acquired lead in the laughing gull, larus atricilla.lead concentrations were measured in eggs, prefledgings and adult laughing gulls collected near galveston, texas. no lead was found in eggs. prefledgling and adult birds had lead ranging from zero to 16 mug/g wet tissue. liver had the greatest lead concentrations followed by brain, heart and skeletal muscle. there were no significant differences in lead concentrations between fledglings and adults or between males and females.1976933304
effects of no. 2 fuel oil on hatchability of marine and estuarine bird eggs.eggs of louisiana herons, sandwich terns, and laughing gulls were oiled with either 0, 5, or 20 microliter of no. 2 fuel oil in the field and in the laboratory. after 5 days of natural incubation, field-oiled and control eggs were opened and embryonic mortality was determined. no. 2 fuel oil produced 61% mortality in louisiana heron eggs, 56% in sandwich tern eggs, and 83% in laughing gull eggs. hatching success of artificially incubated, oiled eggs appeared to be lower than in control eggs. how ...1979444711
parathion causes secondary poisoning in a laughing gull breeding colony. 1979497439
parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls.one member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. a pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain ache activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. after dosing, birds were releas ...19836882946
nest defense behavior and reproductive success of laughing gulls sublethally dosed with parathion. 19846487845
managing birds and controlling aircraft in the kennedy airport-jamaica bay wildlife refuge complex: the need for hard data and soft opinions.during the 1980s, the exponential growth of laughing gull (larus atricilla) colonies, from 15 to about 7600 nests in 1990, in the jamaica bay wildlife refuge and a correlated increase in the bird-strike rate at nearby john f. kennedy international airport (new york city) led to a controversy between wildlife and airport managers over the elimination of the colonies. in this paper, we review data to evaluate if: (1) the colonies have increased the level of risk to the flying public; (2) on-colony ...200111443385
diets of nesting laughing gulls (larus atricilla) at the virginia coast reserve: observations from stable isotope analysis.food web studies often ignore details of temporal, spatial, and intrapopulation dietary variation in top-level consumers. in this study, intrapopulation dietary variation of a dominant carnivore, the laughing gull (larus atricilla), was examined using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analysis of gull tissues as well as their prey (fish, invertebrates, and insects) from the virginia coast reserve estuarine system. as earlier traditional diet studies found evidence of individual dietary specia ...200111558657
gene expression, glutathione status, and indicators of hepatic oxidative stress in laughing gull (larus atricilla) hatchlings exposed to methylmercury.despite extensive studies of methylmercury (mehg) toxicity in birds, molecular effects on birds are poorly characterized. to improve our understanding of toxicity pathways and identify novel indicators of avian exposure to hg, the authors investigated genomic changes, glutathione status, and oxidative status indicators in liver from laughing gull (larus atricilla) hatchlings that were exposed in ovo to mehg (0.05-1.6 µg/g). genes involved in the transsulfuration pathway, iron transport and stora ...201222890840
dermal exposure to weathered mc252 crude oil results in echocardiographically identifiable systolic myocardial dysfunction in double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus).during the deepwater horizon natural resource damage assessment, gross morphologic cardiac abnormalities, including softer, more distensible musculature, were noted upon gross necropsy in hearts from laughing gulls and double-crested cormorants exposed to weathered mc252 crude oil. a species specific, echocardiographic technique was developed for antemortem evaluation of function that was used to evaluate and better characterize cardiac dysfunction. control (n=12) and treated (n=13) cormorant gr ...201728666537
toxic effects of orally ingested oil from the deepwater horizon spill on laughing gulls.the explosion of the deepwater horizon oil rig released, millions of gallons of oil into the environment, subsequently exposing wildlife, including numerous bird species. to determine the effects of mc252 oil to species relevant to the gulf of mexico, studies were done examining multiple exposure scenarios and doses. in this study, laughing gulls (leucophaeus atricilla, lagu) were offered fish injected with mc252 oil at target doses of 5 or 10ml/kg bw per day. dosing continued for 27 days. of th ...201728823381
ornithodoros (alectorobius) capensis neumann (acari: ixodoidea: argasidae), a parasite of seabirds, established along the southeastern seacoast of the united states.ornithodoros (alectorobius) capensis neumann, an ectoparasite of seabirds found circumglobally in the tropics and subtropics, has become established along the southeastern seacoast of the united states. the tick has been found feeding primarily on brown pelicans, pelecanus occidentalis, but also has been found on the laughing gull, larus atricilla, and the american oystercatcher, haematopus palliatus. we report here the presence of o. (a.) capensis from new hanover and brunswick counties (near t ...19921495062
[contribution to the topochemistry of carbohydrates in embryonal kidneys in the laughing gull (larus ridibundus l.)]. 195913669952
