virus diversity and an outbreak of group c rotavirus among infants and children with diarrhea in maizuru city, japan during 2002-2003.a total of 236 fecal specimens collected from infants and children with gastroenteritis in maizuru city, japan from july 2002 to june 2003, were tested for the presence of rotaviruses, noroviruses, sapoviruses, astroviruses, and adenoviruses by rt-pcr, page, rpha, and latex agglutination methods. among diarrheal viruses detected, group a rotavirus was the most prevalent (32.2%; 76 of 236) followed by norovirus gii (21.2%; 50 of 236), group c rotavirus (10.2%; 24 of 236), adenovirus (3.8%; 9 of 2 ...200415258985
development of rt-multiplex pcr assay for detection of adenovirus and group a and c rotaviruses in diarrheal fecal specimens from children in china.rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus are considered to be significant global enteropathogens associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. therefore, a rapid and sensitive assay is preferred to screen for the presence of these viruses in diarrheal fecal specimens. in a previous study, we developed a reverse transcription single-round multiplex polymerase chain reaction (rt-smpcr) assay for the simultaneous detection of norovirus (genogroup i, genogr ...200415478645
an outbreak of food poisoning due to a genogroup i norovirus.norovirus infection is associated with approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. the objective of this study is to describe an outbreak of norovirus genogroup i gastroenteritis which affected workers in a hospital and was attributed to food prepared by an infected food handler. forty cases were detected, of whom 80% were interviewed. the index case was the cook employed in the hospital cafeteria. the following symptoms were observed: abdominal pain in 90.6%, vomiting in ...200515724726
multiplex real time rt-pcr for the detection and quantitation of norovirus genogroups i and ii in patients with acute gastroenteritis.conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (con rt-pcr) assay to detect norovirus is a complex multi-step procedure that requires gel electrophoresis as well as hybridization or sequencing to confirm the results.200515911433
development of a novel protocol for rt-multiplex pcr to detect diarrheal viruses among infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in eastern russia.viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common illnesses in humans worldwide and it has a great impact on people. recently, we reported three rt-multiplex pcr assays termed a, b and c that could detect three groups of diarrheal viruses; group a, b and c rotaviruses and adenovirus [phan et al., j med virol 2004; 74:173-9]; norovirus gi and gii, sapovirus and astrovirus [yan et al., j virol meth 2003; 114:37-44]; enteroviruses, hepatitis a and e viruses and influenza a virus [phan et al., arch vi ...200516122155
detection of norovirus genogroup i and ii by multiplex real-time rt- pcr using a 3'-minor groove binder-dna probe.due to an increasing number of norovirus infections in the last years rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic tools are needed. reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (rt-pcr) have become the methods of choice. to minimize the working time and the risk of carryover contamination during the multi-step procedure of pcr the multiplex real-time rt-pcr for the simultaneous detection of genogroup i (gi) and ii (gii) offers advantages for the handling of large amounts of clinical specimens.200616606447
norovirus infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic food handlers in japan.noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the world. at present, norovirus genogroup ii, genotype 4 (gii/4), strains are the most prevalent in many countries. in this study we investigated 55 outbreaks and 35 sporadic cases of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis in food handlers in food-catering settings between 10 november 2005 and 9 december 2006 in japan. stool specimens were collected from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals and were examined for norovir ...200717928420
evaluation of the loopamp (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) kit for detecting norovirus rna in faecal samples.noroviruses (novs) are associated with outbreaks of diarrhoeal illness in hospitals, nursing and residential homes and other institutional settings. nov strains exhibit wide genetic diversity, and different virus genogroups and genotypes co-circulate in any geographical region at the same time, although most outbreaks of gastroenteritis are predominantly associated with genogroup ii. the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) is the gold standard for detecting novs in clinical ...200818394955
[study on the use of taqman real-time pcr to detect genogroup i and ii norovirus in oysters and patients' stool samples].to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic method for quantification and typing of genogroup i and ii norovirus in oyster shellfish and stool samples from patients who had eaten them.200819040045
detection of human viruses in rivers of a densly-populated area in germany using a virus adsorption elution method optimized for pcr analyses.transmission of viruses via surface water is a major public health concern. to determine the viral concentration in rivers of a densely-populated area in germany, the virus adsorption elution (viradel) method was optimized for downstream pcr applications. using a high-salt alkaline phosphate buffer for elution, the median recovery efficiency from spiked 1l water samples ranged from 21.3% to 100% for jc polyomavirus, human adenovirus type 5, echovirus 11, and norovirus genogroup i. analyses of 41 ...200919361832
prevalence and genotypes of human noroviruses in tropical urban surface waters and clinical samples in singapore.the prevalence and genotypes of norovirus genogroup i (gi) and gii in tropical urban catchment waters and an estuarine bay were studied. a comparative analysis was performed with environmental isolates of noroviruses and concurrently identified clinical isolates in singapore during gastroenteritis outbreaks between august 2006 to january 2007. noroviruses in environmental water samples were concentrated by using ultrafiltration techniques and then analyzed by reverse transcription-seminested pcr ...200919525276
viral and bacterial contamination in recreational waters: a case study in the lisbon bay assess the presence of viral pathogens in bathing water samples and to evaluate the interdependency of bacterial indicator counts and viral detection.201019761463
