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essaouira and kala iris: two new orbiviruses of the kemerovo serogroup, chenuda complex, isolated from ornithodoros (alectorobius) maritimus ticks in morocco.essaouira and kala iris viruses were isolated from ornithodoros (alectorobius) maritimus ticks parasitizing yellow-legged gulls (larus cachinnans) on the coast of morocco in 1979 and 1981, respectively. serological evidence indicates that these two viruses are new members of the chenuda complex within the kemerovo serogroup of the genus orbivirus. ecological, pathological, morphological, and physicochemical properties are compatible with these findings. the infectivity of these viruses for man a ...19938010186
babesia bennetti n. sp. from the yellow-legged gull (larus cachinnans, aves, laridae) on benidorm island, mediterranean sea.babesia bennetti sp. nov. is described as a new species of piroplasm parasitizing the yellow-legged gull larus cachinnans. this is the first report of babesia for this family of birds. double infections in the erythrocytes were common. the udder cow forms described in babesia peircei also were found in this species. the typical "x" forms are rarely seen, with merozoites commonly found in pairs as tetrads.19989576519
comparative skeletal muscle fibre morphometry among wild birds with different locomotor behaviour.six muscles of the mallard duck (anas platyrhynchos), the common coot (fulica atra) and the yellow-legged gull (larus cachinnans) were analysed morphometrically, with special emphasis on their functional implications and physiological needs. oxidative fibres always had significantly smaller size than anaerobic fibres, although no differences in the number of capillaries per fibre were found. this resulted in greater capillary counts per unit of fibre area and perimeter in oxidative than anaerobi ...19989643422
helminth fauna of the yellow-legged gull larus cachinnans in galicia, north-west spain.thirty-six helminth species were found in 324 gulls examined during june 1994 to february 1996 from different localities of galicia: 25 trematodes (brachylaima sp., brachylecithum microtesticulatum, cardiocephaloides longicollis, cryptocotyle lingua, cryptocotyle concavum, diplostomum spathaceum, echinostephilla virgula, galactosomum phalacrocoracis, gigantobilharzia acotylea, gymnophallus deliciosus, gynaecotyla longiintestinata, himasthla elongata, himasthla quissetensis, knipowitschiatrema ni ...200516336721
influence of host age and sex on the helminth fauna of the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) in galicia (northwestern spain).we studied the influence of host age and sex on the helminth fauna of 324 larus michahellis captured in different locations in the region of galicia (northwestern spain). gulls were grouped into prefledglings, first-year immature birds, second- and third-year immature birds, and adults. second-year, third-year, and adult birds were grouped by sex. thirty-six helminth species were recorded. total species richness and mean infracommunity species richness were both significantly lower for pre-fledg ...200616883985
[bacterial and fungal digestive flora of herring gulls (larus argentatus) in the camargue].the bacterial and fungal digestive flora of herring gulls (larus argentatus michahellis) has been studied in camargue, france. of 107 cloacal swab samples, one was found to contain salmonellae. the incidence of escherichia coli and faecal streptococcus was sufficiently high to suggest that greater attention should be paid to the environmental impact of this gull species.198318766771
families on the spot: sexual signals influence parent-offspring interactions.in 1950, tinbergen described the elicitation of offspring begging by the red spot on the bill of parent gulls, and this became a model system for behavioural studies. current knowledge on colour traits suggests they can act as sexual signals revealing individual quality. however, sexual signals have never been studied simultaneously in relationship to parent-offspring and sexual conflicts. we manipulated the red-spot size in one member of yellow-legged gull pairs and observed their partners' fee ...200919364749
dissemination of escherichia coli with ctx-m type esbl between humans and yellow-legged gulls in the south of france.extended spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producing enterobacteriaceae started to appear in the 1980s, and have since emerged as some of the most significant hospital-acquired infections with escherichia coli and klebsiella being main players. more than 100 different esbl types have been described, the most widespread being the ctx-m beta-lactamase enzymes (bla(ctx-m) genes). this study focuses on the zoonotic dissemination of esbl bacteria, mainly ctx-m type, in the southern coastal region of fra ...200919536298
antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups in isolates of escherichia coli from seagulls at the berlengas nature reserve.fifty-three faecal samples from yellow-legged gulls (larus cachinnans) at the berlengas nature reserve in portugal were cultured on levine agar plates not supplemented with antimicrobial agents, and one escherichia coli colony was isolated and identified from each sample. the percentages of resistant isolates for each of the drugs were ampicillin (43.4 per cent), tetracycline (39.6 per cent), nalidixic acid (34.0 per cent), streptomycin (32.1 per cent), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (sxt) (26.4 ...200919648638
sublethal effects on seabirds after the prestige oil-spill are mirrored in sexual signals.it has been suggested that sexual signals may be a useful measure of environmental quality as they represent the sum of environmental pressures on the animal. accordingly, it has been proposed that carotenoid-based coloration may be especially valuable in monitoring and detecting the sublethal effects of toxic pollutants in the environment. here, we evaluate whether the carotenoid-based coloration in the bill of adult yellow-legged gulls reflects oil-induced sublethal effects in breeding colonie ...201019726443
evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds.feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (sia). nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. the feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. it is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to fea ...201019731016
effectiveness of a varied assemblage of seed dispersers of a fleshy-fruited plant.disperser effectiveness is the number of new plants resulting from the activity of one disperser relative to other dispersers or to nondispersed seeds. effectiveness remains largely uninvestigated due to the complexity of its measurement. we measured the effectiveness of seed dispersers (larus michahellis, turdus merula, and oryctolagus cuniculus) of the shrub corema album (empetraceae) using a simulation model of the recruitment process that was parameterized with field data of seed dispersal, ...200920120817
oil pollution increases plasma antioxidants but reduces coloration in a seabird.it has been suggested that condition-dependent signals may be a useful measure of environmental quality. in this study, we tested the hypothesis that oil pollution enhances oxidative stress and impairs expression of a carotenoid-based signal in a wild population of the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis). during the courtship period, a group of gulls were fed a supplementary diet containing heavy fuel oil from the prestige oil spill and were compared with control gulls fed a similar supplemen ...201020532916
