effective use of neonicotinoids for protection of citrus seedlings from invasion by diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).the application of insecticides to control diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is a principal component of the current management for citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. it is recommended that growers apply systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid and thiamethoxam every 2 mo after seedling planting, but this practice renders the seedlings insecticide-free and vulnerable to psyllid infestation in the first 2 mo. we evaluated the risk of vector invasion during this period from ...201020214377
comparison of laboratory colonies and field populations of tamarixia radiata, an ectoparasitoid of the asian citrus psyllid, using internal transcribed spacer and cytochrome oxidase subunit i dna sequences.the genetic diversity of tamarixia radiata waterston (hymenoptera: eulophidae) laboratory colonies derived from collections in china, northern vietnam, pakistan, and a mixed colony from taiwan and southern vietnam was evaluated using the internal transcribed spacer (its) region 1, its-2, and the 5' end of the cytochrome oxidase subunit i gene. the strains share the same its sequence, consistent with the morphological hypothesis that the collections represent a single species. the coi marker was ...200920069864
roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) to four different host plants.diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (candidatus liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). we examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated d. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. the host plants tested were 'duncan' grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfayden), sour orange (citrus aurantium l.), navel orange (c. sinensis ...200919791618
antifeedant and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama, transmits the causal bacteria of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (hlb). because of the variation in spatial and temporal uptake and systemic distribution of imidacloprid applied to citrus trees and its degradation over time in citrus trees, acp adults and nymphs are exposed to concentrations that may not cause immediate mortality but rather sublethal effects. the objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of ...200919431217
population ecology and phenology of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) in two florida citrus groves.studies were conducted to assess population densities and phenology of the psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama at two citrus groves in east-central florida. one grove contained young, irrigated grapefruit trees and the other contained mature, nonirrigated orange trees. the two groves were sampled weekly for eggs, nymphs, and adults on flush shoots; for adults on mature leaves; and for adults captured on yellow sticky card traps. because infestations of immature d. citri develop strictly on young f ...200818801257
sulfur volatiles in guava (psidium guajava l.) leaves: possible defense mechanism.volatiles from crushed and intact guava leaves (psidium guajava l.) were collected using static headspace spme and determined using gc-pfpd, pulsed flame photometric detection, and gc-ms. leaf volatiles from four common citrus culitvars were examined similarly to determine the potential component(s) responsible for guava's protective effect against the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama), which is the insect vector of huanglongbing (hlb) or citrus greening disease. seven sulfur vola ...200818778077
dispersion patterns and sampling plans for diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) in citrus.the abundance and spatial dispersion of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) were studied in 34 grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfad.) and six sweet orange [citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] orchards from march to august 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern texas. although flush shoot infestation levels did not vary with host plant species, densities of d. citri eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than on grapefruit. d. citri immatures also were fou ...200818767763
morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), with reference to their probable functions.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is one of the most significant economic pests of citrus worldwide. this insect vectors three phloem-restricted bacteria in the genus candidatus liberibacter that cause huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most severe disease limiting citrus production worldwide. we examined the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of male and female d. citri using scanning electron microscopy (sem) and determined the putative fun ...200818573664
isolation and characterization of an isaria fumosorosea isolate infecting the asian citrus psyllid in florida.a fungal pathogen that killed adult diaphorina citri kuwayama (asian citrus psyllid) (hemiptera: psyllidae) in florida citrus groves during the fall of 2005 was identified and characterized. investigation of this pathogen is important because d. citri vectors citrus greening disease (huanglongbing), which was reported in florida in 2005. the morphological and genetic data generated herein support identification of the fungus as isaria fumosorosea wize (ifr) (=paecilomyces fumosoroseus) (hypocrea ...200818433768
effects of a particle film on biology and behavior of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) and its infestations in citrus.studies were conducted to investigate the effects of a kaolin-based hydrophilic particle film, surround wp, on the biology and behavior of the psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) and to assess population densities of d. citri in citrus subjected to monthly applications of surround wp. laboratory investigations indicated a 3% (wt:vol) suspension of surround wp in water applied directly was not acutely toxic to eggs, older nymphs or adults. presence of the dried particle film ...200717598547
oral delivery of double-stranded rnas and sirnas induces rnai effects in the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericerca cockerelli.the potato/tomato psyllid, bactericerca cockerelli (b. cockerelli), and the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (d. citri), are very important plant pests, but they are also vectors of phloem-limited bacteria that are associated with two devastating plant diseases. b. cockerelli is the vector of candidatus liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum), which is associated with zebra chip disease of potatoes, and d. citri is the vector of ca. liberibacter asiaticus, which is associated with the huan ...201122110747
quantitative real-time pcr for detection and identification of candidatus liberibacter species associated with citrus huanglongbing.citrus huanglongbing (hlb, ex greening) is one of the most serious diseases of citrus. different forms of the disease are caused by different candidatus liberobacter species, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), ca. l. africanus (laf) and ca. l. americanus (lam). the pathogen is transmitted by psyllid insects and by budding with contaminated plant materials. the vector psyllid diaphorina citri can transmit both las and lam. establishment of this vector into florida, reports of lam and las in ...200616414133