a foodborne norovirus outbreak at a manufacturing company.over 400 office workers from the same unit of a manufacturing company in stockholm county, sweden, fell ill with gastroenteritis. a retrospective cohort study of office workers in the affected unit demonstrated that canteen visitors on one day had an increased risk of illness [risk ratio (rr) 27.1, 95% confidence interval (ci) 15.7-46.8] compared to non-visitors. a second study, investigating canteen visitors' consumption of particular food items, showed that both tomatoes from the salad buffet ...201019765351
detection of human norovirus from frozen raspberries in a cluster of gastroenteritis outbreaks.we describe a cluster of norovirus outbreaks affecting about 200 people in southern finland in september and october 2009. all outbreaks occurred after consumption of imported raspberries from the same batch intended for the catering sector. human norovirus genotype gi.4 was found in frozen raspberries. the berries were served in toppings of cakes in separate catering settings or mixed in curd cheese as a snack for children in a daycare center. the relative risk for consumption of the berry dish ...200920003905
evaluation of the newly developed immunochromatography test kit for rapid detection and differentiation of norovirus gi and gii. 201020085965
genetic characterization of genogroup i norovirus in outbreaks of this study, we demonstrate that differences within the p2 domain of norovirus genogroup i (gi) strains can be used to segregate outbreaks which are unrelated, whereas complete conservation within this region allows tracking of strains that are part of a single outbreak and likely to have a common source.201020444964
[norovrius genotype i.8 being detected from sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in nanning municipal].to study the genic characteristic of norovrius genotype i.8 from sporadic gastroenteritis of a hospital in nanning municipal.201020726267
diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis by simultaneous detection of adenovirus group f, astrovirus, rotavirus group a, norovirus genogroups i and ii, and sapovirus in two internally controlled multiplex real-time pcr assays.norovirus, rotavirus group a, astrovirus, sapovirus and adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41, are common causes of gastroenteritis. conventional diagnosis of these causative agents is based on antigen detection and electron microscopy.201020829103
adjuvanted intranasal norwalk virus-like particle vaccine elicits antibodies and antibody-secreting cells that express homing receptors for mucosal and peripheral lymphoid tissues.noroviruses cause significant morbidity and mortality from acute gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide.201020979455
quantification and molecular characterization of enteric viruses detected in effluents from two hospital wastewater treatment wastewater has been described as an important source of spreading pathogenic microorganisms in the environment. however, there are few studies reporting the presence and concentrations of gastroenteric viruses and hepatitis a viruses in these environmental matrices. the aim of this study was to assess the contamination by viruses responsible for acute gastroenteritis and hepatitis derived from hospital wastewater treatment plants (wwtps). rotavirus a (rv-a), human adenoviruses (hadv), n ...201021040941
enteric campylobacteria and rna viruses associated with healthy and diarrheic humans in the chinook health region of southwestern alberta, canada.the presence of campylobacter species and enteric rna viruses in stools from diarrheic (n = 442) and healthy (n = 58) humans living in southwestern alberta was examined (may to october 2005). a large number of diarrheic individuals who were culture negative for c. jejuni (n = 54) or c. coli (n = 19) were pcr positive for these taxa. overall detection rates for c. jejuni and c. coli in diarrheic stools were 29% and 5%, respectively. in contrast, 3% and 0% of stools from healthy humans were positi ...201021106791
evaluation of human enteric viruses in surface water and drinking water resources in southern estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. in this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (uf), and real-time pcr method was applied to large volume (100 l) groundwater (n = 4), surface water (n = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (n = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. human enteric v ...201121212196
multiplex reverse transcription pcr luminex assay for detection and quantitation of viral agents of gastroenteritis.several viruses can cause diarrheal disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. existing diagnostic methods include elisa and nucleic acid amplification, usually performed individually.201121256076
a single-tube multiplex pcr for rapid detection in feces of 10 viruses causing diarrhea.a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to identify 10 viruses in a single tube. the assay was targeted to detect group a and c rotaviruses, adenovirus, norovirus gi, norovirus gii, sapovirus, astrovirus, aichi virus, parechovirus, and enterovirus. a total of 235 stool samples were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in kyoto, japan, from 2008 to 2009, then tested by this novel multiplex pcr and compared with a multiplex pcr described previously ...201121349292
standardized positive controls for detection of norovirus by reverse transcription pcr.abstract: background: norovirus is one of the most common causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. rapid spread by contaminated food and person-to-person transmission through the fecal-oral route are characteristics of norovirus and result in high morbidity in vulnerable patient populations. therefore, detection of norovirus is a major public health concern. currently, the most common method for detecting and differentiating among noroviruses in clinical and environmental samples is rev ...201121612660
high prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in slovenia.waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. in total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples ...201121665537
adsorption and aggregation properties of norovirus gi and gii virus-like particles demonstrate differing responses to solution chemistry.the transport properties (adsorption and aggregation behavior) of virus-like particles (vlps) of two strains of norovirus ("norwalk" gi.1 and "houston" gii.4) were studied in a variety of solution chemistries. gi.1 and gii.4 vlps were found to be stable against aggregation at ph 4.0-8.0. at ph 9.0, gi.1 vlps rapidly disintegrated. the attachment efficiencies (α) of gi.1 and gii.4 vlps to silica increased with increasing ionic strength in nacl solutions at ph 8.0. the attachment efficiency of gi. ...201021121659