Prevalence of Influenza A Antibodies in Yellow-Legged Gull (Larus michahellis) Eggs and Adults in Southern Tunisia.Abstract Investigating the prevalence of anti-influenza A viruses (AIV) antibodies in wild birds can provide important information for the understanding of bird exposure to AIV, as well as for prevention purposes. We investigated AIV exposure in nature by measuring the prevalence of anti-AIV antibodies in the nests and adults of an abundant and anthropophilic waterbird species common around the Mediterranean sea, the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Sampling took place in two colonies l ...201121919723
avian influenza and animal health risk: conservation of endemic threatened wild birds in sardinia island.sardinia is a mediterranean island with a long geological history, leading to a separation process from continental europe during the miocene. as a consequence, in this insular habitat some wild bird species developed endemic forms, some of which are currently threatened. the aim of this study is to evaluate the possible animal health risk associated with a potential avian influenza virus (aiv) circulation in sardinian wild bird populations. overall, 147 cloacal swabs were sampled in the sardini ...201223402132
non-o1/non-o139 vibrio cholerae avian isolate from france cocarrying the bla(vim-1) and bla(vim-4) genes.we describe here a non-o1/non-o139 vibrio cholerae isolate producing both vim-1 and vim-4 carbapenemases. it was isolated from a yellow-legged gull in southern france. the blavim genes were part of a class 1 integron structure located in an inca/c plasmid. this study emphasizes the presence of carbapenemase genes in wildlife microbiota.201526169421
circulation of a meaban-like virus in yellow-legged gulls and seabird ticks in the western mediterranean basin.in recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. in this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis), a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird sp ...201424625959
maternal antibody transfer in yellow-legged gulls. 019624950
synanthropic birds and parasites.this paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the campania region of southern italy. birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (columba livia), 15 common kestrels (falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (corvus corone). each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. in particular, chewing lice we ...201324597118
antimicrobial resistance of salmonella serovars and campylobacter spp. isolated from an opportunistic gull species, yellow-legged gull ( larus michahellis ).wildlife is a natural reservoir of salmonella and campylobacter, the most important human foodborne pathogens worldwide. free-living birds have the potential to transport, over large distances, such zoonotic bacteria that may harbor antimicrobial resistance traits. on the northeastern iberian coast, we assessed the role of yellow-legged gulls ( larus michahellis ) as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance in salmonella and thermophilic campylobacter isolates recovered from gulls at three colonie ...201727723383
opportunistic fungal pathogen candida glabrata circulates between humans and yellow-legged gulls.the opportunistic pathogenic yeast candida glabrata is a component of the mycobiota of both humans and yellow-legged gulls that is prone to develop fluconazole resistance. whether gulls are a reservoir of the yeast and facilitate the dissemination of human c. glabrata strains remains an open question. in this study, mlva genotyping highlighted the lack of genetic structure of 190 c. glabrata strains isolated from either patients in three hospitals or fecal samples collected from gull breeding co ...201627782182
parasitic fauna of a yellow-legged gull colony in the island of escombreras (south-eastern mediterranean) in close proximity to a landfill site: potential effects on cohabiting species.we identified the ectoparasites and helminth fauna of yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis michahellis), breeding near to a solid waste landfill, and compared infection levels with those of other yellow-legged gull colonies. moreover, we analysed correlations between parasites and sex and body condition of yellow-legged gulls, co-infections and the helminth community structure in order to propose the role of this species as reservoir of certain parasites. we also discuss the potential transmis ...201526203998
vim-1 carbapenemase-producing escherichia coli in gulls from southern france.acquired carbapenemases currently pose one of the most worrying public health threats related to antimicrobial resistance. a ndm-1-producing salmonella corvallis was reported in 2013 in a wild raptor. further research was needed to understand the role of wild birds in the transmission of bacteria resistant to carbapenems. our aim was to investigate the presence of carbapenem-resistant escherichia coli in gulls from southern france. in 2012, we collected 158 cloacal swabs samples from two gull sp ...201728303191
prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase- and/or carbapenemase-producing escherichia coli isolated from yellow-legged gulls from barcelona, spain.seventy-two (54.5%) out of 132 fecal samples from a group of yellow-legged gulls in barcelona, spain, were positive for escherichia coli producing either extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbl) (51.5%), carbapenemase (1.5%), or cephamycinase (1.5%). the isolation of two carbapenemase-producing e. coli strains is a matter of concern.201727919890
wild birds, frequent carriers of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl) producing escherichia coli of ctx-m and shv-12 types.to get a better insight into the role of birds as reservoirs of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl) and plasmidic ampc β-lactamase (pampc) escherichia coli producers, 100 fecal samples belonging to 15 different wild avian species from northern spain were analyzed. cefotaxime-resistant (ctx(r)) e. coli isolates were identified in 16 of the 100 tested birds, which corresponded to 9 animal species (gyps fulvus-griffon vulture, larus michahellis-yellow-legged gull, milvus migrans-black kite, milvus ...201626687342
anthropogenic impact on environmental filamentous fungi communities along the mediterranean littoral.we hypothesised that anthropogenic influences impact the filamentous fungi community structure and that particular species or species patterns might serve as markers to characterise ecosystems. this study aimed to describe the filamentous fungi community structure in various biotopes along the mediterranean shore that were exposed to various levels of anthropogenic influence. we sampled filamentous fungi from yellow-legged gull faecal samples at five study sites along the mediterranean littoral ...201728276198
high prevalence of sxt/r391-related integrative and conjugative elements carrying blacmy-2 in proteus mirabilis isolates from gulls in the south of france.the genetic structures involved in the dissemination of blacmy-2 carried by proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from different gull species in the south of france were characterized and compared to clinical isolates. blacmy-2 was identified in p. mirabilis isolates from 27/93 yellow-legged gulls and from 37/65 slender-billed gulls. it was carried by a conjugative sxt/r391-like integrative and conjugative element (ice) in all avian strains and in 3/7 human strains. two clinical isolates had the ...201626643344
