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cardiovascular effects of azadirachta indica extract.a crude extract of the leaves of azadirachta indica was studied for its effects on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized guinea pigs and rabbits. these effects include profound hypotension and a minimal negative chronotropic effect, which increased at higher doses. in one rabbit, 200 mg of extract/kg decreased the heart rate from 280 to 150 beats/min. the extract also exhibited a weak antiarrhythmic activity in rabbits against ouabain-induced dysrhythmia.1978702308
studies on plant gums: part iii--isolation & characterization of a glycopeptide from neem (azadirachta indica) gum after pronase digestion. 1978753744
mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme of a filarial worm setaria digitata: some properties and effects of drugs and herbal extracts.mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mmdh) and malic enzyme (mme) of a filarial worm setaria digitata were studied. mmdh exhibited the highest activities in the oxidation and reduction reactions at ph 9.5 and ph 6.2, respectively, while mme did so in the malate decarboxylation reaction at ph 6.8. mme showed no detectable activity on the pyruvate carboxylation direction. the km values for malate (1.7 mm) and oxaloacetate (0.17 mm) and the ratio of vmax oxidation: vmax reduction (2.73) tend to favo ...19921291764
effects of azadirachta indica a juss on some biochemical, immunological and visceral parameters in normal and stressed rats.effects of a. indica (ai) were evaluated on some biochemical, immunological and visceral parameters in normal and stress rats. ai (100 mg/kg) lowered blood glucose, triglyceride and sgot levels in normal rats, and attenuated stress-induced elevations of cholesterol and urea levels. in rats immunized with srbc, ai enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen. further, ai facilitated the footpad thickness response to srbc in sensitized mice and also enhanced leucocyte migration in immuniz ...19921294481
"antimalarial" medicinal plants and their impact on cell populations in various organs of mice.we have investigated the effects of leaf and bark decoctions of ocimum gratissimum, azadirachta indica, morinda lucida and enantia chlorantha on (a) the course of plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis malaria (b) reticulocyte and haematocrit values and (c) nucleated cell numbers in the spleen, bone marrow, peritoneum, liver and peripheral blood of swiss albino mice. results obtained showed that normal mice infected with the parasite (10(4)/mouse) suffered fulminant parasitaemia which resulted in death, ...19921308080
effects of azadirachtin on rhodnius prolixus: immunity and trypanosoma interaction.the effects of azadirachtin, a tetranortriterpenoid from the neem tree azadirachta indica j., on both immunity and trypanosoma cruzi interaction within rhodnius prolixus and other triatomines, were presented. given through a blood meal, azadirachtin affected the immune reactivity as shown by a significant reduction in numbers of hemocytes and consequently nodule formation following challenge with enterobacter cloacae beta 12, reduction in ability to produce antibacterial activities in the hemoly ...19921342719
hepatoprotective activity of azadirachta indica leaves on paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.effect of a. indica leaf extract on serum enzyme levels (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) elevated by paracetamol in rats was studied with a view to observe any possible hepatoprotective effect of this plant. it was interesting to observe that serum enzyme levels were much elevated in paracetamol induced animals than in those receiving a combination of paracetamol and lead extract. it is stipulated that the extract t ...19921459654
evaluation of neem, azadirachta indica, with and without water management, for the control of culicine mosquito larvae in rice-fields.applications of neem, azadirachta indica (meliaceae), to rice-fields were evaluated with the dual objective of controlling the culicine mosquito vectors of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) and enhancing the grain yield. since crude neem products deteriorate under improper storage conditions, a laboratory bioassay was developed to screen neem cake powder against mosquito larvae, culex quinquefasciatus. only samples of neem giving over 90% bioassay mortality were used in field trials. when good q ...19921463896
the use and efficacy of azadirachta indica adr ('neem') and curcuma longa ('turmeric') in scabies. a pilot study.in the ayurvedha and sidha system of medicine (indian system of medicine) azadirachta indica adr ('neem') and curcuma longa ('turmeric') has been used for healing chronic ulcers and scabies. the 'neem' and 'turmeric' was used as a paste for the treatment of scabies in 814 people. in 97% of cases cure was obtained within 3 to 15 days of treatment. we find that this is a very cheap, easily available, effective and acceptable mode of treatment for the villagers in the developing countries. we have ...19921496714
on the toxicology of azadirachta indica leaves.brown hisex chicks were fed diets containing 2% and 5% azadirachta indica leaf from their 7th to 35th day of age. thereafter, the chicks were fed control diet for 2 weeks. a depression in body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization was observed in chicks fed a. indica leaf when compared with the control. the main clinicopathological changes were increases in lactic dehydrogenase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities and uric acid and bilirubin concentrati ...19921548899
experimental azadirachta indica toxicosis in chicks.brown hisex chicks were fed azadirachta indica ripe fruit at 2, 5 or 10% of basic diet from their 7th to 35th d of age. decreased body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization and hepatonephropathy were most severe in chicks fed the 10% a indica diet. these changes were accompanied by anemia and increases in ldh, got and alp activities and uric acid concentration and by decreased serum total protein. hepatocytes and renal tubular cells did not completely revert to normal 2 w after removal ...19921609490
