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the interpretation of the mass spectrum of an ornithine-containing lipid from thiobacillus thiooxidans.the electron impact mass spectrum of a previously identified ornithine-containing lipid from thiobacillus thiooxidans has been interpreted using exact mass measurements, low and high energy ionization, and defocused metastable studies. the spectrum, which did not contain a molecular ion for the intact lipid, was consistent with cyclization of the ornithine zwitterionic moiety with elimination of water to give 3[3'-(11,12-methylene-2-hydroxyoctadecanoxy)hexadecanylamine]-2-piperidone. production ...1978342005
[morphogenetic features of sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans].the morphogenesis of sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans bkm b-1269 was studied by electron microscopy at the vegetative stage of growth on a medium with pyrite as the source of energy. young growing cultures of this organism were found to be very polymorphous: along with rod-like cells of various dimensions (0.6--0.8x1.0--3.0 mcm) which were predominant, coccoid, pyriform, clavate and dumbbell-like cells were also encountered. certain cells have a tendency for branching. the cells can divide by ...1979388160
rotational mobility of membrane-bound cytochrome o of escherichia coli and cytochrome a1 of thiobacillus ferro-oxidans [proceedings]. 1979389702
[microbial desulfuration of coal. i. isolation and identification of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria]. 1979400534
pyruvate inhibition of the carbon dioxide fixation of the strict chemolithotroph thiobacillus thiooxidans.a flow-through dialysis system used to decrease the concentrations of toxic organic materials excreted by thiobacillus thiooxidans permitted an improved efficiency of carbon dioxide fixation when compared with cells taken from the usual shaken culture. the additions of various concentrations of pyruvic acid and succinic acid inhibited growth significantly. pyruvate at a concentration of 5 x 10(-3) m completely inhibited the respiration of resting cells oxidizing sulfur. the toxicity of pyruvic a ...1975766931
[function of surface membrane structures in thiobacillus thiooxidans].the function of the surface membrane structures was studied with cytochemical techniques on ultrathin sections of thiobacillus thiooxidans. the transport of elementary sulphur inside the cell involves the surface membrane structures, while oxidation of the sulphur to sulphuric acid takes place on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. the surface membrane structures are supposed also to participate in the primary dissolution of elementary sulphur at the site of contact of the cells with ...1975775257
bacterial leaching of waste uranium materials.the effect of ferrobacteria and thiobacteria on the leaching of waste uranium materials from which 70-80% of uranium was previously leached by classical chemical hydrometallurgical procedure has been investigated. the bacteria used are found in the ore and the mine water of zletovska river locality, yugoslavia. parameters of biological leaching were examined in the laboratory. leaching conditions were changed with the aim of increasing the amount of uranium leached. the effect of pyrite added to ...1976788361
ferric iron reduction by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria.acidophilic bacteria of the genera thiobacillus and sulfolobus are able to reduce ferric iron when growing on elemental sulfur as an energy source. it has been previously thought that ferric iron serves as a nonbiological oxidant in the formation of acid mine drainage and in the leaching of ores, but these results suggest that bacterial catalysis may play a significant role in the reactivity of ferric iron.1976825043
complementation of escherichia coli sigma 54 (ntra)-dependent formate hydrogenlyase activity by a cloned thiobacillus ferrooxidans ntra gene.the ntra gene of thiobacillus ferrooxidans was cloned by complementation of an escherichia coli ntra mutant that was unable to produce gas via the sigma 54 (ntra)-dependent formate hydrogenlyase pathway. analysis of the dna sequence showed that the t. ferrooxidans ntra gene coded for a protein of 475 amino acids (calculated mr, 52,972). the t. ferrooxidans ntra protein had 49, 44, 33, and 18% amino acid similarity with the ntra proteins of klebsiella pneumoniae, azotobacter vinelandii, rhizobium ...19902198257
nucleotide sequence of the thiobacillus ferrooxidans chromosomal gene encoding mercuric reductase.the nucleotide sequence of the thiobacillus ferrooxidans chromosomal mercuric-reductase-encoding gene (mera) has been determined. the mera gene contains 1635 bp, and shares 78.2% and 76.6% sequence homology with the transposon, tn501, and plasmid r100 mera genes, respectively. from the sequence, a 545-amino acid (aa) polypeptide was deduced, and comparison with those of tn501 and r100 revealed 80.6% and 80.0% homology, respectively, at the aa sequence level. divergence among the three mera aa se ...19892691338
[carbon dioxide fixation on 3-carbon acceptors in the obligate chemoautotroph thiobacillus thiooxidans]. 19744156074
[inhibition of ribulosediphosphate carboxylase by adenosine triphosphate in autotrophic organisms]. 19734198598
[submicroscopic structure of the bacterial cell wall (review of the literature)]. 19734206610
[ribosephosphate isomerase, phosphoribulokinase and ribulosediphosphate carboxylase in extracts of thiobacillus thiooxidans 58 r cells]. 19734360786
[geomicrobiological studies. xii. behavior of microorganisms on uranium containing rocks]. 19744365496