gut yeast communities in larus michahellis from various breeding colonies.yellow-legged gulls have been reported to carry antibiotic-resistant enterobacteriaceae; however, the gut mycobiota of these birds has not yet been described. in this study, we analyzed the gut yeast communities in five yellow-legged gull breeding colonies along the mediterranean littoral in southern france. gull fecal samples were inoculated onto four types of culture media, including one supplemented with itraconazole. yeast species richness, abundance, and diversity were estimated, and factor ...201627703020
toxoplasma gondii infection in seagull chicks is related to the consumption of freshwater food resources.understanding the spread of toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) and audouin's gull (l. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (ma ...201626974667
metal pollution in biotic and abiotic samples of the büyük menderes river, turkey.the büyük menderes river (bmr) is one of the largest rivers in turkey. this river irrigates efficient farmlands and includes tributaries of other rivers and streams and many populated towns within its limits in the ege region. both the estuary and işıklı lake serve as a sanctuary for various waterbirds. therefore, the bmr plays a critical role both for the inhabitants and for the ecosystem organisms in its environs. in the present study, we analyzed levels of metals including iron, barium, zinc, ...201726971518
environmental and biological monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in waterbirds by non-invasive versus invasive sampling.three main groups of persistent organic pollutants (pops); namely organochlorine pesticides (ocps), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (pbdes) were quantified in water and sediment samples, as well as in various invasive and non-invasive samples from waterbirds in the büyük menderes river (bmr). liver and muscle tissues, blood, and preen gland oil samples of yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) and euroasian coot (fulica atra) were collected both from the origin ...201424503014
genetic affinities within the herring gull larus argentatus assemblage revealed by aflp genotyping.to date, the taxonomic status of circumpolar breeding populations of the herring gull larus argentatus, the lesser black-backed gull larus fuscus, and the closely related yellow-legged gull larus cachinnans has been based on differences or similarities in phenotype, morphology, and feeding and premating behavior. to shed some new light on the many taxonomic uncertainties surrounding these taxa, we describe the results of a large dna study based on comparing the distribution of 209 biallelic mark ...200111139298
tracing waterbird exposure to total mercury and selenium: a case study at the solar saltworks of thyna (sfax, tunisia).saltworks have emerged as important alternative/complementary feeding habitats for avifauna. however, the consequences of such habitat shifts in terms of changes in exposure to contaminants are poorly understood. we evaluated the exposure of the waterbird community breeding at the saltworks of thyna (tunisia) to total hg (thg) and se according to their differential use of saltworks dietary resources, as revealed by δ¹³c and δ¹⁵n values in their eggs (included species [n] -sorted according to inc ...201121663312
little egret (egretta garzetta) as a bioindicator of trace element pollution in tunisian aquatic ecosystems.the little egret, egretta garzetta, has breeding colonies in the island of chikly (in the lake of tunis) and in thyna saltpans (in the gulf of gabès), two important tunisian wetlands that are strongly affected by anthropogenic activity. here, we used e. garzetta chick feathers for environmental monitoring of breeding grounds of this species. since trophic ecology is fundamental when interpreting contamination levels, our approach combined both trace-element (hg, pb, cd, and se) and stable-isotop ...201120571881
detection of a novel rickettsia sp. in soft ticks (acari: argasidae) in algeria.argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents that can infect humans and animals. in africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens that cause mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. it would be incredibly beneficial to be able to simultaneous detect and identify other pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. from 2012 to 2014, we conducted field surveys in 4 distinct areas of algeria. we investigated the occurrence of soft ticks in rodent burrows and yello ...201626408401
phosphorus in seagull colonies and the effect on the habitats. the case of yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis) in the atlantic islands national park (galicia-nw spain).during the period 1980-2000, the yellow-legged gull population underwent exponential growth due to an increase in the availability of anthropogenic food resources. the aim of this study was to highlight the effect of the gull colonies on the p soil cycle and the associated effects on coastal ecosystems. samples of soil, water and faecal material were collected in a colony of yellow-legged gulls (cíes islands) and in a control area. four sampling plots were installed in the study areas, and sampl ...201526081740
egg sampling as a possible alternative to blood sampling when monitoring the exposure of yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis) to avian influenza viruses.we explored whether antibody detection in egg yolks could serve as an alternative to antibody detection in plasma samples when monitoring yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis) for exposure to avian influenza viruses (aivs). we tested female plasma and eggs for anti-aiv antibodies and used the data we obtained to check whether the two sample types yielded the same antibody status (positive or negative) and to compare the antibody prevalence estimated from the blood data with that estimated from ...201425275922
maternal antibody transmission in relation to mother fluctuating asymmetry in a long-lived colonial seabird: the yellow-legged gull larus michahellis.female birds transfer antibodies to their offspring via the egg yolk, thus possibly providing passive immunity against infectious diseases to which hatchlings may be exposed, thereby affecting their fitness. it is nonetheless unclear whether the amount of maternal antibodies transmitted into egg yolks varies with female quality and egg laying order. in this paper, we investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against type a influenza viruses (anti-aiv antibodies) by a long-lived colonial s ...201222590497
a long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in gran canaria island, spain (2003-2013).the aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the tafira wildlife rehabilitation center (twrc) in gran canaria island, spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process.201728475653