antifertility activity of volatile fraction of neem oil.nim-76, the odorous and volatile fraction of neem oil, was investigated for its antifertility activity in vivo in rats, rabbits and rhesus monkeys. the drug is effective when applied before coitus but not so when applied during post-coital stages. it, therefore, appears to act mainly by its spermicidal effect. no alteration in the estradiol (e2) and progesterone (p) values was observed after the application of the drug in monkeys.19911764946
neem oil--a fertility controlling agent in rhesus monkey.neem oil, an oil extracted from the seeds of azadirachta indica has been found to act as a good spermicidal agent. pre and post coital application of the oil intravaginally prevented pregnancy in rhesus monkey.19911812107
effects of azadirachtin in rhodnius prolixus: data and hypotheses.the effects of azadirachtin a, a tetranortriterpenoid from the neem tree azadirachta indica j., on both development and interaction between trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of chagas' disease, and its vector rhodnius prolixus were studied. given through a blood meal, a dose-response relationship of azadirachtin was established using antifeedant effect and ecdysis inhibition as effective parameters. a single dose of azadirachtin a was able to block the onset of mitosis in the epidermis and ...19911841982
barrier contraceptives, spermicides, and periodic abstinence.although barrier contraceptives were among the first methods of preventing unwanted pregnancy ever described for human use, with the advent of the non-coitally related oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices, they gradually fell into relative disuse. however, for a variety of reasons, this is no longer the case. there is a renewed interest in these techniques both as a major form of birth control and also as our best protection against the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, many ...19911878503
antifertility effects of neem (azadirachta indica) oil by single intrauterine administration: a novel method for contraception.a novel use of neem (azadirachta indica) oil, a traditional plant product, for long-term and reversible blocking of fertility after a single intrauterine application is described. female wistar rats of proven fertility were given a single dose (100 microliters) of neem oil by intrauterine route; control animals received the same volume of peanut oil. whereas all control animals became pregnant and delivered normal litters, the rats treated with neem oil remained infertile for variable periods ra ...19901983033
activity-guided isolation and identification of azadirachta indica bark extract constituents which specifically inhibit chemiluminescence production by activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.the a. indica crude aqueous bark extract inhibits the generation of chemiluminescence by activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn). guided by this activity the responsible compounds were purified by extraction with different organic solvents and hplc. gallic acid, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (as a 2:1 mixture) (+)-catechin and epigallocatechin were isolated and identified by means of hplc, tlc, ms, 1h-nmr, uv, and cd data. commercial samples of gallic acid, (+)-catechin and ...19912062961
antifertility effects of leaf extracts of some plants in male rats.ethanolic leaf extracts of different local folklore plants (azadirachta indica, beaumontia grandiflora, chordia dichotoma, casiarea tomentosa, diospyros embryopteris, milletia auriculata and melia azedarach) were investigated for antifertility effects on male rats in oral doses of 100 mg/kg daily for 21 days. though, none of these extracts interfered with spermatogenesis, anti-implantational and abortifacient effects were observed in females mated by the males fed with leaf extracts of a. indica ...19902253961
volatile fraction of neem oil as a spermicide.the volatile, odorous fraction of neem oil coded as nim-76 obtained by steam distillation was investigated for in vitro spermicidal activity. the data showed that the minimum concentration which inhibited spermatozoal motility was 0.25 mg/ml for rat and 25 mg/ml for human spermatozoa. the effect of the drug on spermatozoal motility was found to be dose-dependent. the activity of this drug was not altered in the presence of vaginal or cervical mucus. intra-vaginal application of nim-76 in rabbits ...19902257744
plant products as protective agents against cancer.out of various spices and leafy vegetables screened for their influence on the carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme, glutathione-s-transferase (gst) in swiss mice, cumin seeds, poppy seeds, asafoetida, turmeric, kandathipili, neem flowers, manathakkali leaves, drumstick leaves, basil leaves and ponnakanni leaves increased gst activity by more than 78% in the stomach, liver and oesophagus, - high enough to be considered as protective agents against carcinogenesis. glutathione levels were also significan ...19902283166
evaluation of the possible role of glucose, carnitine, coenzyme q10 and steroids in the treatment of reye's syndrome using the margosa oil animal model.glucose and steroids have been used in the treatment of children with reye's syndrome, while carnitine and coenzyme q10 have been the subject of some recent studies which suggest that these agents may have a role in the treatment of reye's syndrome and reye-like syndrome due to margosa oil poisoning. because of the paucity of causes of reye's syndrome seen at any one centre, the clinical variability of the disease, and limited knowledge of definite aetiologic factors, controlled clinical trials ...19902288230
effects of drugs and fatty acids related to reye syndrome on brain water content in rats.brain water content was measured by gas-chromatography in rats following intraperitoneal injection of drugs and fatty acids related to the etiology of reye syndrome. a statistically significant increase in brain water content was observed following injection of 5% glucose solution, valproic acid, acetyl salicylic acid, calcium hopantenate, margosa oil, 4-pentenoic acid, linolenate and arachidonate. seizures occurred in all animals given valproic acid, margosa oil and 4-pentenoic acid, and in 25% ...19892516690