swimmer risk of gastrointestinal illness from exposure to tropical coastal waters impacted by terrestrial dry-weather runoff.this study used molecular methods to measure concentrations of four enteric viruses (adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus gi, and norovirus gii) and fecal source tracking markers (human, ruminant, and pig bacteroidales) in land-based runoff from 22 tropical streams on o'ahu, hawai'i. each stream was sampled twice in the morning and afternoon during dry weather. viruses and human bacteroidales were widespread in the streams. watershed septic tank densities were positively associated with higher occ ...201121780808
evaluation and verification of the seeplex(r) diarrhea-v ace assay for the simultaneous detection of adenovirus, rotavirus and norovirus genogroups i and ii in clinical stool specimens.acute viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection that can be caused by several different viruses. here we describe the evaluation and verification of seeplex® diarrhea-v ace (seeplex® dv), a novel commercial multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay that detects 5 diarrheal pathogens including adenovirus, rotavirus, norovirus genogroup i (gi) and gii and astrovirus. we describe a retrospective study of 200 clinical specimens of which 177 were stool specimens ...201121775550
[a novel method for multiplex detection of gastroenteritis-associated viruses].to develop and optimize a simultaneous detection method of rotavirusa, norovirus gi, gii, sapovirus, human astrovirus, enteric adenoviruses and hbov2 with genomelab gexp analysis system. the sensitivity was verified to be 10(4) copies/microl with plasmids containing the viral targets in triplicate on different days, and no cross-reaction with enterovirus71, human parechovirus and picobirnavirusii was observed. finally, we successfully developed a high throughout, rapid and maneuverable multiplex ...201121774256
quantitative real-time pcr of enteric viruses in influent and effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants in italy.the prevalence of enteric viruses in wastewater, the efficacy of wastewater treatments in eliminating such viruses, and potential health risks from their release into the environment or by recycling of treated wastewaters, are very important issues in environmental microbiology. in this study we performed a quantitative taqman real-time pcr (polymerase chain reaction) analysis of enteric viruses on samples of influents and effluents from 5 wastewater treatment plants in and around rome. three ep ...201020847459
norovirus-binding proteins recovered from activated sludge micro-organisms with an affinity to a noroviral capsid peptide.transmission routes of noroviruses, leading aetiological agents of acute gastroenteritis, are rarely verified when outbreaks occur. because the destination of norovirus particles being firmly captured by micro-organisms could be totally different from that of those particles moving freely, micro-organisms with natural affinity ligands such as virus-binding proteins would affect the fate of viruses in environment, if such microbial affinity ligands exist. the aim of this study is to identify noro ...201020735509
distribution in tissue and seasonal variation of norovirus genogroup i and ii ligands in oysters.bivalve molluscan shellfish, such as oysters, filter large volumes of water as part of their feeding activities and are able to accumulate and concentrate different types of pathogens, particularly noroviruses, from fecal human pollution. based on our previous observation of a specific binding of the norwalk strain (prototype norovirus genogroup i) to the oyster digestive tract through an a-like carbohydrate structure indistinguishable from human blood group a antigen and on the large diversity ...201020562271
enteric viral pathogens in children with inflammatory bowel disease.the causes of exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) are unknown. the presence of rna of an enterovirus, norovirus gi, norovirus gii, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus was sought in stool samples of 50 children (median age 12.9 years) undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopies for ibd or its exclusion (crohn's disease n = 18, ulcerative colitis n = 13, indeterminate colitis n = 2, non-ibd n = 17). viral rna was found in three fecal samples (norovirus gii n = 2, sapovirus n = 1), all i ...201222170557
[molecular characteristics of noroviruses causing outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in huzhou].to study the molecular characteristics of noroviruses causing outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in huzhou.201122734229
[detection and typing of caliciviruses from patients with acute diarrhea in hangzhou area, 2009 - 2010].to investigate the molecular-epidemiologic characteristics and genotypes of human calicivirus (hucvs) in acute diarrhea patients in hangzhou from 2009 to 2010.201122333088
harmonised investigation of the occurrence of human enteric viruses in the leafy green vegetable supply chain in three european countries.numerous outbreaks have been attributed to the consumption of raw or minimally processed leafy green vegetables contaminated with enteric viral pathogens. the aim of the present study was an integrated virological monitoring of the salad vegetables supply chain in europe, from production, processing and point-of-sale. samples were collected and analysed in greece, serbia and poland, from 'general' and 'ad hoc' sampling points, which were perceived as critical points for virus contamination. gene ...201223412890
evaluation of luminex xtag gastrointestinal pathogen analyte-specific reagents for high-throughput, simultaneous detection of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of clinical and public health importance.acute diarrheal disease (add) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (tat) significantly. we validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (gpp) using l ...201323850948
comparative evaluation of two commercial multiplex panels for detection of gastrointestinal pathogens by use of clinical stool specimens.the detection of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal disease may be important in certain patient populations, such as immunocompromised hosts, the critically ill, or individuals with prolonged disease that is refractory to treatment. in this study, we evaluated two commercially available multiplex panels (the filmarray gastrointestinal [gi] panel [biofire diagnostics, salt lake city, ut] and the luminex xtag gastrointestinal pathogen panel [gpp] [luminex corporation, toronto, canada]) usi ...201425100818
