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frequency and seasonal distribution of pear psylla infected with the pear decline phytoplasma in california pear orchards.abstract pear decline (pd) is an important disease of pyrus communis fruiting cultivars in europe, asia, and the americas. pd is caused by a phloem-limited phytoplasma that, in california, is transmitted from diseased to healthy trees by pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola. the percentage of phytoplasma-infected pear psylla has never been assessed in the united states in field-collected insects. pear psylla were collected monthly from pd-infected trees from three orchards in northern california. in ...200218944248
do herbicide treatments reduce the sensitivity of mosquito larvae to insecticides?invasive mosquitoes are economic and sanitary concerns especially in europe and america. most work has emphasized the role of resistance [berrada, s., fournier, d., cuany, a., nguyen, t.x., 1994. identification of resistance mechanisms in a selected laboratory strain of cacopsylla pyri (homoptera: psyllidae): altered acetylcholinesterases and detoxifying oxidases. pesticide biochemistry and physiology 48, 41-47; hemingway, j., hawkes, n.j., mccarroll, l., ranson, h., 2004. the molecular basis of ...200616574189
new insecticides for control of pear psylla. 194720247572
two pear accessions evaluated for susceptibility to pear psylla cacopsylla bidens (šulc) in israel.the pear psylla, cacopsylla bidens (šulc), is one of the most damaging pests of commercial pear orchards in israel. psylla control is a major obstacle to efficient integrated pest management, necessitating research on cultivars with natural resistance to pear psylla. recently, two pear accessions (py.760-261 and py.701-202) from the local newe ya'ar fruit tree live collection were identified as having apparent resistance to pear psylla. our goal was to evaluate the resistance of these two access ...201423554331
stability of cacopsylla pyricola (hemiptera: psyllidae) populations in pacific northwest pear orchards managed with long-term mating disruption for cydia pomonella (lepidoptera: tortricidae).this study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola, in the pacific northwest, usa. we hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed ...201728974000
sampling of cacopsylla pyri (hemiptera: psyllidae) and pilophorus gallicus (hemiptera: miridae) in pear orchards.the psyllid cacopsylla pyri l. (hemiptera: psyllidae), is one of the principal pests of pear (pyrus spp.) orchards and, along with its natural enemies, needs to be carefully monitored for correct integrate pest management and biological pest control decision making. we compare sampling techniques and develop sampling methods for c. pyri and pilophorus gallicus remane (heteroptera: miridae). four pear orchards were sampled periodically from 2007 to 2010 in southern spain by beating branches into ...201122066206
maintenance of primary cell cultures of immunocytes from cacopsylla spp. psyllids: a new in vitro tool for the study of crop pest insects.primary cell cultures of immunocytes have been developed from the three psyllid species cacopsylla melanoneura, cacopsylla pyri (vectors of 'candidatus phytoplasma mali' and 'candidatus phytoplasma pyri', respectively) and cacopsylla crataegi. the medium most suitable of those evaluated was hert-hunter 70 (hh70) psyllid medium. in fact, good survival and proliferation of the cacopsylla immunocytes for over 60 d were observed, with mitosis activities starting at 15-d post culture. moreover, adhes ...201424934235
identification of a sex attractant pheromone for male winterform pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola.pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola (förster) (hemiptera: psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, uses a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. we compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females to isolate and identify the pheromone. post-diapause females produced significantly more of the cuticular hydrocarbon, 13-methylheptacosane, than post-diapause males and diapausing females. in olfactometer assays, conspecifi ...200920063206
histochemistry and ultrastructure of the mycetome and its 'symbiotes' in the pear psylla, psylla pyricola foerster (homoptera).the orange-coloured mycetome of the pear psylla, which comprises a cellular covering membrane, a number of mycetocytes and a central syncytium, contains two kinds of inclusions (micro-organisms-in the literature). as dna could not be detected in them, their status as micro-organisms is questioned. both kinds contain protein; one kind contains rna, and (by electron microscopy) tubule-like peripheral maculae. in spite of their anomalous reactions, the inclusions are probably unusual, degenerate or ...196918631487