azadirachtin as a larvicide against the horn fly, stable fly, and house fly (diptera: muscidae).effects of azadirachtin, a triterpenoid extracted from neem seed, azadirachta indica a. juss., were similar to those of insect growth regulators against the immature stages of the born fly, haematobia irritans (l.), the stable fly, stomoxys calcitrans (l.), and the house fly, musca domestica l. when an ethanolic extract of ground seed was blended into cow manure, lc50 and lc90's for larval horn flies were 0.096 and 0.133 ppm azadirachtin, respectively. an emulsifiable concentrate (ec) had an lc5 ...19892600264
spectroscopic and biological investigation of nimbolide and 28-deoxonimbolide from azadirachta indica.the reisolation of nimbolide [1] from azadirachta indica of tanzanian origin and the isolation and structure elucidation of a new limonoid, 28-deoxonimbolide [2], from the same plant source are reported. for the first time, unambiguous 1h- and 13c-nmr assignments of compounds 1 and 2 are presented, as well as their in vitro cytotoxic activity against human tumor cell lines.19892614419
characterization of anti-complement compounds from azadirachta indica.the crude aqueous extract of azadirachta indica bark possesses an inhibitory activity on both classical (cp) and alternative pathway (ap) activation of human complement. purification of the compounds with the guidance of the ap-inhibitory activity involved extraction with methanol, dialysis, ion-exchange procedures and gel-permeation chromatography. this sequence yielded two polymers, nb-i and nb-ii, one a highly active compound with a relatively low molecular weight (nb-ii) and the other a less ...19892615417
[anti-infective phytotherapies of the tree-savannah, senegal (occidental africa). iii: a review of phytochemical substances and the antimicrobial activity of 43 species].a review has been made of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data of 43 medicinal plants of the tree-savannah used by the diola against infectious diseases. the traditional use of ten plants can be explained by pharmacologically active principles: adansonia digitata, azadirachta indica, carica papaya, cassia tora, fagara leprieurii, guiera senegalensis, khaya senegalensis, mangifera indica, psidium guajava and voacanga africana. four of these herbs are recommended for use in primary health c ...19892664354
an ethnopharmacognostic approach to the search for immunomodulators of plant origin.the search for immunomodulating plant constituents through basic and field inquiries into the literature and practices of traditional indian medicine is treated. the strategy of data collecting proceeds through aspects of an ethnobotanical, an ethnopharmaceutical, an ethnopharmacological, and an ethnomedical nature. in the experimental immunopharmacognostic phase, immunomodulatory compounds are isolated and purified through action-guided fractionation procedures. the results described here refer ...19892682699
studies on in vitro degradation and in vivo digestion of a slow ammonia releasing urea product.a slow ammonia releasing urea product (uromalt) has been produced by autoclaving and drying of germinated barley and urea. in vitro degradability of nitrogen (ivdn, raab et al., 1983) was in average 62 +/- 9% in 4 hours, compared to 76 +/- 8% with an autoclaved and dried mixture of urea and not-germinated barley. mixtures of urea with leucaena l. or azadarichta indica (neem cake) showed degradabilities of about 80 and 93%, respectively, when dried at 39 degrees c, but of 65% when dried at 100 de ...19892735818
biochemical and histological studies of reproductive organs in cyclic and ovariectomized rats supporting a non-hormonal action for neem oil.subcutaneous administration of neem oil to cyclic rats caused significant damage to the luminal epithelium of the uterus and to the uterine glands. it also decreased glycogen and total protein contents in the ovary and uterus, while the activity of acid phosphatase in these organs was increased significantly. studies in ovariectomized rats revealed that the administration of neem oil decreased protein and glycogen content and increased acid phosphatase activity in the uterus whereas its conjoint ...19892747262
effects of peroxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids on mitochondrial function and structure: pathogenetic implications for reye's syndrome.linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is a constituent of margosa oil which has been implicated as a cause of reye's syndrome (rs) in infants. increased concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found in sera from patients with rs. isolated rat liver mitochondria exposed to the peroxidized (but not unperoxidized) methyl esters of linoleic (c18:2) or linolenic (c18:3) acids showed decreases in state 3 and uncoupled respiratory rates and in respiratory control and adp/o ratios ...19882900617
effect of azadirachta indica on plasmodium berghei berghei in mice.azadirachta indica leaf extract has been investigated for antimalarial activity against drug sensitive strain of p. berghei berghei in mice. on administering the extract subcutaneously to infected mice in the "4-day schizontocidal test' 41.2% suppression of parasitaemia was observed. a similar observation was made when the extract was injected for 3 days before the animals were infected with the parasites, 21.7% chemosuppression was obtained. when treatment commenced after the infection had alre ...19852994439
folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in india (review, experimental and clinical approach).though a number of plants and their parts are used for dental ailments among population in rural and urban areas of developing countries, in india however, the most common house-hold, road-side plants are mango (mangifera indica), neem (azadirachta indica; melia azadirachta), ocimum (ocimum basilicum), tea-dust (camellia sinensis) and uncommonly murayya, i.e., currey leaf (murayya koenigi) [chopra et al. 1958, kirtikar and basu 1935, nadakarni 1954, satyavati 1984]. the leaves of these plants ar ...19883042642