establishment of asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) primary cultures.the asian citrus psyllid (ascp), diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is a highly competent vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus associated with the citrus disease huanglongbing (hlb). commonly referred to as citrus greening disease in the usa, hlb causes reduced fruit yields, quality, and ultimately tree death and is considered the most serious citrus disease. hlb has become a major limiting factor to the production of citrus worldwide. studie ...200919440802
effect of sucrose octanoate on survival of nymphal and adult diaphorina citri (homoptera: psyllidae).asian citrus psylla, diaphorina citri kuwayama (homoptera: psyllidae) was detected for the first time in the united states near delray beach, fl, on 2 june 1998 and is continuing to spread and multiply throughout southern florida. this psyllid is the vector of liberobacter asiaticum, a phloem-limited bacterium that causes citrus greening disease. this pathogen has not been found in the western hemisphere to date. furthermore, high infestation levels of d. citri can impact citrus plant health, fr ...200415279280
responses of the asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) carries candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of huanglongbing. d. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. here we examined whether d. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. tests conducted in a vertically oriented y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoo ...201020388295
the effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. we examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of d. citri. the insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees c, 70 +/- 10% rh, and a 14 h photophase. host plants for d. citri included orange (citrus sinensis [rutaceae] ...201020388302
quantifying dispersal of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) by immunomarking and potential impact of unmanaged groves on commercial citrus management.diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is an important pest of citrus. it is an efficient vector of three bacterial pathogens that are the presumptive causal agents of huanglongbing (hlb) or citrus greening disease. the movement patterns and dispersal capabilities of d. citri require study to better understand the spread of hlb and to improve management strategies for d. citri. a recently developed immunomarking technique that uses crude food proteins (chicken egg albumin, bovine casei ...200919689907
effect of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, on egg hatch, nymph development, adult emergence and reproduction of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama, is a vector of bacteria presumably responsible for huanglongbing (hlb) disease in citrus. in this laboratory study, an investigation was made of the activity of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, on acp eggs, nymphs and adults to evaluate its potential as a biorational insecticide for inclusion in an integrated pest management (ipm) program for acp.201019937968
annotation of the asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system.citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. the citrus greening bacteria, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae). hemipterans characterized to date lack a number of insect immune genes, including those associated with the imd pathway targeting gram-negative bacteria. the d. citri draft ...201627965582
sulfur volatiles from allium spp. affect asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, vectors candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las) and candidatus liberibacter americanus (lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. d. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. plant volatiles from allium spp. (alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. we examined the effect of garlic chive (a. tuberosum rottl.) and wild onion (a. canadense l.) volatiles on d. citri behaviour in a two-port d ...201120609277
[ovarian development and analysis of mating effects on ovary maturation of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae)].as many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the huanglongbing, the bacteria candidatus liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. these mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. however, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the ...201020676515
effects of pymetrozine, an antifeedant of hemiptera, on asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, feeding behavior, survival and transmission of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus.vector-borne plant disease management can be enhanced by deployment of antifeedants in addition to the use of broad-spectrum neurotoxic insecticides. the effects of pymetrozine on asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama, feeding behaviour, survival and transmission of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), the presumed causal pathogen of huanglongbing, were investigated.201020960465
an assessment of yellow sticky card traps as indicators of the abundance of adult diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) in citrus.yellow sticky card traps were assessed as a tool for estimating absolute densities of adult diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) in citrus. weekly trapping was conducted in young and mature trees with traps deployed directly in trees, one trap per tree. in addition, a comparison was made between one and three traps per tree in the mature trees. solar radiation was positively correlated with numbers of adults trapped per week in both groups of trees. air temperature was positively cor ...200919253667
mosquitocidal carbamates with low toxicity to agricultural pests: an advantageous property for insecticide resistance management.insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito anopheles gambiae is well documented, and widespread agricultural use of pyrethroids may exacerbate development of resistance when pyrethroids are used in vector control. we have developed carbamate anticholinesterases that possess a high degree of an. gambiae:human selectivity for enzyme inhibition. the purpose of this study was to assess the spectrum of activity of these carbamates against other mosquitoes and agricultural pests.201425185896
incidence of invasive diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid tamarixia radiata (hymenoptera: eulophidae) in florida citrus.diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), vectors the bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease "huanglongbing" or citrus greening. in the united states, d. citri was first discovered in florida, in 1998. tamarixia radiata waterston (hymenoptera: eulophidae) was imported from asia and released in florida in 1999-2001 to improve biological control of d. citri before citrus greening was detected in florida in 2005. florida ci ...200919253643