a large community outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with consumption of drinking water contaminated by river water, belgium, 2010.summary on 6 december 2010 a fire in hemiksem, belgium, was extinguished by the fire brigade with both river water and tap water. local physicians were asked to report all cases of gastroenteritis. we conducted a retrospective cohort study among 1000 randomly selected households. we performed a statistical and geospatial analysis. human stool samples, tap water and river water were tested for pathogens. of the 1185 persons living in the 528 responding households, 222 (18·7%) reported symptoms of ...201425062494
multicenter evaluation of the biofire filmarray gastrointestinal panel for etiologic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis.the appropriate treatment and control of infectious gastroenteritis depend on the ability to rapidly detect the wide range of etiologic agents associated with the disease. clinical laboratories currently utilize an array of different methodologies to test for bacterial, parasitic, and viral causes of gastroenteritis, a strategy that suffers from poor sensitivity, potentially long turnaround times, and complicated ordering practices and workflows. additionally, there are limited or no testing met ...201525588652
multiplex rt-pcr for rapid detection of viruses commonly causing diarrhea in pediatric patients.multiplex rt-pcr method using five sets of panel primers was developed for the detection of diarrheal viruses, including rotavirus a, b, and c, adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus gi and gii, sapovirus, aichi virus, parechovirus, enterovirus, cosavirus, bocavirus, and saffold virus. the sensitivity of the method was evaluated and tested with 751 fecal specimens collected from japanese children with acute diarrhea. several kinds of viruses were detected in 528 out of 751 (70.3%) fecal specimens. mi ...201727735999
a wide variety of diarrhea viruses circulating in pediatric patients in thailand.viral gastroenteritis has been recognized as one of the most common illnesses that affects infants and young children all over the world. a wide variety of viruses associated with the disease are continually being reported. to investigate the epidemiological situation of diarrhea virus infection in chiang mai, thailand, surveillance was conducted during january to december 2007.201222372354
simultaneous separation and detection of hepatitis a virus and norovirus in produce.two sample preparation methods based on electrostatic binding were tested to simultaneously separate different viral particles from different food surfaces (lettuce, strawberry, raspberries and green onions). both methods were evaluated using a multiplex real-time pcr assay designed for detection of hepatitis a virus and norovirus gi and gii. single and multiplex detection limits were determined as 10(1) viral particles for hav and norovirus gii, and 10(2) viral particles for norovirus gi using ...201020223543
detection of 23 gastrointestinal pathogens among children who present with the era of widespread rotavirus vaccine use, toxigenic clostridium difficile, diarrheagenic escherichia coli, and viruses (particularly norovirus) are commonly detected among children with infectious gastroenteritis in the united states by using a multipathogen molecular panel.201627147712
[the application and epidemiological research of xtag gpp multiplex pcr in the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea].to investigate the application value of xtag (®) gastrointestinal pathogen panel (xtag9(®) gpp) multiplex pcr in the early diagnosis of infectious diarrhea, and understand the epidemiology of intestinal diarrhea pathogens.201525916780
evaluation of a multiplex pcr assay for simultaneous detection of bacterial and viral enteropathogens in stool samples of paediatric patients.we evaluated a multiplex pcr assay, the seeplex diarrhoea ace detection, that simultaneously detects 15 enteric pathogens, including salmonella spp., shigella spp., vibrio spp., toxin b producer clostridium difficile, campylobacter spp., clostridium perfringens, yersinia enterocolitica, aeromonas spp., escherichia coli o157:h7, verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli, adenovirus, group a rotavirus, norovirus gi and gii, and astrovirus. we compared this assay with clinical methods routinely used ...201424656922
diarrheagenic pathogens in adults attending a hospital in singapore.singapore's diarrhoeal notification system is based on specific pathogens. official data may thus be skewed towards notifiable diseases. limited information is available on the profiles of aetiological agents responsible for acute gastroenteritis (age) cases, especially among the adult population. to understand the frequency and distribution of potential causative agents of diarrheal disease in singapore, we screened adults' stool samples collected from a large public hospital.201626822615
norovirus outbreak caused by a new septic system in a dolomite aquifer.septic systems that are built in compliance with regulations are generally not expected to be the cause of groundwater borne disease outbreaks, especially in areas with thick vadose zones. however, this case study demonstrates that a disease outbreak can occur in such a setting and outlines the combination of epidemiological, microbiological, and hydrogeological methods used to confirm the source of the outbreak. in early june 2007, 229 patrons and employees of a new restaurant in northeastern w ...201120199588
municipal wastewater treatment plants as pathogen removal systems and as a contamination source of noroviruses and enterococcus faecalis.municipal wastewater treatment plants play a crucial role in reducing the microbial and pathogen load of human wastes before the end-products are discharged to surface waters (final effluent) or land spread (biosolids). this study investigated the occurrence frequency of noroviruses, enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium in influent, final effluent and biosolids from four secondary wastewater treatment plants in northwestern ireland (plants a-d) and observed the seasonal and spatial var ...201222960482