biochemical mechanism of the antimalarial activity of azadirachta indica leaf extract.the antimalarial herb, azadirachta indica, acts by redox perturbation in the form of the imposition of substantial oxidant stress during malarial infection. the aqueous leaf extract substantially inhibited nadph cytochrome c(p-450) reductase activity in rats with a significant increase in the microsomal protein. the aniline hydroxylase activity and the phenobarbitone metabolism were also enhanced. the flavonoids quercetin-3-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin) were isolated as the major ...19863081917
in vitro antibacterial activity of neem oil. 19863102364
mechanism of antifertility action of neem oil.the purpose of this study was to determine whether the antifertility effect of the antiestrogenic substance neem oil, extracted from the seeds of azadirachta indica, acts directly on the uterus or through absorption from the vaginal epithelium into the general circulation. in 4 groups of rats the left uterine horn was ligated 2 days after coitus. rats in group a were used as controls. in group b 25 mcl neem oil was administered intravaginally on days 2-4 with the animals in head down position ...19883225018
immunomodulatory activity of an aqueous extract of azadirachta indica stem bark.the interference of an aqueous extract of the stem bark of azadirachta indica with different parts of the human immune system was investigated. the extract showed strong anticomplementary effects which were dose-and time-dependent and most pronounced in the classical complement pathway assay. moreover, a dose-dependent decrease in the chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was observed and a dose-dependent increase in the production of migration inhibition factor by lymphocytes.19873302545
mutagenicity tests of cashewnut shell liquid, rice-bran oil and other vegetable oils using the salmonella typhimurium/microsome system.in view of the shortage of edible oils in india, nutritional and toxicological evaluations have been carried out on some unconventional oils to determine whether they might be safe for human consumption. as part of these evaluations, eight unconventional oils were tested by the ames mutagenicity assay, using salmonella typhimurium strains ta98 and ta100 with and without metabolic activation with s-9 mix prepared from the livers of rats pretreated with sodium phenobarbitone or aroclor 1254. of th ...19873315902
in vitro antimalarial activity of neem (azadirachta indica a. juss) leaf and seed extracts. 19873330711
[experimental study of the effect of raw materials of the neem tree and neem extracts on dermatophytes, yeasts and molds].in traditional indian medicine, various parts of the neem tree have been used for centuries, especially with skin diseases. these products are often applied in human mycoses. we tested some dried neem materials, neem oils as well as simple neem preparations and extracts with regard to their effect on 14 of the most common pathogenic fungi. neither the dried neem materials nor the medical preparations and oils had any effect on fungal growth; most of them were even contaminated with molds. some o ...19883407264
acute toxicity study of the oil from azadirachta indica seed (neem oil).the seed oil of azadirachta indica (neem oil) is well known for its medicinal properties in the indigenous indian system of medicine. its acute toxicity was documented in rats and rabbits by the oral route. dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms were noted along with a number of biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity. the 24-h ld50 was established as 14 ml/kg in rats and 24 ml/kg in rabbits. prior to death, animals of both species exhibited comparable pharmacotoxic symptoms in order ...19883419203
non-hormonal post-coital contraceptive action of neem oil in rats.neem oil, a natural product of azadirachta indica was investigated for various hormonal properties in relation to its post-coital contraceptive action. at subcutaneous doses up to 0.3 ml/rat, neem oil did not possess any estrogenic, anti-estrogenic or progestational activity and appeared not to interfere with the action of progesterone. these findings were confirmed using the histo-architecture of the uterus of treated rats. since the post-coital contraceptive effect of neem oil seems to be non- ...19883419204
screening azadirachta indica and pisum sativum for possible antimalarial activities.solvent-free extracts obtained from the leaves of azadirachta indica and pisum sativum were screened for antimalarial action using plasmodium berghei in mice. four days of oral dosing with 500 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg of the methanol extract of a. indica showed a parasite suppression which was statistically significant although all test animals died after 5 days, just 1 day longer than the untreated control group. a 50 mg/kg oral dose of the aqueous extract of p. sativum was found to have significant ...19863531729
inhibition of mitochondrial functions by margosa oil: possible implications in the pathogenesis of reye's syndrome.margosa oil (mo), a fatty acid-rich extract of the seeds of the neem tree and a reported cause of reye's syndrome, has been used in the induction of an experimental model of reye's syndrome in rats. it has been reported that mo causes a decrease in in vivo mitochondrial enzyme activity similar to that seen in reye's syndrome. we have attempted to uncover some of the biochemical mechanisms of mo's toxicity by examining its effect in vitro on isolated rat liver mitochondria. male rat liver mitocho ...19873658544
antifertility effect of neem oil in female albino rats by the intravaginal & oral routes. 19863699874
ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest due to neem leaf poisoning. 19863759898
effect of neem seed oil on the blood glucose concentration of normal and alloxan diabetic rats. 19863762197
assessment of oestrogenecity of neem leaf extract in rats. 19863818029
the toxicity of azadirachta indica leaves in goats and guinea pigs.the effects produced by the administration of aqueous suspensions of the green or dried leaves of azadirachta indica, a common tropical plant, were investigated in goats and guinea pigs. at doses of 50 or 200 mg/kg given orally over a period of up to eight weeks, the plant produced a progressive decrease in body weight, weakness, inappetence, and loss of condition. there were also decreases in heart, pulse and respiratory rates. diarrhea was observed in animals given the fresh leaves. in goats, ...19873824869