detection of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' in diaphorina citri and its importance in the management of citrus huanglongbing in florida.citrus huanglongbing (hlb or citrus greening), is a highly destructive disease that has been spreading in both florida and brazil. its psyllid vector, diaphorina citri kuwayama, has spread to texas and mexico, thus threatening the future of citrus production elsewhere in mainland north america. even though sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for detection of the causal organisms, candidatus liberibacter spp., the pathogen cannot be detected consistently in plants until symptoms deve ...200818944186
effect of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus infection on susceptibility of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, to selected the present investigation, the effect of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), a bacterium considered to be responsible for causing huanglongbing (hlb) disease in citrus, on the physiology of its vector, the asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama, was determined. specifically, the effects of las infection on the susceptibility of acp to selected insecticides were determined. furthermore, total protein content and general esterase activity were quantified in las-infected and u ...201020960471
asian citrus psyllid rnai pathway - rnai evidence.diaphorina citri, known as the asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). emerging biotechnologies, such as rna interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. in this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the rnai core genes are present in the asian psyllid genome and if the ...201627901078
cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama).the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri, transmits a phloem-limited bacterium, candidatus 'liberibacter' asiaticus that causes citrus greening disease. because juvenile hormone (jh) plays an important role in adult and nymphal development, we studied the final steps in jh biosynthesis in d. citri. a putative jh acid methyltransferase ortholog gene (jmtd) and its cognate cdna were identified by searching d. citri genome database. expression analysis shows expression in all life stages. in adul ...201525893162
host plant affects morphometric variation of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. while some optimal plant species for acp oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on acp size and shape. our goal was to determine how size and shape of acp wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environ ...201627833820
rate, placement and timing of aldicarb applications to control asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), in oranges.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is a cosmopolitan insect pest of citrus and vectors the bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, a suspected causal organism of citrus greening or 'huanglongbing' disease. aldicarb 150 g kg(-1) gr (temik((r)) 15 g) was evaluated at three rates, two placements and three timings for acp control in orange trees.200818537108
odorants for surveillance and control of the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri).the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium candidatus liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. this bacterium causes huanglongbing (hlb), a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for acp surveillance and control. the olfactory system of acp is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents.201425347318
antennal and abdominal transcriptomes reveal chemosensory genes in the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called huanglongbing (hlb) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. more effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. however, the molecular basis of olfaction in the asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. th ...201627441376
morphological and molecular characterization of a hirsutella species infecting the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), in florida.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, is an invasive pest that vectors citrus greening disease, which recently was detected in florida. mycosed adult d. citri were collected at four sites in central florida between september 2005 and february 2006. observation of the cadavers using scanning electron microscopy revealed that the pathogen had branched synnemata supporting monophiladic conidiogenous cells. a high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to amplify the ...200717382959
'candidatus liberibacter americanus', associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) in são paulo state, brazil.symptoms of huanglongbing (hlb) were reported in são paulo state (sps), brazil, in march 2004. in asia, hlb is caused by 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' and in africa by 'candidatus liberibacter africanus'. detection of the liberibacters is based on pcr amplification of their 16s rrna gene with specific primers. leaves with blotchy mottle symptoms characteristic of hlb were sampled in several farms of sps and tested for the presence of liberibacters. 'ca. l. asiaticus' was detected in a smal ...200516166678
biology of diaphorina citri (homoptera: psyllidae) on four host plants.the biology of the citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees c on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, citrus jambhiri lush; sour orange, c aurantium l.; grapefruit, c. paradisi macfadyen; and orange jessamine, murraya paniculata (l.) jack] in the laboratory. the biological characteristics of each life stage are described. the average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d) ...200011142304
incidence of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus infection in abandoned citrus occurring in proximity to commercially managed groves.huanglongbing is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (citrus spp.). one management tactic against huanglongbing is aggressive management of the vector, the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama), with insecticide applications. however, d. citri in abandoned groves are not controlled and therefore pose a risk of reinfestation for nearby commercial citrus. these abandoned groves could serve as a reservoir for the vector, as well as a source of the presumed causal agent for hua ...201021309215
multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri).asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. in this study we measured behavioral responses of d. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. stimuli were presented to the psyllids in droplets or lines of an emulsified wax formulation in two different arena types in no-choice tests. first, when placed on a colored ring situated halfway between the center and perimeter of a petri ...201122217766