morphological and molecular assessment of pentastomes from gulls in portugal.during 2016, 153 gulls, including 64 larus fuscus and 89 larus michahellis, were found crippled in south portugal, died in wildlife rehabilitation and investigation center-rias, and were necropsied. reighardia sternae infected 2 (3%, n = 64) l. fuscus and 4 (4%, n = 89) l. michahellis. molecular analysis confirmed the morphological identification based on total body length, maximum body width, length of anterior and posterior hooks, total length of oral aparatus, and other features of oral apara ...201728665257
seabird feathers as monitors of the levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after the prestige oil spill.we measured heavy metal concentrations in yellow-legged gulls (n = 196) and european shags (n = 189) in order to assess the temporal pattern of contaminant exposure following the prestige oil spill in november 2002. we analysed pb, cu, zn, cr, ni and v levels in chick feathers sampled at four colonies during seven post-spill years (2003-2009), and compared results with pre-spill levels obtained from feathers of juvenile shag corpses (grown in spring/summer 2002). following the prestige wreck, cu ...201121764195
influence of trophic ecology on the accumulation of dioxins and furans (pcdd/fs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in mediterranean gulls (larus michahellis and l. audouinii): a three-isotope approach.the impact of pollution caused by severe anthropogenic pressure in the mediterranean sea, an important biodiversity hotspot, requires continuous research efforts. sources of highly toxic chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants (pops) are misunderstood in representative mediterranean species, which limits our capability to establish proper conservation strategies. in the present study, eggs of audouin's and yellow-legged gulls (larus audouinii and l. michahellis) were used to investigate ...201626854700
dioxins and dl-pcbs in gull eggs from spanish natural parks (2010-2013).the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (pcdd/fs) and biphenyls (pcbs), concretely those so-called as dioxin-like pcbs, in yellow-legged gull eggs (larus michahellis) collected from five natural parks (some of them national parks) in spain during the period 2010-2013. pcdd/fs and dl-pcbs were detected in all the samples. due to the proximity to important urban and industrial areas higher concentrations were determine ...201626808402
accumulation and maternal transfer of perfluorooctane sulphonic acid in yellow-legged (larus michahellis) and audouin's gull (larus audouinii) from the ebro delta natural park.this study aimed to determine the accumulation and maternal transfer of perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (pfos) in yellow-legged gulls (ylg, larus michahellis) and the protected species audouin's gull (ag, larus audouinii), which cohabit in the ebro delta natural park (catalonia, spain). the estimated daily intake (edi) through diet (fish and crayfish), depuration rates and transfer capacity from blood to first eggs was studied for a set of 44 pairs. for ag, mean (±sd) edi was of 128 ± 36 ng/d in ...201525575371
dechlorane plus in eggs of two gull species (larus michahellis and larus audouinii) from the southwestern mediterranean sea.dechlorane plus (dp) and some of its possible degradation products were measured in eggs from the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) and audouin's gull (larus audouinii) from a protected area in the southwestern mediterranean sea. statistically significant differences were found between both gull species, with yellow-legged gull eggs showing the highest average total dp concentration (209 pg/g wet weight). according to stable nitrogen and carbon isotope values, variations in dp concentration ...201222899248
persistent organic pollutants in gull eggs of two species (larus michahellis and larus audouinii) from the ebro delta natural park.the aim of this study was to determine the impact of priority and emerging persistent organic pollutants (pops) in gull eggs from two species, the scavenger larus michahellis and the protected species, larus audouinii. these two species share habitat in the natural park of the ebro delta (catalonia, spain). compounds studied are included or under consideration in the stockholm convention and comprise polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (pcdd/fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), ...201222564454
trophic niche width and overlap of two sympatric gulls in the southwestern mediterranean.the diets of two potential competitor species, audouin's larus audouinii and yellow-legged gulls larus cachinnans, were examined while they bred at the chafarinas islands during 1993, 1994, and 1995. data were collected during two commercial fishing regimes: (1) trawling and purse seine fisheries, and (2) diurnal trawlers only. since the food supply for the gulls in this area was heavily reliant on the activity of purse seine fisheries, these contrasting situations allowed us to analyze short-te ...199728307378
dioxins, furans and ahh-active pcb congeners in eggs of two gull species from the western mediterranean.polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans were analysed in eggs of a protected gull species, the audouin's gull (larus audouinii) and compared to those of the yellow-legged gull (larus cachinnans), both breeding in the western mediterranean (ebro delta and medes islands, respectively). differences in concentrations as well as in congener profiles reflected differences in both habitat and diet of the two species. levels of ahh-active pcb congeners were lower in yellow-legged gul ...19958528648
ultraviolet photopigment sensitivity and ocular media transmittance in gulls, with an evolutionary perspective.gulls (laridae excluding sternidae) appear to be the only shorebirds (charadriiformes) that have a short wavelength sensitive type 1 (sws1) cone pigment opsin tuned to ultraviolet (uv) instead of violet. however, the apparent uv-sensitivity has only been inferred indirectly, via the interpretation that the presence of cysteine at the key amino acid position 90 in the sws1 opsin confers uv sensitivity. unless the cornea and the lens efficiently transmit uv to the retina, gulls might in effect be ...200919308422
chewing lice (phthiraptera: amblycera, ischnocera) from red sea gulls with new host-parasite records.knowledge about chewing lice from marine birds of the red sea is minimal. five species of gulls were examined for chewing lice in three different localities of the saudi arabian red sea coast. two gull species were examined for lice for the first time (larus armenicus buturlin, 1934 and larus michahellis naumann, 1840) and their lice represent new host-louse associations. four species and two subspecies of lice were identified from 159 specimens collected. actornithophilus piceus lari (packard, ...201424869888
heritability of resistance to oxidative stress in early life.oxidative stress has recently been suggested to play an important role in life-history evolution, but little is known about natural variation and heritability of this physiological trait. here, we explore phenotypic variation in resistance to oxidative stress of cross-fostered yellow-legged gull (larus cachinnans) chicks. resistance to oxidative stress was not related to plasma antioxidants at hatching, which are mostly derived from maternal investment into eggs. common environmental effects on ...201020149019