evaluation of real-time rt-pcr assays for detection and quantification of norovirus genogroups i and ii.noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-pcr) is a promising molecular method for the detection of noroviruses. in this study, the performance of three taqman real-time rt-pcr assays was assessed, which were one commercially available real-time rt-pcr kit (assay a: norovirus real time rt-pcr kit) and two in-house real-time rt-pcr assays (assay b: lightcycler rna master hybprobe and assay c: realt ...201728224385
residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection.environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. we determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. after a single wipe with water, ...201222941071
development of a novel method for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample.a novel method, electronegative membrane-vortex (emv) method, was developed for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. viruses and protozoa in a water sample were mixed with a cation solution and adsorbed on an electronegative membrane. concentrated virus and protozoa samples were obtained as supernatant and pellet fractions, respectively, by vigorous vortex mixing of the membrane and centrifugation of the eluted material. the highest recovery efficiencies ...201222465102
waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak at a scouting camp caused by two norovirus genogroups: gi and gii.a cross-border gastroenteritis outbreak at a scouting camp was associated with drinking water from a farmer's well.201020056481
pathogenic enteric viruses and microbial indicators during secondary treatment of municipal wastewater.pathogenic enteric viruses are responsible for a wide range of infections in humans, with diverse symptoms. raw and partially treated wastewaters are major sources of environmental contamination with enteric viruses. we monitored a municipal secondary wastewater treatment plant (new orleans, la) on a monthly basis for norovirus (nov) gi and gii and enterovirus serotypes using multiplex reverse transcription-quantitative pcr (rt-qpcr) and microbial indicators of fecal contamination using standard ...201526162869
surveillance of enteric viruses and microbial indicators in the eastern oysters (crassostrea virginica) and harvest waters along louisiana gulf coast.noroviruses are the most common causative agent of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and are responsible for major foodborne illnesses in the united states. filter-feeding molluscan shellfish exposed to sewage-contaminated waters bioaccumulate viruses, and if consumed raw, transmit the viruses to humans and cause illness. we investigated the occurrence of norovirus gi and gii and microbial indicators of fecal contamination in the eastern oysters (crassostrea virginica) and water from commercial h ...201525899121
a survey of australian oysters for the presence of human noroviruses.impending international policies for norovirus in oysters and the lack of australian data suggested there was a need to undertake a national survey of norovirus in oysters. two geographically distinct oyster-growing areas from each of three australian states were sampled on 4 occasions during 2010 and 2011. the sites selected were considered by state shellfish authorities to be the most compromised with respect to the potential for human faecal contamination as identified by shoreline surveys. t ...201425084672
detection of noroviruses in fecal specimens by direct rt-pcr without rna purification.noroviruses are important human pathogens which cause epidemic acute viral gastroenteritis. current techniques used for detection of noroviruses in fecal specimens involve multi-step viral rna extraction and purification followed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). this study demonstrates a method for easy detection of norovirus in fecal specimens, involving one-step rna release and direct use of the released rna for rt-pcr (direct rt-pcr). for one-step rna release, a si ...201019878699
application of a modified loop-mediated isothermal amplification kit for detecting norovirus genogroups i and ii.norovirus is a major etiologic agent in worldwide outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with food as well as person-to-person transmission. the ubiquitous nature of norovirus necessitates simple and rapid detection methods with high accuracy and sensitivity. to this end, several investigators have evaluated the usefulness of commercial reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) kits for detecting norovirus genogroups i (gi) and ii (gii). in previous studies, the con ...200919856470
detection of human enteric viruses in japanese clams.a total of 57 clam packages that were collected from supermarkets and fish markets from 11 different sites in western japan between 8 december 2005 and 6 september 2006 were examined for human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, aichi virus, rotavirus, adenovirus, hepatitis a virus, and astrovirus), using pcr and reverse transcription pcr. sixty-one percent of the packages were contaminated with one type of virus, 9% had two different types of viruses, 28% had three different types of viruses, and ...200818724766
passenger behaviors during norovirus outbreaks on cruise ships.norovirus causes a majority of outbreaks of gastrointestinal (gi) illness on cruise ships calling on the united states. control measures include patient isolation, hand washing, and facility closure. little is known about the behaviors and practices of people who have become ill with norovirus gi illness compared to those who remained well during an outbreak.200818494694
norovirus outbreak associated with ill food-service workers--michigan, january-february 2006.on january 30, 2006, the barry-eaton district health department (bedhd) in michigan was notified of gastrointestinal illness in several members of two dining parties after a meal at an eaton county restaurant on january 28. an investigation was initiated by bedhd to identify the source and agent of infection and to determine the scope of illness among patrons and employees of this national chain restaurant. norovirus genogroup i (gi) was detected in stool specimens submitted by multiple patrons ...200718030282
evaluation of removal of noroviruses during wastewater treatment, using real-time reverse transcription-pcr: different behaviors of genogroups i and ii.noroviruses, an important cause of gastroenteritis, are excreted by infected individuals and are therefore present in wastewater. we quantified norovirus genogroup i (gi) and gii in wastewater at different locations in france and evaluated removal by a range of treatment types, including basic (waste stabilization pond), current industry standard (activated sludge), and state-of-the-art (submerged membrane bioreactor) treatments. noroviruses were quantified using real-time reverse transcription- ...200717933913