sexual transmission of a plant pathogenic bacterium, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, between conspecific insect vectors during mating.candidatus liberibacter asiaticus is a fastidious, phloem-inhabiting, gram-negative bacterium transmitted by asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae). the bacterium is the presumed causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb), one of the most destructive and economically important diseases of citrus. we investigated whether las is transmitted between infected and uninfected d. citri adults during courtship. our results indicate that las was sexually transmitted from las-infe ...201122216209
odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the asian citrus psyllid.olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits candidatus liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the acp antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. we identify ne ...201424904081
citrus huanglongbing in são paulo state, brazil: pcr detection of the 'candidatus' liberibacter species associated with the disease.symptoms of huanglongbing (hlb), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in asia and africa, have been noticed in march 2004 in the araraquara region of são paulo state, brazil. hlb has not been reported previously from america. the causal hlb bacteria, candidatus liberibacter africanus in africa and candidatus liberibacter asiaticus in asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus leaves by pcr amplification of their 16s rdna with previously described primers. when this technique was applied t ...200515797817
medium for development of bee cell cultures (apis mellifera: hymenoptera: apidae).a media for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, apis mellifera l. (hymenoptera: apidae) was developed. multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and modified hert-hunter 70 media. cell culture systems for bees solves an impasse that has hindered efforts to isolate and screen pathogens which may be influencing or causing colony collapse disorder of bees. multiple life stages of maturing larvae to early pu ...201020033792
unreliable pesticide control of the vector psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) for the reduction of microorganism disease transmission.systemic insecticides and application methods were examined for the control of the vector psyllid of citrus greening disease, diaphorina citri, on grown king mandarin trees in an orchard in southern vietnam from may 2007 to september 2008. leaf spraying of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin attained about 50 % to 70 % mortality of the psyllid for one month after the application and showed decreased efficacy thereafter. imidacloprid was more effective than the other two insecticides, bu ...201020512737
candidatus liberibacter americanus induces significant reprogramming of the transcriptome of the susceptible citrus genotype.citrus huanglongbing (hlb) disease is caused by endogenous, phloem-restricted, gram negative, uncultured bacteria named candidatus liberibacter africanus (calaf), ca. l. asiaticus (calas), and ca. l. americanus (calam), depending on the continent where the bacteria were first detected. the asian citrus psyllid vector, diaphorina citri, transmits calas and calam and both liberibacter species are present in brazil. several studies of the transcriptional response of citrus plants manifesting hlb sy ...201323586643
influence of posttreatment temperature on the toxicity of insecticides against diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae).the psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is one of the most important pests of citrus worldwide because it efficiently vectors three bacteria in the genus candidatus liberibacter that cause the devastating citrus greening disease (huanglongbing). current management practices for this insect pest rely on multiple sprays of foliar insecticides and one or two applications of soil systemic insecticides per season. effective psyllid and disease management in florida requires insec ...200919449650
comparison of potato and asian citrus psyllid adult and nymph transcriptomes identified vector transcripts with potential involvement in circulative, propagative liberibacter transmission.the potato psyllid (pop) bactericera cockerelli (sulc) and asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama are the insect vectors of the fastidious plant pathogen, candidatus liberibacter solanacearum (clso) and ca. l. asiaticus (clas), respectively. clso causes zebra chip disease of potato and vein-greening in solanaceous species, whereas, clas causes citrus greening disease. the reliance on insecticides for vector management to reduce pathogen transmission has increased interest in altern ...201425436509
morphological abnormalities and cell death in the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) midgut associated with candidatus liberibacter asiaticus.candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas) is a phloem-limited, gram-negative, fastidious bacterium that is associated with the development of citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing (hlb). clas is transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri, in a circulative manner. two major barriers to transmission within the insect are the midgut and the salivary glands. we performed a thorough microscopic analysis within the insect midgut following exposure to clas-infected cit ...201627630042
invasive mutualisms between a plant pathogen and insect vectors in the middle east and brazil.complex multi-trophic interactions in vectorborne diseases limit our understanding and ability to predict outbreaks. arthropod-vectored pathogens are especially problematic, with the potential for novel interspecific interactions during invasions. variations and novelties in plant-arthropod-pathogen triumvirates present significant threats to global food security. we examined aspects of a phytoplasma pathogen of citrus across two continents. 'candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia' causes witches' ...201628083099
asian citrus psyllid expression profiles suggest candidatus liberibacter asiaticus-mediated alteration of adult nutrition and metabolism, and of nymphal development and immunity.the asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or huanglongbing (hlb). the widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and hlb in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. one tenable solution is through the deployment of rna interference technology to silence protein- ...201526091106
acquisition, replication and inoculation of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus following various acquisition periods on huanglongbing-infected citrus by nymphs and adults of the asian citrus psyllid.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae), is the primary vector of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. las is transmitted by d. citri in a persistent-circulative manner, but the question of replication of this bacterium in its psyllid vector has not been resolved. thus, we studied the effects of the acquisition access period (aap) by nymphs and ...201627441694
infection of an insect vector with a bacterial plant pathogen increases its propensity for dispersal.the spread of vector-transmitted pathogens relies on complex interactions between host, vector and pathogen. in sessile plant pathosystems, the spread of a pathogen highly depends on the movement and mobility of the vector. however, questions remain as to whether and how pathogen-induced vector manipulations may affect the spread of a plant pathogen. here we report for the first time that infection with a bacterial plant pathogen increases the probability of vector dispersal, and that such movem ...201526083763