nimbolide, a constituent of azadirachta indica, inhibits plasmodium falciparum in culture.the terpenoid lactone nimbolide, the structure of which has been unambiguously established, was found to inhibit plasmodium falciparum in culture with a moderate potency. the ec50 against the parasite line k1 from thailand was approximately 2.0 microm (0.95 microgram/ml). the ec50 of crude aqueous extract of azadirachta indica var. siamensis (sadao tree), was 115 micrograms/ml, and of crude ethanol extract was 5.0 micrograms/ml. since nimbolide is a major constituent in these extracts, it could ...19853895455
investigation of an animal model of a reye-like syndrome caused by margosa oil.following reports of a reye-like syndrome in children resulting from margosa oil (mo) ingestion, we administered mo to laboratory rats in an attempt to produce an animal model of reye's syndrome. male rats were injected intraperitoneally with either mo or corn oil and observed for clinical signs of a toxic response. after 15 h the animals were administered a second dose and the mo-treated animals developed florid neurological symptoms. the animals were then sacrificed and blood samples were anal ...19854080457
proceedings: pharmacological studies on the leaves of azadirachta indica. 19744156703
study of antiviral activity of tender leaves of margosa tree (melia azadericta) on vaccinia and variola virus: a preliminary report. 19694309947
chemical compounds from azadirachta indica as inhibitors of potato virus x. 19744829363
mutagenicity testing of two tropical plant materials with pesticidal potential in salmonella typhimurium: phytolacca dodecandra berries and oil from seeds of azadirachta indica.in this study the mutagenic potential of two tropical plant materials was investigated in salmonella typhimurium strains ta98 and ta100. the oil extract from seeds of azadirachta indica showed no mutagenic activity in either strain with or without addition of metabolizing systems. when extracts of phytolacca dodecandra berries were tested, only the butanol extract caused direct mutagenicity in ta98. after addition of rat liver homogenate, again only the butanol extract was positive in ta98. addi ...19836352253
the mutagenicities of seven coumarin derivatives and a furan derivative (nimbolide) isolated from three medicinal plants.seven coumarin derivatives (imperatorin, heraclenin, xanthotoxin, marmesin, chelepin, oxypeucedanin, esculin) and a furan derivative (nimbolide) were screened on 6 ames tester strains (ta92, ta94, ta97, ta98, ta100, ta102). the eight compounds are chemicals isolated from three nigerian medicinal plants: afraegle paniculata, clausena anisata, and azadirachta indica. different preparations of the former are taken by nigerians for gut disturbances, and a concoction of the latter called "agbo" is ta ...19846387161
anti-implantation effect of neem oil. 19846532974
neem oil as a vaginal contraceptive. 19846724648
anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of azadirachta indica. 19816972048
neem oil inhibits two-cell embryo development and trophectoderm attachment and proliferation in vitro.the in vitro effect of neem oil was studied on the development of mouse two-cell embryos and trophectodermal cell attachment and proliferation.19947606156
mode of long-term antifertility effect of intrauterine neem treatment (iunt).the mode of antifertility action of intrauterine neem treatment (iunt) was studied. the effect of iunt on ovarian functions and uterine responsiveness to ovarian hormones was examined in adult wistar rats. the treated animals had normal reproductive cycles as indicated by the vaginal smears; serum progesterone levels were also in the normal range. effect of exogenous estradiol following iunt in ovariectomized rats showed comparable uterine weight gain as in control group; decidual cell reaction ...19957621690
larvicidal potential of five philippine plants against aedes aegypti (linnaeus) and culex quinquefasciatus (say).five species of philippine plants, reported in the literature to have insecticidal properties, were selected for investigation, namely: anona squamosa ("atis" or sugar apple), eucalyptus globulus ("bagras" or olive gum eucalyptus), lansium domesticum ("lansones"), azadirachta indica ("neem") and codiaeum variegatum ("san francisco" or croton). these were screened and assayed for their larvicidal potential against aedes aedes aegypti (linnaeus) and culex quinquefasciatus (say) by exposing 3rd-4th ...19947667727
evaluation of neem oil as sandfly, phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) repellent in an oriental sore endemic area in rajasthan. 19947777937
antimalarial activity in vitro of cochlospermum tinctorium tubercle extracts.resistance of plasmodium falciparum to current antimalarial compounds has drastically increased during the last few years and is now a major public health problem. we have studied plants traditionally used in africa against malaria. extracts of the tubercles of cochlospermum tinctorium a. rich, commonly used in burkina faso, were tested in vitro on 2 strains of p. falciparum, one (fcb1-colombia) chloroquine resistant and the other (f32-tanzania) chloroquine sensitive. extracts were obtained by i ...19957778154
preliminary laboratory trial of neem on anopheles and culex larvae in zambia. 19957788686
pharmacological effects of azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract on the ecg and blood pressure of rat.neem leaf alcoholic extract (nle) was investigated for its effects on the ecg and blood pressure of rat. intravenous administration of nle (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg) resulted in initial bradycardia followed by cardiac arrhythmia in rats. nle produced a significant and dose-related fall in blood pressure which was immediate, sharp and persistent. pre-treatment with either atropine or mepyramine failed to prevent the hypotensive effect of nle.19947814089