age-dependent changes in plasma biochemistry of yellow-legged gulls (larus cachinnans).the study of avian plasma chemistry is providing useful reference values for the management of endangered and game species, supporting veterinarians in their diagnostics, and also bringing to light relevant physiological adaptations during periods of food-shortage. age is an important source of variability for plasma chemistry. here i report plasma chemistry of yellow-legged gulls larus cachinnans from different ages, between post-independence and adulthood, a 5-year interval. increase in plasma ...200515936712
organochlorine contaminants in eggs of the yellow-legged gull (larus cachinnans michahellis) in the north eastern mediterranean: is this gull a suitable biomonitor for the region?levels of eight pcb congeners and thirteen organochlorine pesticides were measured in eggs sampled at four yellow-legged gull colonies from the aegean sea (northeastern mediterranean) in 1997. there were no significant differences among colony areas in the median concentrations in any of the pollutants whereas cluster analyses did not generally reveal reasonable pollution patterns. the maximum concentrations of four congeners were found at kinaros colony and of nine compounds were found at lipso ...200312927495
the effects of testosterone manipulation on the body condition of captive male yellow-legged gulls.persistently high testosterone levels are believed to be costly to males due to their negative effect on body condition. however, this assumption could not be validated when we analysed birds isolated from all social interactions. the hypothesis was tested on birds kept in isolation in order to analyse the effects of testosterone per se, and thereby exclude the influence of social interactions. adult male yellow-legged gulls (larus cachinnans) were captured, and after a period of adjustment, som ...200211818219
a biochemical study of fasting, subfeeding, and recovery processes in yellow-legged gulls.an investigation of the effects of fasting, subfeeding, and refeeding on plasma biochemistry was carried out on 22 captive yellow-legged gulls larus cachinnans pallas. these birds showed the same fasting endurance model described in other species, but with an important decrease in glucose plasma concentration and very great differences between individuals when reaching the deterioration limit, suggesting a moderate physiological adaptation to long periods of fasting. a different model was propos ...200511517455
hepatotoxic effect of metallic pollutants on enzyme histochemical activities of yellow-legged gull larus cachinnans michahellis liver.we studied the hepatotoxic effect of heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, copper) on mg2+ -atpase, nadh diaphorase, succinic dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase of yellow-legged gull liver, using enzyme histochemical methods. the lysosomal enzyme activity of acid phosphatase was increased in all cases. however, the other enzyme activities appeared to be insensitive to the different metallic pollutants and to their respective levels, in contrast with literature experimental data showing plasma membrane ...200011075948
seabirds drive plant species turnover on small mediterranean islands at the expense of native taxa.the analysis of long-term floristic changes was conducted on nine west-mediterranean limestone islands (size range: 2-95 ha) which have recently undergone a severe demographic explosion in their yellow-legged gull larus cachinnans colonies. a comparison of past and present plant inventories was used to quantify extinction-colonization events, both from a classical biogeographical perspective (per island approach) and a metapopulational perspective (per species approach). in the first approach, f ...200028308294
capillarity and fibre types in locomotory muscles of wild yellow-legged gulls (larus cachinnans).this study analyzes the capillarity and fibre-type distribution of six locomotory muscles of gulls. the morphological basis and the oxygen supply characteristics of the skeletal muscle of a species with a marked pattern of gliding flight are established, thus contributing to a better understanding of the physiology of a kind of flight with low energetic requirements. the four wing muscles studied (scapulotriceps, pectoralis, scapulohumeralis, and extensor metacarpi) exhibited higher percentages ...20159678503
trace elements in clutches of yellow-legged gulls, larus cachinnans, from the medes islands, spain. 19979323225
population structure of the soft tick ornithodoros maritimus and its associated infectious agents within a colony of its seabird host larus michahellis.the epidemiology of vector-borne zoonoses depends on the movement of both hosts and vectors, which can differ greatly in intensity across spatial scales. because of their life history traits and small size, vector dispersal may be frequent, but limited in distance. however, little information is available on vector movement patterns at local spatial scales, and particularly for ticks, transmitting the greatest diversity of recognized infectious agents. to test the degree to which ticks can dispe ...201728620577
yolk vitamin e prevents oxidative damage in gull hatchlings.oxidative stress experienced during early development can negatively affect diverse life-history traits, and organisms have evolved complex defence systems against its detrimental effects. bird eggs contain maternally derived exogenous antioxidants that play a major role in embryo protection from oxidative damage, including the negative effects on telomere dynamics. in this study on the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis), we manipulated the concentration of vitamin e (ve) in the egg yolk and ...201728573018
contrasting effects of increased yolk testosterone content on development and oxidative status in gull embryos.hormone-mediated maternal effects generate variation in offspring phenotype. in birds, maternal egg testosterone (t) exerts differential effects on offspring traits after hatching, suggesting that mothers experience a trade-off between contrasting t effects. however, there is very little information on t pre-natal effects. in the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis), we increased yolk t concentration within physiological limits and measured the effects on development and oxidative status of la ...201728202650
antioxidants and embryo phenotype: is there experimental evidence for strong integration of the antioxidant system?organisms have evolved complex defense systems against oxidative stress. bird eggs contain maternally derived antioxidants that protect embryos from oxidative damage. the antioxidant system components are thought to be integrated, but few studies have analyzed the covariation between antioxidant concentrations, embryo 'oxidative status' and morphology. in addition, no study has tested the effects of experimental change in yolk antioxidant concentration on other antioxidants, on their reciprocal ...201728202649
feathered detectives: real-time gps tracking of scavenging gulls pinpoints illegal waste dumping.urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time gps tracking of scaveng ...201627448048