testing of an oral dosing technique for double-crested cormorants, phalacocorax auritus, laughing gulls, leucophaeus atricilla, homing pigeons, columba livia, and western sandpipers, calidris mauri, with artificially weather mc252 oil.scoping studies were designed to determine if double-crested cormorants (phalacocorax auritus), laughing gulls (leucophaues atricilla), homing pigeons (columba livia) and western sandpipers (calidris mauri) that were gavaged with a mixture of artificially weathered mc252 oil and food for either a single day or 4-5 consecutive days showed signs of oil toxicity. where volume allowed, samples were collected for hematology, plasma protein electrophoresis, clinical chemistry and electrolytes, oxidati ...201728781207
[epizootiology and pathogenesis of avian mycobacteriosis in the laughing gull (larus ridibundus)].the occurrence of avian mycobacteriosis and sensitivity to m. avium were investigated in the laughing gull in this paper. the patho-morphological and culture examination of 35 individuals of the laughing gull caught at four different localities of the czech republic did not reveal any tuberculous lesions nor did it enable to isolate mycobacteria. after experimental intramuscular infection by suspension of m. avium macroscopic tuberculous lesions were found at the spot of puncture in 35 days, in ...19948009783
spectral reflectance of gull's bill: physiological and evolutionary implications for animal communication.the newly hatched laughing gull chick (larus atricilla) begs food by pecking at the parent's dark red bill. the spectral reflectance of the bill over a range of 300 to 1200 nanometers reflects increasingly more with wavelength beginning about 575 nanometers. because the chick shows a bimodal, true color preference in pecking, with modes at about 625 and 450 nanometers; the latter, blue peak in the spectral response curve is apparently not adapted to the natural stimulus of the parent's bill. the ...19685675183
cryptobranchus alleghaniensis, larus atricilla and larus marinus in north dakota. 191217839143
trophic ecology drives contaminant concentrations within a tropical seabird community.to support environmental management programs, there is an urgent need to know about the presence and understand the dynamics of major contaminants in seabird communities of key marine ecosystems. in this study, we investigated the concentrations and trophodynamics of trace elements in six seabird species and persistent organic pollutants (pops) in three seabird species breeding on grand connétable island (french guiana), an area where the increase in human population and mining activities has ra ...201728460236
[comparison of the pathogenesis and epizootiologic importance of avian mycobacteriosis in various types of domestic and free-living syntropic birds].the sensitivity of domestic and different sorts of synanthropic free living fowl to m. avium and pathogenesis of tuberculous process were observed by experimental infections. the partridge, domestic fowl, pheasant and sparrow were the most sensitive to intramuscular infection by suspension of m. avium. the sparrow, domestic fowl, laughing gull were the most sensitive to peroral infection by food contaminated by tbc poultry liver. after free contact between the poultry, the domestic fowl was the ...19957676577
[the occurrence of salmonellae in wild birds (passeriformes, lariformes)].the occurrence of salmonellae was investigated in 1011 cloacal smears of 21 species of wild birds caught at the locality of hermanický rybník near ostrava. salmonella typhimurium serotype was isolated from one of the 23 laughing gulls (larus ridibundus) which were examined; this corresponds to a 4.3% invasion frequency. the result of the examination of all other birds was negative. on the basis of the results of this study and the results published by other authors, laughing gull can be consider ...19853927558
avian bornaviruses in north american gulls.avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. we report detection of avian bornavirus rna in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. we tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern us, using a reverse-transcriptase pcr assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus m gene. nine b ...201525973630
local and interannual variations in mercury and cadmium in eggs of eight seabird species of the sinaloa coast, méxico.mercury (hg) and cadmium (cd) concentrations in eggs of 8 seabird species inhabiting 5 coastal ecosystems in sinaloa, méxico were determined during 2 breeding seasons (2012 and 2013): blue-footed booby (sula nebouxii), brown booby (sula leucogaster), double-crested cormorant (phalacrocorax auritus), magnificent frigatebird (fregata magnificens), brown pelican (pelecanus occidentalis), royal tern (thalasseus maximus), laughing gull (leucophaeus atricilla), and heermann's gull (larus heermanni). t ...201626887632
organochlorine residues in six species of estuarine birds, south carolina, 1971-75.in south carolina between 1971 and 1975, authors evaluated the occurrence of organochlorine residues in the laughing gull (larus atricilla), white ibis (eudocimus albus), glossy ibis (plegadis falcinellus), american oystercatcher (haematopus palliatus), willet (catoptrophorus semipalmatus), and ruddy turnstone (arenaria interpres). tissues of birds found dead and eggs were analyzed, eggshell thicknesses were measured, and incidental observations were made of reproductive success and population s ...1979117426
environmentally acquired lead, cadmium, and manganese in the cattle egret, bubulcus ibis, and the laughing gull, larus atricilla.the concentrations of lead, cadmium, and manganese in the tissues of cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis) and laughing gulls (larus atricilla) gathered from the galveston bay region of texas were compared, to determine if different patterns of accumulation exist. their levels in these species were within the range reported for other bird species. lead levels in bone were comparable, but gulls had more lead in brain, kidney and liver tissues than the egrets, which suggested a higher rate of accumulation ...19807189395
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