effect of aqueous neem (azadirachta indica) extract on testosterone and other blood constituents in male rats. a pilot study.effect of oral administration of crude aqueous neem extract on serum testosterone and other blood constituents was studied in the male wistar rats for 10 weeks. the neem treatment resulted in significant decreases (p < 0.01) in total testosterone, total bilirubin and k+ in serum. there were also increases (p < 0.05) in packed cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell, white blood cell and lymphocyte counts without showing any cytotoxic effects in the body.19947817539
comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts.azadirachta indica (neem) seed extracts are known to activate the local cell-mediated immune reactions after a single intrauterine administration, leading to a long term reversible block of fertility. in order to identify and characterize the active fraction responsible for this activity, neem seeds were extracted by both mechanical expression and solvent extraction using a range of polar to non-polar solvents which yielded 3 broad fractions. the mechanically expressed oil was fractionated using ...19947853869
personal protection from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) by burning neem oil in kerosene.the repellent action of neem oil (extracted from the seeds of azadirachta indica a. juss) was evaluated on mosquitoes at two villages near delhi, india. kerosene lamps containing neem oil were burned in the living rooms, and mosquitoes resting walls or attracted to human bait were collected inside rooms from 1800 to 0600 h. neem oil (0.01-1%) mixed in kerosene reduced biting of human volunteers and catches of mosquitoes resting on walls in the rooms. protection was more pronounced against anophe ...19947914543
synergistic spermicidal activity of neem seed extract, reetha saponins and quinine hydrochloride.in order to identify potent spermicidal agents which are free from the side effects of currently available agents, spermicidal activity of purified neem seeds extract (praneem), reetha saponins and quinine hydrochloride was studied individually and in combination. sander-cramer test was used to assess the activity on human sperm. under the test conditions, minimum effective spermicidal concentrations for praneem, reetha saponins and quinine hydrochloride were 25%, 0.05% and 0.346%, respectively. ...19947956217
anxiolytic activity of azadirachta indica leaf extract in rats.putative anxiolytic activity of leaf extract of a. indica, was investigated and compared with that of diazepam in rats using elevated plus maze and open field behaviour test paradigms of anxiety. doses (10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) of freshly prepared leaf extract of a. indica and diazepam (1 mg/kg) were administered (po) once, 45 min prior to behavioural testing. low doses (10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of a. indica leaf extract produced significant antianxiety effects both in plus ...19947959927
sexual development of malaria parasites is inhibited in vitro by the neem extract azadirachtin, and its semi-synthetic analogues.we have shown that azadirachtin, a compound from the neem tree, azadirachta indica, and selected semi-synthetic derivatives, block the development of the motile male malarial gamete in vitro. changes in the hemiacetal group at position c11 in the molecule result in a loss of activity in this assay. the motility of fully formed male gametes, and other selected flagellated cells, is unaffected by azadirachtin in vitro. these findings raise the possibility of developing azadirachtin-based compounds ...19947980823
toxicology of azadirachta indica. 19948046948
studies on the contraceptive efficacy of praneem polyherbal cream.praneem polyherbal cream, a spermicidal formulation, has been developed at the national institute of immunology, which makes use of praneem, a purified extract from the dried seeds of an ancient indian plant azadirachta indica (neem), extract from the pericarp of fruits of sapindus species and quinine hydrochloride. these ingredients have a synergistic spermicidal activity and an optimised formula was derived. the components were made into a water-soluble cream base prepared by using pharmaceuti ...19938131399
long-term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (iunt) in bonnet monkeys: an alternate to intrauterine contraceptive devices (iucd).antifertility effects of intrauterine neem treatment (iunt) was studied in bonnet monkeys. a single administration of 1 ml of neem oil by an intrauterine insemination catheter blocked fertility for 7 to 12 months. the effect was, however, reversible as all the animals became pregnant subsequently and delivered normal babies. the neem oil treatment had no adverse effect on menstrual cyclicity and ovarian functions. the uterus of neem-treated animals showed normal morphology. immunohistological st ...19948143455
the local view on the role of plant protection in sustainable agriculture in india.indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides has affected humans and their environment and contributed significantly to reduced productivity of crops. with the increasing realization of the importance of sustainable agriculture, the concept of integrated pest management (ipm) for sustainable agriculture has emerged. in the recent past entomologists and the farmers have identified methods of pest management that are ecologically non-disruptive and stable. concurrently indigenous crop varieties wit ...19938149820
precursors of n-nitroso compounds in some nigerian medicinal plants.twenty-seven tropical plants of medicinal importance were analysed for primary and secondary amines by chemiluminescence detection on a thermal energy analyzer (tea) modified for use on 'nitrogen mode' following derivatization with benzene sulphonyl chloride (bsc) and gas chromatographic (gc) separation of their sulphonamides. nitrite was determined by colorimetry at 540 nm after diazotization with sulphanilamide and coupling with n-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine to form an azo dye. nitrate was det ...19948187049
antifertility effects of neem (azadirachta indica) oil in male rats by single intra-vas administration: an alternate approach to vasectomy.an alternate approach to vasectomy for long-term male contraception following a single intra-vas application of a traditional plant (azadirachta indica) product having immunomodulatory properties is described. male wistar rats of proven fertility were given a single dose (50 microliters) of neem oil in the lumen of the vas deferens on each side; control animals received the same volume of peanut oil. animals were put on continuous mating 4 weeks after the treatment, with females of proven fertil ...19938226307