genetic heterogeneity, evolution, and recombination in noroviruses.norovirus is one of the most common causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. a total of 603 fecal specimens collected from sporadic pediatric cases of acute gastroenteritis in japan from 2004 to 2005 were tested for the presence of norovirus by rt-pcr. it was found that 51 (8.5%) specimens were positive for norovirus. the norovirus genotypes detected in this study were gii/1, gii/2, gii/3, gii/4, gii/6, and gii/7. of these, gii/3 was the most predominant (52.9%), followed by gii/4 (37.2 ...200717607779
[frozen berries as a risk factor for outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis. results of an outbreak investigation in the summer of 2005 in hamburg].an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in hamburg among guests of a canteen in august 2005. a total of 241 persons were found ill. in stool samples of 16 of them norovirus genogroup i was identified. neither bacterial nor viral pathogens could be detected in food samples. among 162 guests enrolled in a cohort study, 69 (42.6 %) met the case definition. a desert dish made from blackberries and yoghurt showed a significant association with the disease (rr 6.9; 95% ci 3.36-14.16). in additio ...200717238056
enhanced reverse transcription-pcr assay for detection of norovirus genogroup i.we have developed a one-tube reverse transcription (rt)-pcr method using the real-time taqman pcr system for the detection of norovirus genogroup i (nv ggi). by introduction of a novel probe based on locked nucleic acid technology, we enhanced the sensitivity of the assay compared to those of conventional taqman probes. the sensitivity of the nv ggi rt-pcr was determined by probit analysis with defined rna standards and quantified norovirus isolates to 711 copies/ml (95% detection limit). in ord ...200616891482
assessment and evaluation of an integrated hybrid anaerobic-aerobic sewage treatment system for the removal of enteric viruses.the capability of a cost-effective and a small size decentralized pilot wastewater treatment plant (wwtp) to remove enteric viruses such as rotavirus, norovirus genogroup i (ggi), norovirus genogroup ii (ggii), hepatitis e virus (hev), and adenovirus was studied. this pilot plant is an integrated hybrid anaerobic/aerobic setup which consisted of anaerobic sludge blanket (uasb), biological aerated filter (baf), and inclined plate settler (ips). both the uasb and baf are packed with a non-woven po ...201728197973
prevalence of foodborne viruses in mussels in southern this study, the prevalence of various enteric viruses in mytilus galloprovincialis (mediterranean mussel) belonging to class a and class b mollusc-harvesting areas in the campania region in southern italy was evaluated. one hundred and eight mussels were analysed using real-time reverse transcription pcr during a 2-year collection period (2014-2015) to detect the following viruses: human norovirus (genogroups i and ii), rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, aichivirus, hepatitis a virus and hepat ...201728054332
presence of pathogenic enteric viruses in illegally imported meat and meat products to eu by international air hundred twenty two meat samples confiscated from passengers on flights from non-european countries at the international airport of bilbao (spain) were tested for the presence of the main foodborne viral pathogens (human noroviruses genogroups i and ii, hepatitis a and e viruses) during 2012 and 2013. a sample process control virus, murine norovirus, was used to evaluate the correct performance of the method. overall, 67 samples were positive for at least one enteric viruses, 65 being positiv ...201525951793
applicability of microarray technique for the detection of noro- and astroviruses.noroviruses and astroviruses are widespread viral agents causing gastroenteritis. noroviruses are actually a diverse group of viruses. a new microarray-based detection method is presented for both noro- and astroviruses. this method enables simultaneous identification of genogroups and types of noro- and astroviruses. for pre-amplification, the monoplex- and multiplex-rt-pcr assays were applied to test sensitivity. the 202 specimens were used to determine the specificity, precision, and accuracy ...200616781784
the p domain of norovirus capsid protein forms a subviral particle that binds to histo-blood group antigen receptors.norovirus is the most important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis. we have shown previously that the isolated p domain containing the hinge forms a dimer and binds to histo-blood group antigen (hbga) receptors with a low affinity (m. tan, r. s. hegde, and x. jiang, j. virol. 78:6233-6242, 2004). here, we reported that the p domain of va387 without the hinge forms a small particle with a significantly increased receptor binding affinity. an end-linked oligopeptide containing one or more ...200516254337
calicivirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive children and adults.the importance of enteric viral infections in hiv-related diarrhea is uncertain. human caliciviruses have emerged as a leading cause of acute diarrhea worldwide.200515911425
genetic recombination between two genotypes of genogroup iii bovine noroviruses (bonvs) and capsid sequence diversity among bonvs and nebraska-like bovine enteric determine the genogroups and genotypes of bovine enteric caliciviruses (becvs) circulating in calves, we determined the complete capsid gene sequences of 21 becvs. the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were compared phylogenetically with those of known human and animal enteric caliciviruses. based on these analyses, 15 becvs belonged to norovirus genogroup iii and genotype 2 (giii/2) and were genetically distinct from human norovirus gi and gii. six becvs had capsid gene sequences ...200415528717
simultaneous detection of waterborne viruses by multiplex real-time pcr.norovirus, rotavirus group a, the hepatitis a virus, and coxsackievirus are all common causes of gastroenteritis. conventional diagnoses of these causative agents are based on antigen detection and electron microscopy. to improve the diagnostic potential for viral gastroenteritis, internally controlled multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods have been recently developed. in this study, individual real-time pcrs were developed and optimized for specific detections of norovirus ...201324037661