transmission parameters for candidatus liberibacter asiaticus by asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae).the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate acquisition and inoculation (together, transmission) efficiency of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las), the pathogen associated with citrus huanglongbing (hlb) by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (kuwayama) (hemiptera: psyllidae). in laboratory studies, nymphs reared on las infected plants were more likely to acquire the bacterium than adults. acquisition by nymphs ranged from 60 to 100%, whereas acquisition by adults only reached 4 ...201021061950
efficacy and uptake of soil-applied imidacloprid in the control of asian citrus psyllid and a citrus leafminer, two foliar-feeding citrus pests.the systemic neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, admire pro, was applied to 3- and 4-yr-old nonbearing 'rio red' grapefruit, citrus x paradisi macfad., trees in 2006 and 2007, respectively, to determine its effects in the control of two major citrus pests, the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), and a citrus leafminer phyllocnistis citrella stainton (lepidoptera: gracillariidae). young flush shoots were randomly collected weekly for 13 and 11 wk in 2006 an ...201021061971
sticky trap and stem-tap sampling protocols for the asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae).sampling statistics were obtained to develop a sampling protocol for estimating numbers of adult diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) in citrus by using two different sampling methods: yellow sticky traps and stem-tap samples. a 4.0-ha block of mature orange trees was stratified into 100.4-ha strata and sampled using each method seven times over a 7-mo period. one sticky trap was deployed per tree on each of 16 trees randomly selected in each stratum, and numbers of adults on the tra ...201020429472
insecticide resistance in field populations of asian citrus psyllid in florida.background: asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri, is a major pest of citrus because it vectors the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease. insecticides are currently the basis of psyllid management programs, and the number of annual insecticide applications has increased significantly. in this paper, a series of investigations of insecticide resistance among field populations of adult and immature acp in florida is described. results: in 2009, the highest level of resistance for ...201121538798
temperature studies with the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri: cold hardiness and temperature thresholds for oviposition.this study was conducted to obtain information on the cold hardiness of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), in florida and to assess upper and lower temperature thresholds for oviposition. the psyllid is an important pest in citrus because it transmits the bacterial pathogens responsible for citrus greening disease, huanglongbing, considered the most serious citrus disease worldwide. d. citri was first found in florida during 1998, and the disease was disc ...201121870969
functional characterization of lotp from liberibacter asiaticus.liberibacter asiaticus is an unculturable parasitic bacterium of the alphaproteobacteria group hosted by both citrus plants and a psyllid insect vector (diaphorina citri). in the citrus tree, the bacteria thrive only inside the phloem, causing a systemically incurable and deadly plant disease named citrus greening or huanglongbing. currently, all commercial citrus cultivars in production are susceptible to l. asiaticus, representing a serious threat to the citrus industry worldwide. the technica ...201728378385
Morphological description of the mouthparts of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy were used to elucidate the morphology of the rostrum, as well as the mandibular and maxillary stylets of the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of phloem-inhabiting bacteria associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease. D. citri has a cone-shaped rostrum that extends behind the pair of prothoracic coxae. The stylet bundle comprises a pair of mandibular (Md) and maxillary (Mx) stylets with a mean length of 513.3 µm; when retracted, the ...201221982382
Characterization of five CYP4 genes from Asian citrus psyllid and their expression levels in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-infected and uninfected psyllids.Previously, we reported that Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las)-infected Diaphorina citri are characterized by lower levels of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases than uninfected counterparts. In the present study, we investigated expression levels of family 4 cytochrome P450 (CYP4) genes in Las-infected and uninfected D.citri adults. Five novel CYP4 genes (CYP4C67, CYP4DA1, CYP4C68, CYP4DB1 and CYP4G70) were identified. Four of the five CYP4 genes were expressed at significantly higher levels i ...201121919983
three homopteran pests of citrus as prey for the convergent lady beetle: suitability and preference.the convergent lady beetle, hippodamia convergens guérin-méneville (coleoptera: coccinellidae), is an important predator of soft-bodied insect pests in many regions of the united states, but generally uncommon in florida citrus. certain citrus producers in florida recently initiated releases of commercially available h. convergens from california against the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama, vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. however, there is little information o ...201122217767
morphological, molecular and virulence characterization of three lencanicillium species infecting asian citrus psyllids in huangyan citrus groves.citrus greening or huanglongbing (hlb) is caused by the infection of candidatus liberibacter spp. in citrus plants. since asian citrus psyllid is the primary vector of this bacterial pathogen, the spread of hlb can be mitigated by suppressing asian citrus psyllid populations in citrus groves using entomopathogens. to expand the current data on entomopathogens infecting asian citrus psyllids, we isolated and characterized three different entomopathogens. strains zjlsp07, zjla08, and zjlp09 infect ...201525593036
evolutionary conservation of candidate osmoregulation genes in plant phloem sap-feeding insects.the high osmotic pressure generated by sugars in plant phloem sap is reduced in phloem-feeding aphids by sugar transformations and facilitated water flux in the gut. the genes mediating these osmoregulatory functions have been identified and validated empirically in the pea aphid acyrthosiphon pisum: sucrase 1 (suc1), a sucrase in glycoside hydrolase family 13 (gh13), and aquaporin 1 (aqp1), a member of the drosophila integral protein (drip) family of aquaporins. here, we describe molecular anal ...201626896054