attraction of cacopsylla pyricola (hemiptera: psyllidae) to female psylla in pear orchards.the pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola (förster), is a major economic pest of pears in north america and europe. laboratory studies have shown that males of both the summerform and winterform morphotypes in this species are attracted to volatiles given off by females. this study tested whether attraction by males to females can be shown in the field. we showed that males had a clear preference for sticky traps that had been baited with live females compared with traps baited with live males or tra ...200919508792
identification by suppression subtractive hybridization of genes expressed in pear (pyrus spp.) upon infestation with cacopsylla pyri (homoptera: psyllidae).the molecular interaction between pear tree (pyrus spp.) and the phloem-feeding psylla cacopsylla pyri (linnaeus) was investigated through the construction and characterization of cdna subtracted libraries. genes expressed upon insect infestation were identified in the susceptible pear cultivar bartlett and in the resistant selection ny10355. in both interactions, genes involved in the plant defense response were induced, confirming the observed similarity between the response to pathogens and t ...200818343531
dithiocarbamate fungicides for control of pear psylla. 19715166208
susceptibility to abamectin of pear psylla populations collected from spain, italy and france. european baselines, 2004. 200516628893
survey of susceptibility to abamectin of pear psylla (hemiptera: psyllidae) in northern italy.the pear psylla, cacopsylla pyri l. (hemiptera: psyllidae), is a relevant pest of pear, pyrus communis l., trees in emilia-romagna region (northern italy). the susceptibility to the insecticide abamectin was evaluated at different times of the year on c. pyri populations undergoing different control strategies within conventional, integrated, and organic farms. the tests performed were the egg spray and the topic and dip bioassay on adults. the larval mortality was evaluated by dip bioassay on t ...201020568628
preliminary resistance screening on abamectin in pear psylla (hemiptera: psyllidae) in northern italy.in northern italy (emilia-romagna region), integrated pest management has been used for several years against pear psylla, cacopsylla pyri l. (hemiptera: psyllidae), a relevant pest of pear (pyrus spp.) trees. after the outlawing of amitraz in 2005, the most common active ingredient involved is abamectin, a mixture of avermectin b1a and avermectin b1b. after the development of c. pyri resistance to azinphos methyl in southern france, we evaluated, by topical application, the different sensitivit ...200717972642
[a prospective research on the hedgerow's 'source' function].in pear tree, forficula auricularia and forficula pubescens are considered as active predators of the pest cacopsylla pyri, since that their dispersal characteristics are of crucial importance for biological control. we studied their movement using capture-mark-release-recapture techniques. the aim of this study was to underline a hedge effect as source of beneficials spreading through the orchard. our results show that movements are mainly linked to the c. pyri fluctuations with a food speciali ...200717720583
multiple sources of isotopic variation in a terrestrial arthropod community: challenges for disentangling food webs.documenting trophic links in a food web has traditionally required complex exclusion experiments coupled with extraordinarily labor-intensive direct observations of predator foraging. newer techniques such as stable isotope analysis (sia) may facilitate relatively quick and accurate assessments of consumer feeding behavior. ratios of n and c isotopes are thought to be useful for determining species' trophic position (e.g., 1 degrees consumer, 2 degrees consumer, or omnivore) and their original c ...200717716468
action of particle films on the biology and behavior of pear psylla (homoptera: psyllidae).particle films with different properties have been developed for arthropod pest control. two basic film types are hydrophobic and hydrophilic films. the hydrophilic film formulations differ in the amount and kind of spreader-sticker that is incorporated into the kaolin particles. the effects of particle film type (hydrophobic versus hydrophilic) and formulation (surround versus surround wp) on the biology and behavior of pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola (foerster), were investigated on pear in a ...200516539135
natural variation in baseline data: when do we call a new sample 'resistant'?mortality of pear psylla to amitraz was studied by means of bioassays. variation between samples, temporal variation within the season in one orchard and spatial variation between swiss regions were considered. variation between samples was large enough to produce different probit functions and lc50 values. temporal and spatial variations were too small to indicate resistance. prediction intervals of the pooled functions using bootstrapping were calculated to determine if future samples come fro ...200212233188