degradation of oil shale by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.approximately 40% of oil shale can be solubilized by the action of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. thiobacillus thiooxidans and thiobacillus concretivorous are equally effective in solubilization. continuous leaching experiments show that this process can be completed within 14 days. the growth of thiobacillus and the production of acid were measured under several conditions. almost all of the camg(co(3))(2) was removed by this process, leaving a complex of silica and kerogen that could be burned as ...19744370628
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of thiobacillus thiooxidans. kinetic and metabolic control properties. 19724552310
the structure of an ornithine-containing lipid from thiobacillus thiooxidans. 19724552922
characterization of thiobacillus species by gas-liquid chromatography of cellular fatty acids. 19734571173
[oxidation of elementary sulfur by thiobacillus thiooxidans]. 19734597880
[effect of atmospheric oxygen partial pressure and of the acidity of the medium on the viability of thionic bacteria]. 19734598493
[oxidation of sulfide minerals by thiobacillus thiooxidans]. 19744601474
a sulfate-dependent acid phosphatase of thiobacillus thiooxidans. its partial purification and some properties. 19744609973
scanning electron microscopy of thiobacilli grown on colloïdal sulfur. 19744611376
relationship between growth and metabolic activity in the strict chemolithotroph, thiobacillus thiooxidans. 19744613448
[microbiologic studies of copper pyrite deposits in south ural]. 19744615253
[participation of carbonic anhydrase in the assimilation of carbon dioxide during chemical synthesis by thiobacillus thiooxidans 58r]. 19724623370
fatty acids of thiobacillus thiooxidans.fatty acid spectra were made on thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. the addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. the predominant fatty acid was a c(19) cyclopropane acid.19714945206
[the biological properties of bacteria oxidizing rhodanic salts with reference to their use for the purification of industrial wastes]. 19714949234
cultural and phylogenetic analysis of mixed microbial populations found in natural and commercial bioleaching environments.a range of autotrophic and heterotrophic enrichment cultures were established to determine the cultural bacterial diversity present in samples obtained from the acidic runoff of a chalcocite overburden heap and from laboratory-scale (1- to 4-liter) batch and continuous bioreactors which were being used for the commercial assessment of the bioleachability of zinc sulfide ore concentrates. strains identified as thiobacillus ferrooxidans, thiobacillus thiooxidans, "leptospirillum ferrooxidans," and ...19947517131
purification and properties of high-potential iron-sulfur proteins. 19947830619
the acidophilic thiobacilli and other acidophilic bacteria that share their habitat. 19846388492
expression of a thiobacillus ferrooxidans origin of replication in escherichia coli.a cryptic plasmid from an autotrophically grown arsenic-resistant strain of thiobacillus ferrooxidans was isolated and cloned into pbr325. the origin of replication of pbr325 was deleted, and the recombinant plasmid was shown to replicate in escherichia coli, using an origin of replication located on the thiobacillus plasmid.19846373729
heterotrophic nature of the cell-free protein-synthesizing system from the strict chemolithotroph, thiobacillus thiooxidans.a cell-free protein-synthesizing system prepared from the strict chemolithotroph, thiobacillus thiooxidans, was similar to that of heterotrophs. the poly-u directed system had a temperature optimum of 37 c, but in the presence of spermidine (3 mm) the optimum shifted to 45 c. although growth of the chemolithotroph occurs only in acid conditions, the ph optimum for the cell-free system was ph 7.2. the endogenous-directed activity in the presence or absence of spermidine was maximal at ph 7.8. spe ...19744590488
[role of microorganisms in the destruction of spodumene].a broad spectrum of microorganisms has been shown to be involved in the destruction of spodumene, a typical mineral of lithium pegmatites. the following microorganisms are most active: the microscopic fungi penicillium notatum and aspergillus niger, the thiobacilli thiobacillus thiooxidans, and the so-called "silicate" slime forming bacterium bacillus micilaginosus n. sp. siliceus. spodumene destruction is accompanied with lithium, aluminium and silicon being transferred into solution. the activ ...19806995818
preservation of thiobacillus ferrooxidans and thiobacillus thiooxidans with activity check.cultures of thiobacillus ferrooxidans and thiobacillus thiooxidans, used in biohydrometallurgical processes of economic importance, are very difficult to preserve by conventional methods. hence, to preserve the cultures with their activity intact, various techniques were tried, after determining their respective activity in terms of iron oxidation rate (ior) and sulfur oxidation rate (sor). among the methods tested, along with the recommended method of serial transfer in a liquid medium, were me ...19863524447
reduction of mo6+ with elemental sulfur by thiobacillus ferrooxidans.in the presence of phosphate ions, molybdic ions (mo6+) were reduced enzymatically with elemental sulfur by washed intact cells of thiobacillus ferrooxidans to give molybdenum blue. the whole-cell activity that reduced mo6+ was totally due to cellular sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase (sforase) (t. sugio, w. mizunashi, k. inagaki, and t. tano, j. bacteriol. 169:4916-4922, 1987). the activity of m06+ reduction with elemental sulfur was competitively inhibited by fe3+, cu2+, and co2+. the michaelis ...19883056928
a tn7-like transposon is present in the glmus region of the obligately chemoautolithotrophic bacterium thiobacillus ferrooxidans.the region downstream of the thiobacillus ferrooxidans atcc 33020 atp operon was examined, and the genes encoding n-acetylglucosamine-1-uridyltransferase (glmu) and glucosamine synthetase (glms) were found. this atpefhagdc-glmus gene order is identical to that of escherichia coli. the t. ferrooxidans glms gene was shown to complement e. coli glms mutants for growth on minimal medium lacking glucosamine. a tn7-like transposon, tn5468, was found inserted into the region immediately downstream of t ...19989603897