the bacterial communities in plant phloem-sap-feeding insects.the resident microbiota of animals represents an important contribution to the global microbial diversity, but it is poorly known in many animals. this study investigated the bacterial diversity in plant phloem-sap-feeding whiteflies, aphids and psyllids by pyrosequencing bacterial 16s rrna gene amplicons. after correction for sequencing error, just 3-7 bacterial operational taxonomic units were recovered from each insect sample sequenced to sufficient depth for saturation of rarefaction curves. ...201424350573
nucleotides, micro- and macro-nutrients, limonoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamates composition in the phloem sap of sweet orange.currently, the global citrus production is declining due to the spread of huanglongbing (hlb). hlb, otherwise known as citrus greening, is caused by candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas) and is transmitted by the asian citrus psyllids (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama. acp transmits clas bacterium while feeding on the citrus phloem sap. multiplication of clas in the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for clas. in this study, we investigated the ...201627171979
laser system for identification, tracking, and control of flying insects.flying insects are common vectors for transmission of pathogens and inflict significant harm to humans and agricultural production in many parts of the world. we present proof of principle for an optical system capable of highly specific vector control. this system utilizes a combination of optical sources, detectors, and sophisticated software to search, detect, and identify flying insects in real-time, with the capability of eradication using a lethal laser pulse. we present data on two insect ...201627410106
molecular characterization of wolbachia strains associated with the invasive asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri in brazil.wolbachia is a symbiont intensively studied due to its ability to interfere with their host's reproduction, and it has been recently proposed as an alternative tool to control insect pests or vectors of diseases. the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri is an important pest of citrus since it vectors the bacterium that causes the "huanglongbing" disease in citrus. the frequency and diversity of wolbachia associated with d. citri is unknown, limiting the utilization of wolbachia as an alternativ ...201223269454
survey of endosymbionts in the diaphorina citri metagenome and assembly of a wolbachia wdi draft genome.diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae), the asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of ca. liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. sequencing of the d. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. to corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rdna amplification, raw reads from the d. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference genom ...201223166822
botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) in citrus orchards.the asian citrus psyllid (acp) diaphorina citri kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (hlb) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. during winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. botanicals and relatively select ...201425205398
costs and benefits of insecticide and foliar nutrient applications to huanglongbing-infected citrus trees.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), vectors candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, which causes huanglongbing (hlb). in florida, hlb incidence is approaching 100% statewide. yields have decreased and production costs have increased since 2005. despite this, some growers are maintaining a level of production and attribute this in part to aggressive psyllid control and foliar nutrition sprays. however, the value of these practices is debated. a replicated ...201727427170
citrus tristeza virus-based rnai in citrus plants induces gene silencing in diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (huanglongbing).a transient expression vector based on citrus tristeza virus (ctv) is unusually stable. because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control huanglongbing (hlb), which is caused by candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas) and vectored by asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri. in the absence of effective control strategies for clas, emphasis has been on control of d. citri. coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by clas, d. citri and ctv was exploited to develop a no ...201424572372
repellent activity of botanical oils against asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. we selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against d. citri. in laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to d. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from d. citri females. in choice settling experiments, d. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day relea ...201627429006
enhanced acquisition rates of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' by the asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae) in the presence of vegetative flush growth in citrus.the asian citrus psyllid preferentially feeds and exclusively reproduces on young, newly emerged flush shoots of citrus. asian citrus psyllid nymphs feed and complete their life stages on these flush shoots. recent studies conducted under greenhouse conditions have shown that the transmission rates of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (clas), the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus, are enhanced when flush shoots are present. however, it is unclear if clas acquisition by m ...201627451998
protein interaction networks at the host-microbe interface in diaphorina citri, the insect vector of the citrus greening pathogen.the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) is the insect vector responsible for the worldwide spread of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (clas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease. developmental changes in the insect vector impact pathogen transmission, such that d. citri transmission of clas is more efficient when bacteria are acquired by nymphs when compared with adults. we hypothesize that expression changes in the d. citri immune system and commensal microbiot ...201728386418
genetic diversity of diaphorina citri and its endosymbionts across east and southeast asia.diaphorina citri is the vector of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus', the most widespread pathogen associated huanglongbing, the most serious disease of citrus. to enhance our understanding of the distribution and origin of the psyllid, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structures of 24 populations in asia and one from florida based on the mtcoi gene. simultaneously, genetic diversity and population structures of the primary endosymbiont (p-endosymbiont) 'candidatus carsonell ...201728374537
influence of abiotic factors on flight initiation by asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae).predicting the emergence and arrival of insect pests is paramount for integrated pest management. to achieve this goal, it is important to understand how abiotic factors influence pest dispersal behavior. we investigated the effects of abiotic conditions on flight initiation by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama. we first explored the effect of barometric pressure changes on flight initiation. we used a custom-made barometric chamber and observed the activity of d. citri as meas ...201728334135