the selectivity in the time of thiacloprid (calypso 480 sc) applied at preblossom on the further anthocoris nemoralis population build up in pears.predatory bugs (anthocoris sp.) are key predators of the pear sucker (psyllo pyri) in pear orchards. in order to enhance biological control it is important to verify if crop protection products applied against psylla pyri display potential short- or long-term detrimental effects on anthocoris populations. this study focuses on the impact of thiacloprid (calypso 480 sc), applied at preblossom for the control of the first generation pear sucker psylla pyri, on subsequent population build up of ant ...200920218534
integrated management of phytoplasma diseases in pome fruit: an overview of efficacy results of ipm insecticides against pear psylla (cacopsylla pyri).phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic mollicutes that cause devastating diseases in various crops worldwide. the closely related pome fruit tree phytoplasmas candidatus phytoplasma mali and candidatus phytoplasma pyri are the causal agents of apple proliferation and pear decline, respectively. they can be transmitted from tree to tree by psyllidae. as pear suckers (cacopsylla pyri) are widely considered to be the most important pest in pear orchards, a good control of this insect vector is a key ele ...201021539243
structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. the objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arth ...200312852599
pear transformed with a lytic peptide gene for disease control affects nontarget organism, pear psylla (homoptera: psyllidae).the biology and behavior of pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola foerster, on a transgenic clone of 'bartlett' pear, pyrus communis l., containing a synthetic antimicrobial gene, d5c1, was compared with that of a nontransgenic parental clone to determine whether there were any nontarget effects. the gene construct also contained the marker gene nptii (aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase ii) that encodes for antibiotic resistance to identify transformed plants. the purpose of the original transforma ...200212216823
detecting cacopsylla pyricola (hemiptera: psyllidae) in predator guts using coi mitochondrial markers.cacopsylla pyricola (förster) is one of the most important pests of pear in north america, where several native predators have been considered for integrated pest management (ipm) programmes. two molecular markers of 271 and 188 bp were developed from c. pyricola cytochrome oxidase i (coi) fragments, in order to study the detection of this species in the gut of arthropod predators. primer sensitivity and the detection period for pear psylla remains in the guts of anthocoris tomentosus pericart w ...200312762859
field studies to determine the effects of spinosad on the predatory bugs anthocoris nemoralis and a. nemorum.the predatory bugs anthocoris nemoralis and a. nemorum are important predators of the pear psylla (psylla pyri) in pear orchards. to effectively control psylla infestations the use of insecticide treatments are often necessary so it is desirable to adopt products and use patterns which protect or conserve natural predator populations. spinosad (the active ingredient in tracer* insecticide) is highly active on psylla when applied up to two times after flowering. to investigate the effects of spin ...200617385510
polyphenolic profile of pear leaves with different resistance to pear psylla (cacopsylla pyri).the european pear psylla, cacopsylla pyri l. (hemiptera: psyllidae), is one of the most serious arthropod pests of pear. since proper control of this pest is essential, better understanding of the complex plant-pest relationship is mandatory. this research deals with constitutive polyphenolic profiles in leaves of 22 pear cultivars of diverse origin (p. communis, p. pyrifolia, and p. pyrifolia × p. communis) and different resistance to psylla. the study was designed to show which differences in ...201526278376
mycoplasma-like bodies in the pear psylla vector of pear decline. 19715543285
bacterial endosymbionts of the psyllid cacopsylla pyricola (hemiptera: psyllidae) in the pacific northwestern united states.insects often have facultative associations with bacterial endosymbionts, which can alter the insects' susceptibility to parasitism, pathogens, plant defenses, and certain classes of insecticides. we collected pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola (förster) (hemiptera: psyllidae), from pear orchards in washington and oregon, and surveyed them for the presence of bacterial endosymbionts. adult psyllids were collected on multiple dates to allow us to assay specimens of both the summer ("summerform") an ...201728334388