[dissolution of alloy components from ni/cr base alloys by bacterial leaching].the method of bacterial leaching of non precious dental alloys represents a useful completion of the method arsenal of biological investigations. in contrast to other well known methods it allows to point out small differences in corrosion resistance between alloys of the same type in a biologic system.19902269176
[cloning and expression of a promoter function fragment from thiobacillus thiooxidans in escherichia coli].this paper reports a recombinant plasmid psdr12 which is constructed through the substitution of the ecori-hindiii fragment of pbr322 by a specific fragment of chromosomal dna of t. thiooxidans. after it was transformed into c600, the transformants revealed higher levels of tc resistance. this result shows that a promoter function fragment from autotrophic bacteria is able to express in escherichia coil.19902242277
characterization of arsenopyrite oxidizing thiobacillus. tolerance to arsenite, arsenate, ferrous and ferric iron.two strains of thiobacillus, t. ferrooxidans and t. thiooxidans, have been isolated from a bacterial inoculum cultivated during a one-year period in a 1001 continuous laboratory pilot for treatment of an arsenopyrite/pyrite concentrate. the optimum ph for the growth of both strains has been found to be between 1.7 and 2.5. because of the high metal toxicity in bioleach pulps, the tolerance of t. ferrooxidans and t. thiooxidans with respect to iron and arsenic has been studied. the growth of both ...19902191624
the merr regulatory gene in thiobacillus ferrooxidans is spaced apart from the mer structural genes.two distinct merr genes, which regulate expression of the mercuric ion resistance gene (mer), of thiobacillus ferrooxidans strain e-15 have been cloned, sequenced and termed merr1 and merr2. as a result of gene walking around two merr genes, it was found that these two genes were quite close in distance. the nucleotide sequence of the region (5,001 base pairs; psti-ecori fragment) containing the merr genes was determined. between the two merr genes, there were five potential open reading frames ...19911779760
roles of the tn21 mert, merp, and merc gene products in mercury resistance and mercury binding.the mercury resistance (mer) operon of the gram-negative transposon tn21 encodes not only a mercuric reductase and regulatory genes but also two inner membrane proteins (mert and merc) and a periplasmic protein (merp). although the mert, merp, and merc genes have been implicated in hg(ii) transport, the individual roles of these genes have not been established. we created in vitro precise deletion and frameshift mutations that eliminated each of the genes singly and in combination. our results s ...19921328156
identification of thiobacilli by replica plating on thallous sulfide paper.colonies of thiobacillus thioparus and t. thiooxidans grown on thiosulfate medium can be identified by replica plating on thallous sulfide paper.1976791118
[degradation of sulfur compounds by pure cultures of thiobacillus]. 1976785827
the chromosomal arsenic resistance genes of thiobacillus ferrooxidans have an unusual arrangement and confer increased arsenic and antimony resistance to escherichia coli.the chromosomal arsenic resistance genes of the acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, biomining bacterium thiobacillus ferrooxidans were cloned and sequenced. homologues of four arsenic resistance genes, arsb, arsc, arsh, and a putative arsr gene, were identified. the t. ferrooxidans arsb (arsenite export) and arsc (arsenate reductase) gene products were functional when they were cloned in an escherichia coli ars deletion mutant and conferred increased resistance to arsenite, arsenate, and antimon ...200010788346
molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of omp-40, the gene coding for the major outer membrane protein from the acidophilic bacterium thiobacillus ferrooxidans.thiobacillus ferrooxidans is one of the chemolithoautotrophic bacteria important in industrial biomining operations. some of the surface components of this microorganism are probably involved in adaptation to their acidic environment and in bacterium-mineral interactions. we have isolated and characterized omp40, the gene coding for the major outer membrane protein from t. ferrooxidans. the deduced amino acid sequence of the omp40 protein has 382 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of ...200010831405
[geochemical activity of thionic bacteria]. 1977409914
[effect of clays on the behavior of acidophilic thiobacillus strains in suspensions]. 1979397686
[physiological properties of the thionic bacteria isolated from paleogene deposits]. 1979375037
physical and chemical studies of thiobacillus ferroxidans lipopolysaccharides.the lipopolysaccharides (lps) of the obligate acidophile thiobacillus ferroxidans grown on iron, sulfur, and glucose as energy sources were examined for various physical and chemical properties. both qualitative and quantitative variation were found among the three preparations. the lps extracted from iron-grown cells (fe-lps) contained less than 3% protein compared to 18 to 25% in lps extracted from either sulfur-grown cells (s-lps) or glucose-grown cells (g-lps). s-lps showed two distinct sedi ...1975238956
purification and some properties of cytochrome c-552 from a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, thiobacillus thiooxidans.a soluble cytochrome c-552 from thiobacillus thiooxidans was highly purified and its physico-chemical properteis were studied. the absorption maxima were at 552,523,418 nm in the reduced from and at 412 nm in the oxidized form. the pyridine hemochrome spectrum was the same as that of other cytochromes c. the molecular weight, estimated by the gel filtration method, was found to be 12,600. the isoelectric point was determined to be 9.2-9.3 by the electrofocusing technique. the standard oxidation- ...1975172491