population control of an overabundant species achieved through consecutive anthropogenic perturbations.the control of overabundant vertebrates is often problematic. much work has focused on population-level responses and overabundance due to anthropogenic subsidies. however, far less work has been directed at investigating responses following the removal of subsidies. we investigate the consequences of two consecutive perturbations, the closure of a landfill and an inadvertent poisoning event, on the trophic ecology (δ13c, δ15n, and δ34s), survival, and population size of an overabundant generali ...201526910951
yolk testosterone affects growth and promotes individual-level consistency in behavioral lateralization of yellow-legged gull chicks.behavioral lateralization is common in animals and may be expressed at the individual- and at the population-level. the ontogenetic processes that control lateralization, however, are largely unknown. well-established sex-dependence in androgen physiology and sex-dependent variation in lateralization have led to the hypothesis that testosterone (t) has organizational effects on lateralization. the effects of t exposure in early life on lateralization can be efficiently investigated by manipulati ...201626836770
brain cholinesterase reactivation as a marker of exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides: a case study in a population of yellow-legged gull larus michahellis (naumann, 1840) along the northern coast of portugal.between late 2010 to early 2011, an increased mortality in gulls was observed along the northern coast of portugal, with individuals exhibiting neurologic disorders consistent with an eventual anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning event. to clarify if this mortality was related to organophosphate (op) and/or carbamate (cb) poisoning, chemical and spontaneous cholinesterase (che) reactivation was tested in the brain of the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis). initial brain che activity in l. ...201626564198
potential toxicity of environmentally relevant perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos) concentrations to yellow-legged gull larus michahellis embryos.perfluooctane sulfonate (pfos) is considered an emerging pollutant because of its wide distribution in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as its potential toxicity to living organisms. although pfos environmental levels and the adverse effects on classical model organisms in toxicological studies are well known, including developmental alterations and alteration of oxidative status, its toxicity to free-living species has been seldom investigated. the aim of this study was to asses ...201626310703
individual and population-level sex-dependent lateralization in yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) chicks.behavioral lateralization at the population level is widespread across vertebrates, with considerable variation among species. however, evidence for individual-level and sex-dependent lateralization is sparse and inconsistent in fish, reptiles and birds. in addition, covariation of lateralization with position in the laying sequence, which is expected because the concentration of maternal egg hormones varies with laying order, has never been investigated. we analyzed lateralization of yellow-leg ...201525818662
bottom-up control of macrobenthic communities in a guanotrophic coastal system.soft bottom macrobenthic communities were studied seasonally in three coastal ponds (marinello ponds, italy) at increasing distances from a gull (larus michahellis) colony to investigate the effect of seabird-induced eutrophication (i.e. guanotrophication) on macrobenthic fauna. we hypothesized that enhanced nutrient concentration and organic load caused by guano input significantly alter the trophic and sedimentological condition of ponds, affecting benthic fauna through a bottom-up control. th ...201525679400
differential effects of specific carotenoids on oxidative damage and immune response of gull chicks.micronutrients are essential for normal metabolic processes during early development. specifically, it has been suggested that diet-derived carotenoids can play a key role in physiological functions because of their antioxidant and immunostimulant properties. however, their role as antioxidants remains controversial. additionally, it is also unclear whether oxidative stress mediates their immunostimulatory effects. in this field study, we separately supplemented yellow-legged gull (larus michahe ...201424363415
gull-derived trace elements trigger small-scale contamination in a remote mediterranean nature reserve.the role of a yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) small colony in conveying trace elements (as, cd, cr, cu, ni, pb, thg, v, zn) was assessed in a mediterranean nature reserve (marinello ponds) at various spatial and temporal scales. trace element concentrations in guano were high and seasonally variable. in contrast, contamination in the ponds was not influenced by season but showed strong spatial variability among ponds, according to the different guano input. biogenic enrichment factor b co ...201323870200
maternal testosterone influences a begging component that makes fathers work harder in chick provisioning.in species with biparental care, parents disagree evolutionarily over the amount of care that each of them is willing to provide to offspring. it has recently been hypothesised that females may try to manipulate their mates by modifying offspring begging behaviour through yolk hormone deposition, shifting the division of labour in their own favour. to test this hypothesis we first investigated how yellow-legged gull (larus michaellis) parents feed offspring in relation to each component of compl ...201323651611
trophic ecology of a resident yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) population in the bay of biscay.stable isotopes analyses (sias) are an efficient tool to obtain a general insight into the diet of generalist consumers, such as the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis). here we analysed δ(13)c, δ(15)n and δ(34)s values in feathers of chicks and adults, and used bayesian triple-isotope mixing models to reconstruct the diet of a yellow-legged gull population breeding in the southeastern bay of biscay. questions to test were (1) whether adults and chicks rely on different feeding resources duri ...201323541603
vitamins, stress and growth: the availability of antioxidants in early life influences the expression of cryptic genetic variation.environmental inputs during early development can shape the expression of phenotypes, which has long-lasting consequences in physiology and life history of an organism. here, we study whether experimentally manipulated availability of dietary antioxidants, vitamins c and e, influences the expression of genetic variance for antioxidant defence, endocrine signal and body mass in yellow-legged gull chicks using quantitative genetic models based on full siblings. our experimental study in a natural ...201323517061
trophodynamics of inorganic pollutants in a wide-range feeder: the relevance of dietary inputs and biomagnification in the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis).the suitability of sentinel species to monitor environmental pollution is often hampered by an insufficient knowledge on pollutant trophodynamics. we simultaneously evaluated the influence of individuals' trophic position (as revealed by δ(15)n values) and dietary exploitation of particular systems (using δ(13)c and δ(34)s as proxies) on inorganic pollutant concentrations measured on fledglings' feathers of a wide-range feeder, the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis), sampled at four location ...201323064201