relative abundance of carsonella ruddii (gamma proteobacterium) in females and males of cacopsylla pyricola (hemiptera: psyllidae) and bactericera cockerelli (hemiptera: triozidae).carsonella ruddii (gamma proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect's diet. accurate estimations of carsonella populations are important to studies of carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola (förster) (hemiptera: psyllidae) and potato psyllid, bactericera cockerelli (šulc) (hemiptera: triozidae). we ...201526056318
field evaluation of a botanical natural product against the pear psylla (homoptera: psyllidae).a 2-yr field study was conducted to evaluate a botanical natural product, aksebio2, for control of pear psylla, cacopsylla pyri l. (homoptera: psyllidae). three applications were made each year. whereas the first application was applied at the dormant period (just before the first eggs were deposited by overwintered females), the second and third applications, respectively, were against the first and second summer generations of pear psylla. the first application deterred winterform females from ...200717370811
field evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium brunneum strain f52, against pear psylla, cacopsylla pyri.the pear psylla, cacopsylla pyri l. (hemiptera: psyllidae), is one of the most serious insect pests of pears in turkey. in recent years, psyllid management has become increasingly difficult because of the development of insecticide resistance and the withdrawal of registered chemicals from the market. in this study, the field efficacy of an emulsifiable concentrate formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium brunneum petch strain f52 (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae), containing 5.5 × 1 ...201423840009
'candidatus liberibacter europaeus' sp. nov. that is associated with and transmitted by the psyllid cacopsylla pyri apparently behaves as an endophyte rather than a pathogen.'candidatus liberibacter spp.' cause serious plant diseases. 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus', 'ca. l. americanus' and 'ca. l. africanus' are the aetiological agents of citrus greening (huanglongbing) in asia, america and africa. 'candidatus liberibacter solanacearum' causes diseases in solanaceae in america and new zealand. all four species are vectored by psyllid insects of different genera. here, we show that the pear psyllid pest cacopsylla pyri (l.) hosts a novel liberibacter species tha ...201021040355
insecticidal potential of clove essential oil and its constituents on cacopsylla chinensis (hemiptera: psyllidae) in laboratory and field.cacopsylla chinensis (yang and li) (hemiptera: psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in china. as an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. in this study, the essential oil of clove buds (syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the majo ...026470216
testing spirotetramat as an alternative solution to abamectin for cacopsylla pyri (hemiptera: psyllidae) control: laboratory and field tests.aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of cacopsylla pyri l. (hemiptera: psyllidae) in the context of an ipm program in european pear, pyrus communis l.. laboratory bioassays for the estimation of lc50 and lc90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in emilia-romagna (italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, ...201526470374
grafting on resistant interstocks reduces scion susceptibility to pear psylla, cacopsylla bidens.pear psylla is a major obstacle to efficient integrated pest management in pear orchards in israel and around the world. we used two accessions with natural resistance to pear psylla cacopsylla bidens (šulc) - py.760-261 (760) and py.701-202 (701), both apparently of pyrus communis l. origin - as interstock grafts to confer psylla resistance to the commercially important 'spadona estiva' (pyrus communis) scion (spadona) cultivar. the interaction of the interstocks with quince (cydonia oblong mil ...201728967187
stylet penetration of cacopsylla pyri; an electrical penetration graph (epg) study.detailed information on plant penetration activities by pear psylla cacopsylla pyri l. (hemiptera psyllidae) is essential to study phytoplasma transmission of "candidatus phytoplasma pyri" responsible of pear decline disease (pd) and to trace and evaluate resistant traits in new pear tree selections for advanced breeding programs. the electrical penetration graph technique or (full) epg may relevantly contribute to this knowledge. c. pyri epg waveforms were characterized on basis of amplitude, f ...201121802423
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