acidostability of speroplasts prepared from thiobacillus thiooxidans.thiobacillus thiooxidans was acidostable even in the absence of its respiratory substrate, elementary sulfur. this suggests that the acidostability of the bacterium was enery-independent. the organism was subjected to osmotic shock with 0.75 m sucrose at 0 degrees c and then treated with snail intestinal juice in the presence of 0.3 m sucrose. the decrease in the optical density of the sample thus prepared on dilution with deionized water and electron microscopic observation of the sample showed ...197715528
purificantion and characterization of inorganic pyrophosphatase from thiobacillus thiooxidans.an inorganic pyrophosphatase ec 3.6.1.1 was isolated from thiobacillus thiooxidans and purified 975-fold to a state of apparent homogeneity. the enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate and no activity was found with a variety of other phosphate esters. the cation mg2+ was required for maximum activity; co2+ and mn2+ supported 25 per cent and 10.6 per cent of the activity with mg2+, respectively. the ph optimum was 8.8. the molecular weight was estimated to be 88,000 by gel fil ...197714950
rate of elemental sulfur oxidation in some soils of egypt as affected by the salinity level, moisture, texture, temperature and inoculation.1. the level of soil moisture most favourable to the oxidation of elemental sulfur was found to be around the field moisture capacity; the oxidation rate decreased at lower and higher moisture levels. 2. the rate of oxidation increased with the clay content of the soils from sandy loam to clay loam. 3. although s-oxidation could be found already at 10 degrees c, it increased markedly up to a maximum at 35 degrees c and then decreased again at higher temperatures. 4. increasing the salt content o ...197611771
isolation of a new broad-host-range incq-like plasmid, ptc-f14, from the acidophilic bacterium acidithiobacillus caldus and analysis of the plasmid replicon.a moderately thermophilic (45 to 50 degrees c), highly acidophilic (ph 1.5 to 2.5), chemolithotrophic acidithiobacillus caldus strain, f, was isolated from a biooxidation process used to treat nickel ore. trans-alternating field electrophoresis analysis of total dna from the a. caldus cells revealed two plasmids of approximately 14 and 45 kb. the 14-kb plasmid, designated ptc-f14, was cloned and shown by replacement of the cloning vector with a kanamycin resistance gene to be capable of autonomo ...200111344137
thiobacillus ferrooxidans tyrosyl-trna synthetase functions in vivo in escherichia coli.the tyrosyl-trna synthetase gene (tyrz) from thiobacillus ferrooxidans, an acidophilic, autotrophic, gram-negative bacterium that participates in bioleaching of minerals, was cloned and sequenced. the encoded polypeptide (tyrrz) is 407 amino acids in length (molecular mass; 38 kda). the predicted protein sequence has an extensive overall identity (44%) to the sequence of the protein encoded by the bacillus subtilus tyrz gene, one of the two genes encoding tyrosyl-trna synthetases in this microor ...19947517395
respiratory enzymes of thiobacillus ferrooxidans. kinetic properties of an acid-stable iron:rusticyanin oxidoreductase.rusticyanin is an acid-stable, soluble blue copper protein found in abundance in the periplasmic space of thiobacillus ferrooxidans, an acidophilic bacterium capable of growing autotrophically on soluble ferrous sulfate. an acid-stable iron:rusticyanin oxidoreductase activity was partially purified from cell-free extracts of t. ferrooxidans. the enzyme-catalyzed, iron-dependent reduction of the rusticyanin exhibited three kinetic properties characteristic of aerobic iron oxidation by whole cells ...19948049223
the eps of acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans--a model for structure-function relationships of attached bacteria and their physiology.to dissolve pyrite or sulphur, leaching bacteria like acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans attach to these substrata by extracellular polymeric substances (specifically, lipopolysaccharides). the primary attachment to pyrite at ph 2 is mediated by exopolymer-complexed iron(iii) ions in an electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged pyrite surface. cells grown on sulphur exhibit a different composition of the extracellular lipopolysaccharides, namely with increased hydrophobic properties, and ...200111381962
effect of ph on sulfite oxidation by thiobacillus thiooxidans cells with sulfurous acid or sulfur dioxide as a possible substrate.the oxidation of sulfite by thiobacillus thiooxidans was studied at various ph values with changing concentrations of potassium sulfite. the optimal ph for sulfite oxidation by cells was a function of sulfite concentrations, rising with increasing substrate concentrations, while that by the cell extracts was unaffected. the sulfite oxidation by cells was inhibited at high sulfite concentrations, particularly at low ph values. the results from kinetic studies show that the fully protonated form o ...19948300544
isafe1, an isl3 family insertion sequence from acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans atcc 19859.a 1.3-kb insertion sequence, termed isafe1 (u66426), from acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans atcc 19859 is described. isafe1 exhibits the features of a typical bacterial insertion sequence. it has 26-bp, imperfectly matched, terminal inverted repeats and an open reading frame (orf) that potentially encodes a transposase (tpase) of 404 amino acids (aab07489) with significant similarity to members of the isl3 family of insertion sequences. a potential ribosome-binding site and potential -10 and -35 pr ...200111418574