mouse sperm-egg interaction in vitro in the presence of neem oil.in vitro evidence is presented showing toxicity of neem oil on sperm-egg interaction in mouse. cumulus oophorus-enclosed ova, inseminated with capacitated spermatozoa, were cultured in 1 ml of in vitro fertilization (ivf) medium and overlayered by 1 ml of different concentrations of neem oil (1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100%) for ivf duration of 4h. at the end of incubation, ova were allowed to grow in neem oil-free culture medium and assessed for fertilization, first cleavage (2-cell formation) and bl ...19938231626
mosquito repellent action of neem (azadirachta indica) oil.two percent neem oil mixed in coconut oil, when applied to the exposed body parts of human volunteers, provided complete protection for 12 h from the bites of all anopheline species. application of neem oil is safe and can be used for protection from malaria in endemic countries.19938245950
neem oil as a sand fly (diptera: psychodidae) repellent.the repellent action of neem oil was evaluated against sand flies under laboratory and field conditions. concentrations of 2% neem oil mixed in coconut or mustard oil provided 100% protection against phlebotomus argentipes throughout the night under field conditions; against phlebotomus papatasi it repelled sand flies for about 7 h in the laboratory. neem oil is an indigenous product and a low-cost alternative for personal protection against sand fly bites.19938245951
anti-malaria activity of nigerian neem leaves. 19938249085
the gastric antiulcer effects of the leaves of the neem tree.the antiulcer effect of aqueous extracts of the leaves of the neem tree was investigated in rats exposed to 2-h cold-restraint stress or given ethanol orally for 1 h. extracts were administered in doses of 10, 40, or 160 mg leaf/kg body weight, either as single- or five-dose pretreatment regimens. neem dose-dependently reduced gastric ulcer severity in rats subjected to stress and also decreased ethanol provoked gastric mucosal damage. the extract appeared to prevent mast cell degranulation and ...19938316589
exploration of the frontiers of tradomedical practices: basis for development of alternative medical healthcare services in developing countries.the study is a brief exploration of the functions and roles of the traditional healers in the total health care delivery system as a basis for tapping the salient features of this age old art: for the purpose of refining, and establishing it as an alternative medical health-care service. the investigation is considered relevant particularly in the developing countries where, in addition to the dearth of orthodox medical services, institutions and personnel, it is relatively cheaper, socio-cultur ...19938410912
toxicological studies on debitterized neem oil (azadirachta indica).azadirachta indica, popularly known as 'neem' in india, is widely grown all over the tropics. the seed contains 45% oil and is a minor oil of considerable potential. neem oil is bitter and inedible. recently, a method has been developed to completely remove the bitter and odoriferous principles and leave a bitterless, odourless and colourless oil. the nutritional and chemical evaluation of debitterized neem oil (no) was reported earlier (c. rukmini, food chemistry 1987, 26, 119). we report here ...19938477918
field studies on the mosquito repellent action of neem oil.repellent action of neem oil was evaluated against different mosquito species. 2% neem oil mixed in coconut oil provided 96-100% protection from anophelines, 85% from aedes, 37.5% from armigeres whereas it showed wide range of efficacy from 61-94% against culex spp. therefore, neem oil can be applied as a personal protection measure against mosquito bites.19958525409
preliminary studies of the antifungal activities of some medicinal plants against basidiobolus and some other pathogenic fungi.the antifungal activities of extracts of 10 medicinal plants collected from south-eastern parts of nigeria were tested against seven pathogenic fungi using the broth dilution and agar plate methods. all the extracts at 1:10 dilution inhibited the growth of basidiobolus haptosporus and b. ranarum but did not inhibit that of aspergillus fumigatus, geotrichum candidum and candida albicans. while extracts from piper guineense, ocimum gratissimum, moringa oleifera and erythrophleum suaveolens inhibit ...19958531930
evaluation of non-conventional treatments for control of the biting louse (bovicola ovis) on sheep.a variety of non-conventional treatments was applied to biting louse (bovicola ovis) infested sheep in order to evaluate ways in which farmers could control the louse infestations and still maintain organic production standards. in one trial, louse scores of sheep shorn but kept dry or wetted by water alone or with water plus detergent were compared with unshorn sheep treated similarly. shearing alone accounted for a 35.7-66.3% reduction in mean louse scores. wetting alone either with water or w ...19958541593
changes in epididymal structure and function of albino rat treated with azadirachta indica leaves.the histological and biochemical changes in the caput and cauda epididymis of albino rat treated with 20, 40 and 60 mg dry powder of the leaves of a. indica per day for 24 days are reported. in the treated rats, the height of the epithelium and the diameter of the nucleus in both the regions were reduced. the lumen of the caput was packed with lymphocytes. biochemically, a decrease in the protein content and acid phosphatase activity and an increase in the alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydr ...19958575802
cytotoxicity of nimbolide, epoxyazadiradione and other limonoids from neem insecticide.neem seed preparations contain not only azadirachtin as the active insect antifeedant or growth regulator but also a variety of their limonoids, some of which are cytotoxic to n1e-115 neuroblastoma (mouse), 143b.tk- osteosarcoma (human) and sf9 (insect) cultured cell lines. the most potent of these limonoids is nimbolide with an ic50 ranging from 4 to 10 microm, and averaging 6 microm for the three cell lines. other limonoids of decreasing potency and their average ic50 values (microm) are epoxy ...19968622560