oral delivery of double-stranded rnas induces mortality in nymphs and adults of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. acp is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria candidatus liberibacter americanus and candidatus liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (hlb). the management of hlb is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. rna interference (rnai) has proven to be a promising tool to control ...201728282380
formation of stylet sheaths in āere (in air) from eight species of phytophagous hemipterans from six families (suborders: auchenorrhyncha and sternorrhyncha).stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. these sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. this report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in āere (in air) produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: diaphorina citri (psyllidae, asian citrus psyllid), aphis nerii (aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid), toxopter ...201323638086
evaluation of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides for the management of the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri on containerized citrus.studies were conducted to evaluate uptake and retention of three systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, dinotefuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, in potted citrus nursery plants treated at standard label rates. infestation of these plants placed at a field site with moderate levels of asian citrus psyllid (acp) was monitored for 14 weeks following treatments, and insecticide residues in leaf tissue were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). bioassays were conducted using le ...201727714916
changes in free amino acids and polyamine levels in satsuma leaves in response to asian citrus psyllid infestation and water stress.the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses on changes in amino acids and polyamine levels in satsuma orange (citrus unshiu; cultivar owari) leaves were investigated. asian citrus psyllids diaphorina citri (kuwayama) (acp) infestation was used to induce biotic stress while a water deficit was imposed to induce abiotic stress. potted trees were infested by placing 50 psyllids on 3 citrus leaves enclosed in nylon mesh bags for 5 d. a parallel set of plants were kept water stressed by maintaining th ...201424178691
sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding by asian citrus psyllid: evidence from electrical penetration graph and visualization of stylet pathways.asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. sustained phloem ingestion by d. citri on clas infected plants is required for pathogen acquisition and transmission. recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-walled sclerenchyma around the phloem in mature, fully expanded citrus leaves that is more ...201728278248
two-spotted ladybeetle adalia bipunctata l. (coleoptera: coccinellidae): a commercially available predator to control asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (hlb) also known as citrus greening disease. the increased use of insecticides for control of d. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. the two-spotted ladybeetle, adalia bipunctata (coleoptera: coccinellidae) is found i ...201627631730
complete genome sequence of the largest known flavi-like virus, diaphorina citri flavi-like virus, a novel virus of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.a novel flavi-like virus tentatively named diaphorina citri flavi-like virus (dcflv) was identified in field populations of diaphorina citri through small rna and transcriptome sequencing followed by reverse transcription (rt)-pcr. we report here the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of dcflv, the largest flavi-like virus identified to date.201627609921
compatibility of isaria fumosorosea (hypocreales: cordycipitaceae) blastospores with agricultural chemicals used for management of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).biorational insecticides are being increasingly emphasized for inclusion in integrated pest management programs for invasive insects. the entomopathogenic fungus, isaria fumosorosea, can be used to help manage the asian citrus psyllid with minimal impact on beneficial arthropods, but its effectiveness may be compromised by agrochemicals used to control concurrent arthropod pests and diseases. we evaluated the compatibility of i. fumosorosea blastospores with a range of spray oils and copper-base ...201326462531
a phagostimulant blend for the asian citrus psyllid.chemical cues that elicit orientation by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), are of interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. non-pesticidal control methods for d. citri remain a high priority for the citrus industry. while searching for semiochemicals that may be involved in orientation to host plants, we previously identified a blend of formic and acetic acids that stimulated substrate probing by d. citri ...201627542089
complete genome sequence of a putative densovirus of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina, we report the complete genome sequence of a putative densovirus of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri diaphorina citri densovirus (dcdnv) was originally identified through metagenomics, and here, we obtained the complete nucleotide sequence using pcr-based approaches. phylogenetic analysis places dcdnv between viruses of the ambidensovirus and iteradensovirus genera.201627469948
spatiotemporal dynamics of the southern california asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri) invasion.biological invasions are governed by spatial processes that tend to be distributed in non-random ways across landscapes. characterizing the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native insect species is a key aspect of effectively managing their geographic expansion. the asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri), a vector of the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (hlb), poses a serious threat to commercial and residential citrus trees. in 2 ...201728278188
rna interference of carboxyesterases causes nymph mortality in the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), is an important pest of citrus. in addition, d. citri is the vector of huanglongbing, a destructive disease in citrus, also known as citrus greening disease caused by candidatus liberibacter asiaticus. huanglongbing causes huge losses for citrus industries. insecticide application for d. citri is the major strategy to prevent disease spread. the heavy use of insecticides causes development of insecticide resistance. we used r ...201728195667
double-stranded rna delivery through soaking mediates silencing of the muscle protein 20 and increases mortality to the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri.asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, is the most important economic pest of citrus because it transmits candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), the causal agent of huanglongbing (hlb). silencing genes by rna interference (rnai) is a promising approach for controlling d. citri. rnai-based insect management strategies depend on the selection of suitable target genes.201728195429