mercuric ion uptake by escherichia coli cells producing thiobacillus ferrooxidans merc.the merc gene of thiobacillus ferrooxidans was overexpressed in escherichia coli under the control of the tac promoter. merc protein synthesized in e. coli has a n-terminal amino acid sequence of s-a-i-x-r-i-i-d-k-i-g-i-v-g-, which agrees with the amino acid sequence deduced from its nucleotide sequence except that an initiating methionine residue was removed. the merc protein was localized in the particulate (membrane) cell fraction, and not in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. e. coli cells ca ...19968987545
sol-gel applications in environmental biotechnology.sol gel process was applied for three different applications in environmental biotechnology: (1) thin, fluorescein diacetate-doped sol-gel film made possible epifluorescent microscopic examination of adsorbed escherichia coli cn13 cells without additional staining: (2) thiobacillus thiooxidans cell-free extract entrapped into sol-gel matrix displayed oxidative activity on h2s in liquid medium; and (3) two media (e. coli (ec) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (srb)) were doped into sol-gel and used t ...19968988652
genomic organization of the acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium thiobacillus ferrooxidans atcc 21834.the genomic organization of the acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium thiobacillus ferrooxidans atcc 21834 has been studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). analysis of its intact dna, as well as the restriction patterns obtained with several endonucleases, allowed the characterization of one circular chromosome of 2.9 mb and one plasmid of 8.6 kb. the first complete and highly resolved physical map (86 restriction sites) of the chromosome of an acidophilic obligate chemolithoau ...19979068640
localization of quantitation of the ornithine lipid of thiobacillus thiooxidans.the ornithine lipid of thiobacillus thiooxidans was found to be 1.9% of the total polar lipids. approximately 80% of this lipid was found to be localized in the outer membrane.19827035440
a geographically widespread plasmid from thiobacillus ferrooxidans has genes for ferredoxin-, fnr-, prismane- and nadh-oxidoreductase-like proteins which are also located on the chromosome.during a search for genes encoding electron transport proteins from a thiobacillus ferroxidans atcc 33020 gene bank, a 19.8 kb plasmid, ptf5, which conferred increased sensitivity to the antimicrobial agent metronidazole upon an escherichia coli mutant, was isolated and cloned in e. coli. the plasmid had an identical restriction enzyme map to a plasmid which has been found in t. ferrooxidans strains isolated from many different parts of the world. the plasmid was present at between two and four ...19979353917
a mercuric ion uptake role for the integral inner membrane protein, merc, involved in bacterial mercuric ion resistance.bacterial detoxification of mercuric ion depends on the presence of one or more integral membrane proteins (mert and/or merc) whose postulated function is in transport of hg2+ from a periplasmic hg2+-binding protein (merp) to cytoplasmic mercuric reductase. in this study, merc from the tn21-encoded mer operon was overexpressed and studied in vesicles and in purified form to clarify the role played by this protein in mercuric ion resistance. merc-containing vesicles were found to take up mercuric ...19979368013
effect of various ions, ph, and osmotic pressure on oxidation of elemental sulfur by thiobacillus thiooxidans.the oxidation of elemental sulfur by thiobacillus thiooxidans was studied at ph 2.3, 4.5, and 7.0 in the presence of different concentrations of various anions (sulfate, phosphate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride) and cations (potassium, sodium, lithium, rubidium, and cesium). the results agree with the expected response of this acidophilic bacterium to charge neutralization of colloids by ions, ph-dependent membrane permeability of ions, and osmotic pressure.199910543839
isolation and phylogenetic characterization of acidophilic microorganisms indigenous to acidic drainage waters at an abandoned norwegian copper mine.the biodiversity of culturable acidophilic microbes in three acidic (ph 2.7-3.7), metal-rich waters at an abandoned subarctic copper mine in central norway was assessed. acidophilic bacteria were isolated by plating on selective solid media, and dominant isolates were identified from their physiological characteristics and 16s rrna gene sequences. the dominant iron-oxidizing acidophile in all three waters was an acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans-like eubacterium, which shared 98% 16s rdna identity ...200111722543
the high-molecular-weight cytochrome c cyc2 of acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an outer membrane protein.a high-molecular-weight c-type cytochrome, cyc2, and a putative 22-kda c-type cytochrome were detected in the membrane fraction released during spheroplast formation from acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. this fraction was enriched in outer membrane components and devoid of cytoplasmic membrane markers. the genetics, as well as the subcellular localization of cyc2 at the outer membrane level, therefore make it a prime candidate for the initial electron acceptor in the respiratory pathway between f ...200211741873
reclassification of some species of thiobacillus to the newly designated genera acidithiobacillus gen. nov., halothiobacillus gen. nov. and thermithiobacillus gen. nov.the species of the genus 'thiobacillus' fall into the alpha-, beta- and gamma-subclasses of the proteobacteria, the type species thiobacillus thioparus being located in the beta-subclass. 'thiobacillus' species exhibit almost as much diversity in dna composition and physiology as is found collectively in all other proteobacterial groups. on the basis of physiological characters and 16s rrna gene sequence comparisons, eight of the existing thiobacillus species are proposed for reassignment to thr ...200010758854