in vitro antimalarial activity of vegetal extracts used in west african traditional medicine.among strategies for the development of new antimalarials, a study of plants traditionally used in africa against malaria has been pursued. extracts obtained from the plants azadirachta indica, cinnamonum camphora, lippia multiflora, vernonia colorata, guiera senegalensis, combretum micranthum, and ximenia americana, commonly used in cote d'ivoire by native healers for the treatment of malaria, were tested on two strains of plasmodium falciparum: fcb1-colombia (chloroquine-resistant) and f32-tan ...19968651373
the inhibiting effect of aqueous azadirachta indica (neem) extract upon bacterial properties influencing in vitro plaque formation.the purpose of this investigation was to examine the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts derived from the bark-containing sticks (neem stick) of azadirachta indica upon bacterial aggregation, growth, adhesion to hydroxyapatite, and production of insoluble glucan, which may affect in vitro plaque formation. neem stick extracts were screened for minimal bacterial growth inhibition (mic) against a panel of streptococci by means of a broth dilution assay. initial bacterial attachment was quantifi ...19968655780
possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of azadirachta indica leaf extract. part iv.1. effect of epinephrine on the increment index calculated from intravenous glucose tolerance tests and on hepatic glycogen before and after a. indica leaf extract treatment was studied in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits. 2. a. indica leaf extract, in itself, was found to have no action on peripheral utilization of glucose or on hepatic glycogen. 3. the reduction in peripheral utilization of glucose and glycogenolytic effect due to epinephrine action was blocked by a. indica l ...19968723520
purified neem (azadirachta indica) seed extracts (praneem) abrogate pregnancy in primates.the use of neem (azadirachta indica) seed extracts (praneem) given orally for abrogation of pregnancy in subhuman primates is described. oral administration of praneem was initiated after confirmation of pregnancy using leydig cell bioassay estimating rising levels of chorionic gonadotropin (cg) in the blood from day 25 onwards of the cycle and continued for six days. termination of pregnancy was observed with the appearance of blood in the vaginal smears and decline in cg and progesterone. preg ...19968773426
fungistatic and fungicidal activity of east african medicinal plants.extracts of the traditionally used medicinal plants entada abyssinica (stem bark), terminalia spinosa (young branches), harrisonia abyssinica (roots), ximenia caffra (roots), azadirachta indica (stem bark), zanha africana (stem bark) and spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were investigated for fungistatic and fungicidal activity against candida spp. and aspergillus spp. by a microtitre serial dilution technique. entada abyssinica, t. spinosa, x. caffra, a. indica, and z. africana showed a ...19968786762
termination of pregnancy in rodents by oral administration of praneem, a purified neem seed extract.development of an orally administered abortifacient.19968789560
safety of intrauterine administration of purified neem seed oil (praneem vilci) in women & effect of its co-administration with the heterospecies dimer birth control vaccine on antibody response to human chorionic gonadotropin.praneem vilci (pv), purified neem oil was reported to exercise a reversible antifertility effect after a single intrauterine instillation in rodents and primates without any adverse effects. after toxicology, drug regulatory and ethical clearances, a phase i clinical trial was conducted on pv. eighteen healthy tubectomised women were enrolled to evaluate the safety of a single intrauterine instillation of pv and to determine the effect of its co-administration on anti-hcg response to the heteros ...19958834816
contraception potential of neem oil: effect on pregnancy success in the mouse.the aim of this study was to find out the role and mechanism of action of neem oil as a postcoital fertility blocker in mouse.19968844316
activity of east african medicinal plants against helicobacter pylori.the activity of extracts from the east african medicinal plants entada abyssinica (stem bark), terminalia spinosa (young branches), harrisonia abyssinica (roots), ximenia caffra (roots), azadirachta indica (leaves and stem bark) and spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were evaluated against 12 strains of helicobacter pylori. the most active extracts were those derived from t. spinosa with an mic50 of 125 micrograms/ml, an mic90 of 250 micrograms/ml and an mic range of 62.5-500 micrograms/m ...19968874968
minor and trace elemental determination in the indian herbal and other medicinal preparations.medicinal plants described in the indian "ayurvedic" literature viz. tulsi (ocimum sanctum), gulvel (tinospora cardifolia), bitter neem (azadirachta indica), kanher (nerium andicum), vekhand (acorus calamus), and peacock's feather (ash) were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. the samples and the standards from the national institute of standards and technology, usa and iaea, vienna were irradiated for 5 min, 1 h, 5 h, and 10 h with thermal neutrons ...19968886311
performance of broiler chicks fed on alkali-treated neem (azadirachta indica) kernel cake as a protein supplement.1. an experiment was conducted to evaluate growth and nutrient efficiency of broiler chicks from 3 to 42 d fed on diets containing alkali-treated neem (azadirachta indica a. juss) kernel cake (nkc) as a protein supplement in place of peanut meal (pnm). 2. nkc was treated with sodium hydroxide at 10 (ankc 1) or 20 g (ankc 2)/kg and incorporated into the test diets at 135 or 300 g/kg to replace 50 (low-l) or 100 (high-h)% of the pnm protein of the reference diet. 3. despite comparable retentions o ...19968894225
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