molecular epidemiologic trends of diarrhea-causing virus infection from clinical specimens in cheonan, korea, in 2010-2012.the enteric viruses have high health significance in humans, ranging from poliomyelitis, hepatitis, and gastroenteritis to innocuous infections, and the human enteric viral infection is the one of the most common diseases during early childhood. this study was conducted from july 2010 to october 2012.201424375926
enteropathogenic viruses: triggers for exacerbation in ibd? a prospective cohort study using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.while the role of bacteria as an etiological factor triggering relapse in inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) has been studied extensively, little is known of the role of enteric viruses. we aimed to prospectively study the prevalence and risk factors for common enteropathogenic viruses in ibd patients in relation to disease activity.201322508685
inter- and intragenus structural variations in caliciviruses and their functional implications.the family caliciviridae is divided into four genera and consists of single-stranded rna viruses with hosts ranging from humans to a wide variety of animals. human caliciviruses are the major cause of outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis, whereas animal caliciviruses cause various host-dependent illnesses with a documented potential for zoonoses. to investigate inter- and intragenus structural variations and to provide a better understanding of the structural basis of host specificity ...200415163740
a simple and rapid single-step multiplex rt-pcr to detect norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus in clinical stool samples.a single-step multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay that detects and identifies norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus in clinical stool samples is described. four hundred sixty stool samples were tested from patients with non-rotavirus acute gastroenteritis, that were either stored at -80 degrees c and tested retrospectively, or tested immediately after viral nucleic acid extraction in a prospective manner, including outbreaks of gastroenteritis that occurred in ...200415158068
human astrovirus, norovirus (gi, gii), and sapovirus infections in pakistani children with diarrhea.fecal specimens from 517 infants and young children admitted to the civil karachi hospital, dow medical college, karachi city, pakistan with acute gastroenteritis from 1990 to 1994 were collected and screened by rt-pcr for human astrovirus (astv), norovirus (nv), and sapovirus (sv). the specific epidemiological data for illness caused by these viruses in pakistan are not available. astv, nv, and sv were detected in 58, 51, and 17 of 517 fecal specimens, and this represented 11.2, 9.9, and 3.2%, ...200415122801
detection of norovirus (gi, gii), sapovirus and astrovirus in fecal samples using reverse transcription single-round multiplex pcr.a reverse transcription (rt) single-round multiplex polymerase chain reaction (smpcr) assay was developed to detect simultaneously norovirus genogroup i and ii, sapovirus and astrovirus. a total of 377 diarrhea stool samples (screened for rotavirus- and adenorivus-negative) from four regions in japan during july 2000 to june 2001 were examined by rt-smpcr. the positive rate was 16.4% (62 out of 377 stool samples). norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus were detected in 42, 16, 4 of 60 positive samp ...200314599677
food-borne outbreak of norovirus infection in a french military parachuting unit, april 2011. 201121813082
design and application of nucleic acid standards for quantitative detection of enteric viruses by real-time pcr.synthetic multiple-target rna and dna oligonucleotides were constructed for use as quantification standards for nucleic acid amplification assays for human norovirus genogroup i and ii, hepatitis e virus, murine norovirus, human adenovirus, porcine adenovirus and bovine polyomavirus. this approach overcomes the problems related to the difficulty of obtaining practical quantities of viral rna and dna from these viruses. the quantification capacity of assays using the standards was excellent in ea ...201121765877
clinical and epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis among hospitalized children in assess the burden of norovirus (nov) and to determine the diversity of circulating strains among hospitalized children in lebanon.201628082807
rectal swabs can be used for diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis with a multiple real-time pcr assay.viral agents, especially norovirus, are the most common cause of nosocomial spread of epidemic gastroenteritis (ge). rapid and reliable detection of these agents could reduce the risk of outbreaks.201121683649
validation of a norovirus multiplex real-time rt-pcr assay for the detection of norovirus gi and gii from faeces samples.norovirus is a leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis. the virus is highly contagious and has multiple modes of transmission, presenting a growing challenge to hospital-based healthcare. in this study, a total of 120 stool samples are tested for the presence of norovirus gi and gii by the roche two-step lightcycler 2.0 assay incorporating primers and probes produced by tib molbiol, and the results are compared with results from the national virus reference laboratory. the roch ...201121950202
alternative fecal indicators and their empirical relationships with enteric viruses, salmonella enterica, and pseudomonas aeruginosa in surface waters of a tropical urban catchment.the suitability of traditional microbial indicators (i.e., escherichia coli and enterococci) has been challenged due to the lack of correlation with pathogens and evidence of possible regrowth in the natural environment. in this study, the relationships between alternative microbial indicators of potential human fecal contamination (bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, methanobrevibacter smithii, human polyomaviruses [hpyvs], and f+ and somatic coliphages) and pathogens (salmonella spp., pseudomonas ae ...201525416765
[investigation of norovirus infection incidence among 0-5 years old children with acute gastroenteritis admitted to two different hospitals in ankara, turkey].norovirus causes severe gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization especially in children less than five years of age both in developed and developing countries. therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence of norovirus (nov) in 0-5 years old children with acute gastroenteritis in two large hospitals in ankara, turkey. stool samples were obtained from 1000 (413 female, 587 male) children between 0-5 years old with acute gastroenteritis who attended to the department of paediatrics, ministry o ...201323390907