distribution of perfluorinated compounds in yellow-legged gull eggs (larus michahellis) from the iberian peninsula.this study is aimed to evaluate the presence and distribution of perfluorinated compounds (pfcs) in yellow-legged gull eggs (larus michahellis) collected from 8 national or natural parks from the iberian peninsula. in each colony, 12 eggs were randomly collected and pooled from 3 areas of the colony and analyzed using liquid-solid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. perfluorooctanate sulfonate (pfos) was the only compound detected in the eggs and its presenc ...201222209369
maternal effects mediated by egg quality in the yellow-legged gull larus michahellis in relation to laying order and embryo sex.maternal effects mediated by egg size and quality may profoundly affect offspring development and performance, and mothers may adjust egg traits according to environmental or social influences. in avian species, context-dependency of maternal effects may result in variation in egg composition, as well as in differential patterns of covariation among selected egg components, according to, for example, position in the laying sequence or offspring sex. we investigated variation in major classes of ...201122011400
does breeding status influence haematology and blood biochemistry of yellow-legged gulls?we compared the haematological and biochemical values within a population of yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis) in the chafarinas islands (northern africa), in non-breeding (february) and breeding (may) animals. we collected blood samples from 51 adults. we found that according to the haematological data, there was a significant variation in haemoglobin content, and a higher proportion of heterophils, thrombocytes, and haemoproteus infection in breeding individuals with a lower level in bas ...201021112831
yolk testosterone reduces oxidative damages during postnatal development.conditions experienced during early life can influence the development of an organism and several physiological traits, even in adulthood. an important factor is the level of oxidative stress experienced during early life. in birds, extra-genomic egg substances, such as the testosterone hormone, may exert a widespread influence over the offspring phenotype. interestingly, testosterone can also upregulate the bioavailability of certain antioxidants but simultaneously increases the susceptibility ...201120659922
the young, the weak and the sick: evidence of natural selection by predation.it is assumed that predators mainly prey on substandard individuals, but even though some studies partially support this idea, evidence with large sample sizes, exhaustive analysis of prey and robust analysis is lacking. we gathered data from a culling program of yellow-legged gulls killed by two methods: by the use of raptors or by shooting at random. we compared both data sets to assess whether birds of prey killed randomly or by relying on specific individual features of the prey. we carried ...201020333305
erod activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the prestige oil spill.in this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic erod activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the prestige oil spill. we also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. we found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic erod activity levels. erod activity was related to feeding habits of individual gul ...201020189696
sex allocation in yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis) depends on nutritional constraints on production of large last eggs.male and female offspring can differ in their susceptibility to pre-natal (e.g. egg quality) and post-natal (e.g. sib-sib competition) conditions, and parents can therefore increase their individual fitness by adjusting these maternal effects according to offspring sex. in birds, egg mass and laying/hatching order are the main determinants of offspring viability, but these effects can act differently on each sex. in a previous study, relatively large last-laid (c-)eggs of yellow-legged gulls (la ...201020007178
biomonitoring of coastal areas in tunisia: stable isotope and trace element analysis in the yellow-legged gull.we used yellow-legged gull (ylg) chicks to monitor trace elements in tunisian areas subject to different pollution stresses: urban contamination (chikly), industrial pollution (thyna) and an unpolluted area (kneis). we measured trace element concentrations (hg, se and pb) in chick feathers. we also assessed their feeding ecology by analyzing both regurgitates and stable isotopes (sia) in chick feathers and in their prey, to determine the main entry route of pollutants. sia revealed that ylg feed ...201019896145
maternal allocation strategies and differential effects of yolk carotenoids on the phenotype and viability of yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) chicks in relation to sex and laying order.egg quality may mediate maternal allocation strategies according to progeny sex. in vertebrates, carotenoids have important physiological roles during embryonic and post-natal life, but the consequences of variation in yolk carotenoids for offspring phenotype in oviparous species are largely unknown. in yellow-legged gulls, yolk carotenoids did not vary with embryo sex in combination with egg laying date, order and mass. yolk lutein supplementation enhanced the growth of sons from first eggs but ...200818713240
living in a ghetto within a local population: an empirical example of an ideal despotic distribution.merging patterns and processes about the way individuals should be distributed in a habitat is a key issue in the framework of spatial ecology. here the despotic distribution of individuals in two distinct and neighboring patches within a local population of a long-lived colonial bird, the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis), was assessed. there was no density dependence for suitable habitat at the study population, but behavioral data suggested that birds from the good patch precluded birds ...200818459346
monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment after the prestige oil spill by means of seabird blood analysis.in this study we tested the use of seabird blood as a bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) pollution in the marine environment. blood cells of breeding yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis) were able to track spatial and temporal changes consistent with the massive oil pollution pulse that resulted from the prestige oil spill. thus, in 2004, blood samples from yellow-legged gulls breeding in colonies that were in the trajectory of the spill doubled in theirtotal pah concentrat ...200818323091
phenotypic correlates of yolk and plasma carotenoid concentration in yellow-legged gull chicks.abstract carotenoids perform important biological actions in animal tissues, including contributing antioxidant protection. however, the function of transmission of maternal carotenoids to bird eggs is still largely unknown. we made a yolk biopsy of yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) eggs and found that the concentration of lutein declined with laying date and across the laying order and increased with egg mass. the concentration of all the main carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, and dehydrolu ...200818211250