male psyllids differentially learn in the context of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, stimulatory cuticular hydrocarbons act as sex pheromone attractants. male psyllids locate aggregations of females using those olfactory cues, as well as vibrational communication on the plant surface. although previous research has indicated that learning plays a role in modulating female reproductive behaviors in psyllids, it is unknown whether males similarly use learning to increase the likelihood of copulatory success. we used an olfact ...201728178203
transmission rates of ‘ca. liberibacter asiaticus’ by asian citrus psyllid are enhanced by the presence and developmental stage of citrus flush.asian citrus psyllid (diaphorina citri kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘candidatus liberibacter asiaticus’ (clas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as asiatic huanglongbing (hlb) (citrus greening disease). the psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the united states, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the florida citrus industry. we recently concluded research that showed clas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush ...201626884596
thiamethoxam and imidacloprid drench applications on sweet orange nursery trees disrupt the feeding and settling behaviour of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).chemical control is the method most used for management of diaphorina citri, the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria associated with citrus huanglongbing (hlb) disease. the objectives of this study were to determine the influence of soil-drench applications of neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and imidacloprid) on the probing behaviour of d. citri on citrus nursery trees, using the electrical penetration graph (epg) technique, and to measure the d. citri settling behaviour after probing on citrus n ...201626694803
living on the edges: spatial niche occupation of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae), in citrus groves.the spatial niche occupation of the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine d. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. in both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong ...201526193111
phenology of asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in punjab pakistan.the population phenology of asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in faisalabad, punjab pakistan. citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. however, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; de ...201425198345
temporal progression of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' infection in citrus and acquisition efficiency by diaphorina citri.over the last decade, the plant disease huanglongbing (hlb) has emerged as a primary threat to citrus production worldwide. hlb is associated with infection by phloem-limited bacteria ('candidatus liberibacter' spp.) that are transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri. transmission efficiency varies with vector-related aspects (e.g., developmental stage and feeding periods) but there is no information on the effects of host-pathogen interactions. here, acquisition efficiency of 'c ...201424620723
species clarification of isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae) in mexico.entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus isaria (hypocreales: cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. currently, the mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of isaria isolates against diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. previous research identified three promising isaria isolates (che-cnrcb 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as isaria fumosorosea ...201626895870
new excised-leaf assay method to test inoculativity of asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: psyllidae) with candidatus liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease.the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), is the primary vector of candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus (citrus spp.) disease worldwide. here, we developed a new "excised-leaf assay" that can speed up las-inoculativity tests on asian citrus psyllid from the current 3-12 mo (when using whole citrus seedlings for inoculation) to only 2-3 wk. young adults of asian citrus psyllid that ...201323448011
a plant bacterial pathogen manipulates its insect vector's energy metabolism.insect-transmitted plant-pathogenic bacteria may alter their vectors' fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism. because these pathogens interact with their vectors on the cellular and organismal levels, potential changes at the biochemical level might occur. "candidatus liberibacter asiaticus" (clas) is transmitted in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. the genome of clas revealed the presence of an atp translocase that mediates the uptake of atp and other nucleotides from medi ...201728039132
effects of temperature, photoperiod, and rainfall on morphometric variation of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).phenotypic plasticity provides a mechanism by which an organism can adapt to new or changing environments. earlier studies have demonstrated the variability of diaphorina citri kuwayama (asian citrus psyllid) population dynamics, but no analysis of morphological changes induced by seasonal or artificial laboratory-induced conditions has yet been documented. such morphometric variation has been found to correspond in dispersal capabilities in several insect taxa. in this study, the effects of tem ...201728031429
quality matters: influences of citrus flush physicochemical characteristics on population dynamics of the asian citrus psyllid (hemiptera: liviidae).studies were conducted to relate the influence of the physical characteristics, leaf nutrient content and phloem sap amino acid concentration of citrus flush shoots on the densities of various diaphorina citri life stages. adult d. citri preferentially selected young shoots for feeding and numbers of d. citri immatures were positively correlated with flush shoot softness. young flush shoots had higher concentrations of macro and micro nutrients relative to mature ones and this was associated wit ...201628030637
comparative proteomic analysis of hemolymph from uninfected and candidatus liberibacter asiaticus-infected diaphorina citri.hemolymph was characterized from diaphorina citri adults infected with the phytopathogen, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), and compared with that from uninfected psyllids. this study identified 5531 and 3220 peptides within infected and uninfected hemolymph using nano-lc-ms/ms. a reduced number of proteins were detected for d. citri and all known endosymbionts within infected hemolymph as compared to uninfected hemolymph. a large number of immune defense proteins were absent from d. cit ...201727990558
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