association between enteropathogens and malnutrition in children aged 6-23 mo in bangladesh: a case-control study.background: early exposure to enteropathogens has been associated with malnutrition in children in low-resource settings. however, the contribution of individual enteropathogens remains poorly defined. molecular diagnostics offer an increase in sensitivity for detecting enteropathogens but have not been comprehensively applied to studies of malnutrition.objective: we sought to identify enteropathogens associated with malnutrition in malnourished children [weight-for-age z scor ...201728381477
microbial reduction in wastewater treatment using fe(3+) and al(3+) coagulants and paa disinfectant.wastewater is an important source of pathogenic enteric microorganisms in surface water and a major contaminating agent of drinking water. although primary and secondary wastewater treatments reduce the numbers of microorganisms in wastewater, significant numbers of microbes can still be present in the effluent. the aim of this study was to test the feasibility of tertiary treatment for municipal wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) using pix (fecl3) or pax (alcl3) coagulants and peracetic acid ( ...201324334832
presence of enteroviruses in recreational water in wuhan, china.contaminated recreational waters pose a public health concern, as the potential for waterborne diseases exists in water contaminated with human fecal waste. worldwide, bacterial indicators such as escherichia coli, enterococci, and total and fecal coliform are used as indicators of water quality. however, enteric viruses also present a public health concern and their presence cannot always be determined based on bacterial indicators. this study explores the use of molecular detection methods of ...201323827950
escherichia coli, salmonella spp., hepatitis a virus and norovirus in bivalve molluscs in southern italy.european legislation has fixed microbiological, chemical and biotoxicological limits for shellfish but no limits for viruses. in the present study we report the results of an investigation on salmonella spp., escherichia coli, hepatitis a virus (hav) and norovirus (nov) contamination in 59 bivalve shellfish collected during the years 2011-2012 in southern italy. all the samples of mytilus galloprovincialis and of solen marginatus were negative for hav whereas 6.8% of them were positive for norov ...201323564588
norovirus outbreak of probable waterborne transmission with high attack rate in a guatemalan february 2009, a group of guatemalan school children developed acute gastroenteritis (age) after participating in a school excursion.201222776162
comparative effectiveness of membrane bioreactors, conventional secondary treatment, and chlorine and uv disinfection to remove microorganisms from municipal wastewaters.log removals of bacterial indicators, coliphage, and enteric viruses were studied in three membrane bioreactor (mbr) activated-sludge and two conventional secondary activated-sludge municipal wastewater treatment plants during three recreational seasons (may-oct.) when disinfection of effluents is required. in total, 73 regular samples were collected from key locations throughout treatment processes: post-preliminary, post-mbr, post-secondary, post-tertiary, and post-disinfection (uv or chlorine ...201222682268
fecal contamination and diarrheal pathogens on surfaces and in soils among tanzanian households with and without improved sanitation.little is known about the extent or pattern of environmental fecal contamination among households using low-cost, on-site sanitation facilities, or what role environmental contamination plays in the transmission of diarrheal disease. a microbial survey of fecal contamination and selected diarrheal pathogens in soil (n = 200), surface (n = 120), and produce samples (n = 24) was conducted in peri-urban bagamoyo, tanzania, among 20 households using private pit latrines. all samples were analyzed fo ...201222545817
detection of human food-borne and zoonotic viruses on irrigated, field-grown strawberries.this study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human and zoonotic viruses on irrigated, field-grown strawberries. norovirus genogroup i, rotavirus, and swine hepatitis e virus genogroup 3 were detected on strawberries, and irrigation water is suspected as the contamination origin.201222427499
evaluation of xpert® norovirus assay performance in comparison with real-time rt-pcr in hospitalized adult patients with acute gastroenteritis.xpert® norovirus assay (cepheid, sunnyvale, ca) was compared with a laboratory-developed real-time rt-pcr assay for the detection of norovirus gi and gii in hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis. the two assays showed a high level of concordance but xpert® norovirus assay allowed faster detection of norovirus and a simpler sample handling.201627233425
[rapidly detect and distinguish between norovirus g i and g ii type with a pair of primers].the purpose of this study was to develop rt- pcr assay for rapidly detect and distinguish between norovirus genogroup i and genogroup ii with a pair of primers.201324645329
standardized multiplex one-step qrt-pcr for hepatitis a virus, norovirus gi and gii quantification in bivalve mollusks and water.a quadruplex real-time rt-pcr assay for the simultaneous quantitative detection of hepatitis a virus (hav), norovirus (nov) gi and gii, and mengovirus (used as process control for determination of the virus/nucleic acid extraction efficiency) has been developed. this multiplex assay has been comparatively evaluated with the individual monoplex assays and showed to be slightly less sensitive, with average δcq values of 0.90, 0.28 and 0.44 for hav, nov gi and nov gii, respectively, in standard cur ...201424549198
applicability of bio-wipes for the collection of human faecal specimens for detection and characterisation of enteric determine whether gastroenteritis viruses and other enteric viruses could be detected in faecal specimens collected with bio-wipes.201424372706
an outbreak of norovirus gi-6 infection following a wedding in north west august 2015 a gastroenteritis outbreak occurred following a wedding. an outbreak investigation was undertaken and a cohort study was conducted using an online survey. of 140 guests, 134 received the survey and 113 responded (84·3% response rate). seventy respondents met the case definition of vomiting and/or diarrhoea within 72 h of the wedding (61·9% attack rate). fifteen exposures were associated with illness; on stratification, all were confounded by the ham hock starter. multivariable ana ...201728132650
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