merf is a mercury transport protein: different structures but a common mechanism for mercuric ion transporters?mercury resistance determinants are widespread in gram-negative bacteria, but vary in the number and identity of genes present. we have shown that the merf gene from plasmid pmer327/419 encodes a 8.7 kda mercury transport protein, by determining in vivo mercury volatilisation when merf is expressed in the presence of mercuric reductase. we have confirmed that merc of tn21 is also a mercuric ion transporter. we have been able to detect interaction of the periplasmic protein merp only with the mer ...200010781809
development and application of small-subunit rrna probes for assessment of selected thiobacillus species and members of the genus acidiphilium.culture-dependent studies have implicated sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as the causative agents of acid mine drainage and concrete corrosion in sewers. thiobacillus species are considered the major representatives of the acid-producing bacteria in these environments. small-subunit rrna genes from all of the thiobacillus and acidiphilium species catalogued by the ribosomal database project were identified and used to design oligonucleotide dna probes. two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized to co ...200010877807
microbiology of acidic, geothermal springs of montserrat: environmental rdna analysis.dna was extracted from water and sediment samples taken from acidic, geothermal pools on the caribbean island of montserrat. 16s rrna genes were amplified by pcr, cloned, sequenced, and examined to indicate some of the organisms that might be significant components of the in situ microbiota. a clone bank representing the lowest temperature pool that was sampled (33 degrees c) was dominated by genes corresponding to two types of acidophiles: acidiphilium-like mesophilic heterotrophs and thermotol ...200011057917
a new look at microbial leaching patterns on sulfide minerals.leaching patterns on sulfide minerals were investigated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (sem). our goal was to evaluate the relative contributions of inorganic surface reactions and reactions localized by attached cells to surface morphology evolution. experiments utilized pyrite (fes(2)), marcasite (fes(2)) and arsenopyrite (feass), and two iron-oxidizing prokaryotes in order to determine the importance of cell type, crystal structure, and mineral dissolution rate in microbially ...200111137599
purification and properties of thiosulfate dehydrogenase from acidithiobacillus thiooxidans jcm7814.a key enzyme of the thiosulfate oxidation pathway in acidithiobacillus thiooxidans jcm7814 was investigated. as a result of assaying the enzymatic activities of thiosulfate dehydrogenase, rhodanese, and thiosulfate reductase at 5.5 of intracellular ph, the activity of thiosulfate dehydrogenase was measured as the key enzyme. the thiosulfate dehydrogenase of a. thiooxidans jcm7814 was purified using three chromatographies. the purified sample was electrophoretically homogeneous. the molecular mas ...200111272812
mechanism of growth inhibition by tungsten in acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.cell growth of three hundred iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from natural environments was inhibited strongly by 0.05 mm, and completely by 0.2 mm of sodium tungstate (na2wo4), respectively. since no great difference in the level of tungsten inhibition was observed among the 300 strains tested, the mechanism of inhibition by na2wo4 was studied with acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain ap19-3. when resting cells of ap19-3 were incubated in 0.1 m beta-alanine-so4(2-) buffer (ph 3.0) with 0.1 mm ...200111330668
a refinement of the biofilm formation method for waste forms stability evaluation.a refinement of the biofilm formation method for waste form stability evaluation was carried out in this study. refinement of the biofilm formation method became necessary because of the reduced contrast in degradation between control and experimental samples. the reduction in contrast was occasioned by the long duration of exposure (12 days) of the control samples to sterile medium of low ph in the first stage. results of evaluation carried out reveal that the duration of the first stage of the ...200111376887
monitoring of bio-oxidation process of ferrous ion by using piezoelectric impedance analysis.a new method of monitoring the bio-oxidation process of ferrous ion in the presence of thiobacillus ferroxidans was proposed by piezoelectric impedance analysis. the time courses of the responses of impedance parameters for a quartz crystal in a culture system were simultaneously obtained and discussed. it was found that the frequency shift response originates mainly from the adsorption of bacterial metabolites on the surface of gold electrode. experiments also examined the effect of culture tem ...200111391468
chromosomally encoded arsenical resistance of the moderately thermophilic acidophile acidithiobacillus caldus.arsenical resistance is important to bioleaching microorganisms because these organisms release arsenic from minerals such as arsenopyrite during bioleaching. the acidophile acidithiobacillus caldus ku was found to be resistant to the arsenical ions arsenate, arsenite, and antimony via an inducible, chromosomally encoded resistance mechanism. because no apparent alteration of the toxic ions was observed, acidithiobacillus (at.) caldus was tested to determine if it was resistant as a result of de ...200111523894