effects of acute exposure to heavy fuel oil from the prestige spill on a seabird.large quantities of petroleum products are released into the marine environment as result of tanker wrecks. such catastrophic events have a dramatic impact on marine ecosystems, affecting a broad range of species. seabirds are placed at the uppermost trophic level of the marine food chain. therefore, important toxic effects are expected in these organisms. the recent prestige oil spill gave the opportunity to test this. a previous study reported that yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis) breed ...200717631973
sublethal toxicity of the prestige oil spill on yellow-legged gulls.the prestige oil spill in november 2002 is considered the biggest large-scale catastrophe of its type in europe, thousands of seabirds dying in the subsequent months. here, the total concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tpah) was measured in the blood cell fraction of adult and chick yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis) from unoiled and oiled coastal areas in north western spain. in addition, hematocrit, plasma metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes, as well as body mass were ...200717383727
early maternal, genetic and environmental components of antioxidant protection, morphology and immunity of yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) chicks.maternal effects mediated by egg quality are important sources of offspring phenotypic variation and can influence the course of evolutionary processes. mothers allocate to the eggs diverse antioxidants that protect the embryo from oxidative stress. in the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis), yolk antioxidant capacity varied markedly among clutches and declined considerably with egg laying date. analysis of bioptic yolk samples from clutches that were subsequently partially cross-fostered rev ...200616910986
effects of elevated yolk androgens on perinatal begging behavior in yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) chicks.maternal hormones may represent an important pathway by which mothers can adaptively adjust offspring traits and performance to suit the prevailing environmental conditions. earlier studies of birds have shown that egg androgens of maternal origin may enhance post-natal offspring 'begging' displays, functioning to solicit parental care. here we investigate the effects of elevated egg androgen levels on the prenatal begging behavior of yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) chicks. at laying, we ...200616842788
effects of elevated egg corticosterone levels on behavior, growth, and immunity of yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis) chicks.eggs of vertebrates contain steroid hormones of maternal origin that may influence offspring performance. recently, it has been shown that glucocorticoids, which are the main hormones mediating the stress response in vertebrates, are transmitted from the mother to the egg in birds. in addition, mothers with experimentally elevated corticosterone levels lay eggs with larger concentrations of the hormone, which produce slow growing offspring with high activity of the hypothalamo-adrenal axis under ...200515811362
detection of relapsing fever borrelia spp., bartonella spp. and anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in algeria.argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. ticks of the ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. in algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.201729145396
an outbreak of philophthalmosis in larus michahellis and larus fuscus gulls in iberian peninsula.trematodes of the genus philophthalmus loos, 1899 are the eye parasites of birds and mammals, which use freshwater snails as their first intermediate hosts. here we examined the presence of philophthalmids in a total of 1515 gulls (589 larus fuscus and 926 larus michahellis) admitted between january 2010 and october 2016 for rehabilitation at olhão (portugal), by the use of combined morphological and molecular analysis. we recorded the first infected l. fuscus and l. michahellis in july and nove ...201829288885
molecular characterization of the re-emerging west nile virus in avian species and equids in israel, 2018, and pathological description of the disease.in this report we describe the molecular and pathological characteristics of west nile virus (wnv) infection that occurred during the summer and fall of 2018 in avian species and equines. wnv is reported in israel since the 1950s, with occasional outbreaks leading to significant morbidity and mortality in birds, high infection in horses and humans, and sporadic fatalities in humans.202033092614
humans shape the year-round distribution and habitat use of an opportunistic scavenger.research focused on evaluating how human food subsidies influence the foraging ecology of scavenger species is scarce but essential for elucidating their role in shaping behavioral patterns, population dynamics, and potential impacts on ecosystems. we evaluate the potential role of humans in shaping the year-round distribution and habitat use of individuals from a typical scavenger species, the yellow-legged gull (larus michahellis), breeding at southwestern spain. to do this, we combined long-t ...202032551055
investigation of urban birds as source of β-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacteria in marseille city, france.we investigate here the presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from stool samples of yellow-legged gulls and chickens (n = 136) in urban parks and beaches of marseille, france. bacterial isolation was performed on selective media, including macconkey agar with ceftriaxone and lbjmr medium. antibiotic resistance genes, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbl) (i.e. blactx-m, blatem and blashv), carbapenemases (blakpc, blavim, blandm, blaoxa-23, blaoxa-24, blaoxa-48 and blaoxa-58 ...201931672159
pathogen transmission risk by opportunistic gulls moving across human landscapes.wildlife that exploit human-made habitats hosts and spreads bacterial pathogens. this shapes the epidemiology of infectious diseases and facilitates pathogen spill-over between wildlife and humans. this is a global problem, yet little is known about the dissemination potential of pathogen-infected animals. by combining molecular pathogen diagnosis with gps tracking of pathogen-infected gulls, we show how this knowledge gap could be filled at regional scales. specifically, we generated pathogen r ...201931337777
exposure of yellow-legged gulls to toxoplasma gondii along the western mediterranean coasts: tales from a sentinel.efficiently tracking and anticipating the dynamics of infectious agents in wild populations requires the gathering of large numbers of samples, if possible at several locations and points in time, which can be a challenge for some species. testing for the presence of specific maternal antibodies in egg yolks sampled on the colonies could represent an efficient way to quantify the exposure of breeding females to infectious agents, particularly when using an abundant and widespread species, such a ...201930891402
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