identification of a novel heterodimeric outer membrane protein of porphyromonas gingivalis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting.porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium associated with chronic periodontitis. a 2d electrophoretic analysis of the outer membrane of p. gingivalis w50 revealed a dominant train of spots at 40-41 kda. the proteins in the train of spots were digested in-gel with trypsin and identified by ms. the train of spots represented two proteins, designated omp40 and omp41 that share 47% sequence identity. preparation of outer membranes in the absence of protease inhibitors resulted ...200111532011
evolution of sucrose synthesis.cyanobacteria and proteobacteria (purple bacteria) are the only prokaryotes known to synthesize sucrose (suc). suc-p synthase, suc-phosphatase (spp), and suc synthase activities have previously been detected in several cyanobacteria, and genes coding for suc-p synthase (sps) and suc synthase (sus) have been cloned from synechocystis sp. pcc 6803 and anabaena (nostoc) spp., respectively. an open reading frame in the synechocystis genome encodes a predicted 27-kd polypeptide that shows homology to ...200211950997
effect of supplementary aeration on the growth of thiobacillus thiooxidans in shaken cultures. 19734572380
stability evaluation of a cement based waste form to microbially induced degradation.in this study the current nuclear regulatory commission (nrc) protocol is used to evaluate the stability of tuskegee cement/cobalt chloride waste form in the presence of thiobacillus thiooxidans (t. thiooxidans). a critical examination of this protocol and identified limitations are reported also. tuskegee cement/cobalt chloride waste forms were shown to exhibit considerable instability to microbial degradation as indicated by significant physical deterioration, and increased leaching of calcium ...200111720262
surface chemical studies of thiobacillus ferrooxidans with reference to copper tolerance.a strain of thiobacillus ferrooxidans was adapted to grow at higher concentrations of copper by single step culturing in the presence of 20 g/l (0.314 mol/l) cupric ions added to 9k medium. exposure to copper results in change in the surface chemistry of the microorganism. the isoelectric point of the adapted strain (pi = 4.7) was observed to be at a higher ph than that of the wild unadapted strain (pi = 2.0). compared to the wild strain, the copper adapted strain was found to be more hydrophobi ...19989801765
metal resistance and plasmid dna in thiobacillus ferrooxidans.the minimal inhibitory concentrations of copper and nickel were determined for each of fifteen isolates of t. ferrooxidans native to a cu/ni tailings environment. ten isolates were inhibited by 160 mm cu2+ or less, and ten were inhibited by 160 mm ni2+ or less. the isolates were screened for plasmid dna using an alkaline lysis method and ccc plasmid forms were confirmed using the hintermann technique. two isolates were found to be devoid of plasmid dna, and only one isolate contained more than t ...19989801769
ecology of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hot acid soils.hot acid soils in yellowstone national park are rich in elemental sulfur and harbor extensive populations of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. thiobacillus thiooxidans is found at temperatures below 55 c, and at temperatures from 55 to 85 c sulfolobus acidocaldarius is present. the distribution of these bacteria as a function of temperature was measured by a most-probable-number dilution method, and their activity in situ was assessed by use of a new technique permitting measurement of (14)co(2) fixati ...19724559726
roles of the four cysteine residues in the function of the integral inner membrane hg2+-binding protein, merc.the roles of the four cysteine residues of the integral inner membrane hg2+-binding protein, merc, have been examined using site-directed mutagenesis. residues cys-22 and cys-25 have previously been predicted to lie within the membrane. substitution of each of these residues in turn with alanine resulted in complete abolition of specific hg2+ uptake by vesicles. in contrast, substitution by alanine of the other two cysteine residues, cys-127 and cys-132, predicted to lie with within a c-terminal ...199910049704
molecular characterization of acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and a. thiooxidans strains isolated from mine wastes in brazil.nineteen strains of acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, including 12 strains isolated from coal, copper, gold and uranium mines in brazil, strains isolated from similar sources in other countries and the type strains of the two species were characterized together with the type strain of a. caldus by using a combination of molecular systematic methods, namely ribotyping, box- and eric-pcr and dna-dna hybridization assays. data derived from the molecular fingerprintin ...200111761368
analysis of the microbial communities on corroded concrete sewer pipes--a case study.conventional as well as molecular techniques have been used to determine the microbial communities present on the concrete walls of sewer pipes. the genetic fingerprint of the microbiota on corroded concrete sewer pipes was obtained by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) of 16s rrna gene fragments. the dgge profiles of the bacterial communities present on the concrete surface changed as observed by shifts occurring at the level of the dominance of bands from non-corroded plac ...200111778893
effect of anions on selective solubilization of zinc and copper in bacterial leaching of sulfide ores.bacterial leaching of sulfide ores using thiobacillus ferrooxidans, thiobacillus thiooxidans, or a combination of the two was studied at various concentrations of specific anions. selective zinc and copper solubilization was obtained by inhibiting iron oxidation without affecting sulfur/sulfide oxidation. phosphate reduced iron solubilization from a pyrite (fes(2))-sphalerite (zns) mixture without significantly affecting zinc solubilization. copper leaching from a chalcopyrite (cufes(2))-sphaler ...200010861398
quantitative speciation of sulfur in bacterial sulfur globules: x-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals at least three different species of sulfur.x-ray absorption near edge structure (xanes) spectroscopy at the sulfur k-edge was applied to probe the speciation of sulfur of metabolically different sulfur-accumulating bacteria in situ. fitting the spectra using a least-square fitting routine xanes reveals at least three different forms of sulfur in bacterial sulfur globules. cyclooctasulfur dominates in the sulfur globules of beggiatoa alba and the very recently described giant bacterium thiomargarita namibiensis. a second type of sulfur gl ...200211782519
characterization of the peti and res operons of acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.dna sequence analysis and bioinformatic interpretations have identified two adjacent clusters of genes potentially involved in the formation of a bc1 complex and in the maturation of a cytochrome c-type protein in two strains (atcc 19859 and atcc 33020) of the acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (formerly thiobacillus ferrooxidans). reverse transcriptase-pcr experiments suggest that the two clusters are organized as operons, and +1 start sites of transcrip ...200211844787
the potential of mining slag as a substrate for microbial growth and the microbiological analysis of slag and slag seepage.the potential of a cu/ni mining slag to act as a substrate for the growth of the bacteria thiobacillus ferrooxidans, thiobacillus thiooxidants, and thiobacillus thioparus was examined. as well, slag and slag seepage samples were screened for the presence of the thiobacillus species. for the 28 samples employed in the environmental recovery studies, t. ferrooxidans was recovered in 25 samples, t. thiooxidans in 19 samples, and t. thioparus in 27 samples. for r. ferrooxidans, the development of a ...19979195014
volatilization of mercury under acidic conditions from mercury-polluted soil by a mercury-resistant acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans sug 2-2.volatilization of mercury under acidic conditions from soil polluted with mercuric chloride (1.5 mg hg/kg soil) was studied with resting cells of a mercury-resistant strain, acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans sug 2-2. when resting cells of sug 2-2 (0.01 mg of protein) were incubated for 10 d at 30 degrees c in 20 ml of 1.6 mm sulfuric acid (ph 2.5) with ferrous sulfate (3%) and mercury-polluted soil (1 g), which contained 7.5 nmol of hg, approximately 4.1 nmol of mercury was volatilized, indicating ...200111676009
differential gene expression in response to copper in acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans analyzed by rna arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction.acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a chemoautotrophic bacterium that plays an important role in metal bioleaching processes. despite the high level of tolerance to heavy metals shown by a. ferrooxidans, the genetic basis of copper resistance in this species remains unknown. we investigated the gene expression in response to copper in a. ferrooxidans lr using rna arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (rap-pcr). one hundred and four differentially expressed genes were identified using eight ...200211870759
mechanism of oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds by thiosulfate-grown thiobacillus thiooxidans.thiobacillus thiooxidans was grown at ph 5 on thiosulfate as an energy source, and the mechanism of oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds was studied by the effect of inhibitors, stoichiometries of oxygen consumption and sulfur, sulfite, or tetrathionate accumulation, and cytochrome reduction by substrates. both intact cells and cell-free extracts were used in the study. the results are consistent with the pathway with sulfur and sulfite as the key intermediates. thiosulfate was oxidized after ...200111358175
application of capillary zone electrophoresis to study the properties of rhodanese from acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.a new capillary zone electrophoretic method was applied to the assay of enzymic activity of rhodanese from acidithiobacillus ferroxidans. the enzyme activity determined by capillary zone electrophoresis was compared with that determined by discontinuous spectrophotometry, the values obtained being in good agreement. the method was also used to evaluate michaelis constants of cyanide and thiocyanate as substrates; a new approach was developed to solve the problem with variable ionic strength of t ...200111899469
anaerobic respiration using fe(3+), s(0), and h(2) in the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has been known as an aerobe that respires on iron and sulfur. here we show that the bacterium could chemolithoautotrophically grow not only on h(2)/o(2) under aerobic conditions but also on h(2)/fe(3+), h(2)/s(0), or s(0)/fe(3+) under anaerobic conditions. anaerobic respiration using fe(3+) or s(0) as an electron acceptor and h(2) or s(0) as an electron donor serves as a primary energy source of the bacterium. anaerobic respirati ...200211914338
a dual-specific glu-trna(gln) and asp-trna(asn) amidotransferase is involved in decoding glutamine and asparagine codons in acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.the gatc, gata and gatb genes encoding the three subunits of glutamyl-trna(gln) amidotransferase from acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, an acidophilic bacterium used in bioleaching of minerals, have been cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. as in bacillus subtilis the three gat genes are organized in an operon-like structure in a. ferrooxidans. the heterologously overexpressed enzyme converts glu-trna(gln) to gln-trna(gln) and asp-trna(asn) to asn-trna(asn). biochemical analysis revealed that ...200111445070
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