streptococcus phocae sp. nov., a new species isolated from clinical specimens from seals.a new beta-hemolytic streptococcal species, streptococcus phocae, was isolated from organ specimens obtained from seals. this taxon is described on the basis of the results of a study of 22 strains. s. phocae was serologically somewhat heterogeneous (group antigen -/f/c). strains belonging to this species exhibited high levels of dna-dna homology to each other, as determined by dna-dna hybridization, but low levels of dna-dna homology to the type strains of other streptococcal species. a simple ...19947981096
streptococcus phocae infections associated with starvation in cape fur seals.mortalities and abortions associated with starvation occurred at cape cross, namibia, in cape fur seals (arctocephalus pusillus pusillus). affected seals showed lethargy and emaciation, and the most common pathological signs were those of a respiratory infection, both in adults and offspring. streptococcus phocae was isolated from adult seals, a cub and aborted foetuses.199910855831
identification and molecular characterization of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from harbor seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) of the german north and baltic seas.bacteriological investigations of seals of the german north and baltic seas resulted in the isolation of bacteria of the genus streptococcus belonging to lancefield's serological groups c, f, and l. according to biochemical, serological, and 16s ribosomal dna analysis, the group c and group f streptococci were identified as streptococcus phocae. the group l streptococci could be classified as streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae.200414715808
determination of species-specific sequences of superoxide dismutase a encoding gene soda and chaperonin 60 encoding gene cpn60 for identification and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcus phocae.species-specific pcr tests, based on the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase a encoding gene (soda) and the chaperonin 60 encoding gene (cpn60), were developed for the identification of streptococcus phocae, a bacterial pathogen of seals. the selection of both oligonucleotide primer pairs was performed after amplification and sequencing of internal parts of both genes using universal oligonucleotide primers. the sequence studies of both genes additionally confirmed that s. phocae could taxo ...200415172694
first identification of streptococcus phocae isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar). 200515635036
the 2000 canine distemper epidemic in caspian seals (phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors.more than 10,000 caspian seals (phoca caspica) were reported dead in the caspian sea during spring and summer 2000. we performed necropsies and extensive laboratory analyses on 18 seals, as well as examination of the pattern of strandings and variation in weather in recent years, to identify the cause of mortality and potential contributory factors. the monthly stranding rate in 2000 was up to 2.8 times the historic mean. it was preceded by an unusually mild winter, as observed before in mass mo ...200616672579
pcr amplification of species specific sequences of 16s rdna and 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer region for identification of streptococcus phocae.streptococcus phocae, a bacterial pathogen of seals, could reliably be identified by pcr amplification using oligonucleotide primers designed according to species specific segments of the previously sequenced 16s rrna gene and the 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer region of this species. the pcr mediated assay allowed an identification of s. phocae isolated from harbor and gray seals and from atlantic salmons. no cross-reaction could be observed with 13 different other streptococcal species and sub ...200816793248
characterization of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis) stranded along the california coast.the goal of this study was to characterize the beta-hemolytic streptococci cultured from southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis) stranded off the coast of california (usa) and to verify identifications made using the lancefield system. lancefield serotyping and biochemical analysis alone was inadequate for isolate characterization. final identification was based on sequence analysis of a portion of the 16s ribosomal rna gene from 12 of the 35 total isolates. the majority of isolates (10 of 1 ...200919117701
simultaneous evaluation of four pcr primer sets for the diagnosis of streptococcus phocae infection.the sensitivity of 4 published primer pairs for the detection of streptococcus phocae strains was evaluated. primer sets cpn60-f and -r and soda-f and -r correctly identified s. phocae. correct identification was also achieved with the primer pairs cael-cae2 and px1-px2, but using the reverse complementary version of both reverse primers (caevq2 and pxvq2, respectively). among the 4 pcr protocols with pure and mixed cultures, the primer pair px1-pxvq2 provided the highest level of sensitivity fo ...200819244973
genetic characterization of streptococcus phocae strains isolated from atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., in chile.streptococcus phocae is a beta-haemolytic bacterium frequently involved in disease outbreaks in seals causing pneumonia or respiratory infection. since 1999, this pathogen has been isolated from diseased atlantic salmon, salmo salar, causing serious economic losses in the salmon industry in chile. in this study, we used different molecular typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus se ...200919335611
production and purification of a novel exopolysaccharide from lactic acid bacterium streptococcus phocae pi80 and its functional characteristics activity in vitro.optimum culture conditions which ease the synthesis of a novel exopolysaccharide (eps) from a potent marine strain streptococcus phocae was proposed in this study. the strain grows well at 35 °c, ph 7.0 and nacl (2%) with lactose and yeast extract as best carbon and nitrogen sources. the maximum yield of eps (11.75 and 12.14 g/l) was obtained in the presence of lactose and yeast extract at a concentration of 20 g/l respectively. eps was refined by gel filtration chromatography using phenyl sepha ...201121300540
surface properties of streptococcus phocae strains isolated from diseased atlantic salmon, salmo salar l.streptococcus phocae is an emerging pathogen for chilean atlantic salmon, salmo salar, but the factors determining its virulence are not yet elucidated. in this work, cell surface-related properties such as hydrophobicity and haemagglutination, adhesion to mucus and cell lines, capsule detection, survival and biofilm formation in skin mucus and serum resistance of the isolates responsible for outbreaks in atlantic salmon and seals were examined. adhesion to hydrocarbons and the results of salt a ...201121306587
application of response surface methodology in the optimisation of a growth medium for enhanced natural preservative bacteriocin production by a probiotic this study, a statistics-based experimental design was utilised for the optimisation of a growth medium which possibly enhanced bacteriocin production by streptococcus phocae pi80. carbon, nitrogen sources and a bio-surfactant were first screened using a one variable at a time technique and scored for increasing yield production. the selected variables were further statistically optimised using response surface methodology with a central composite design. the high- and low-level limits of the ...201121981311
genome sequence of streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae strain atcc 51973t isolated from a harbor seal (phoca vitulina).streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae is a pathogen that affects different pinniped and mammalian species. this announcement reports the genome sequence of the type strain atcc 51973 isolated in norway from clinical specimens of harbor seal (phoca vitulina), revealing interesting genes related to possible virulence factors.201526586875
prevalence, pathology, and risk factors associated with streptococcus phocae infection in southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis), 2004-10.recent studies have implicated beta-hemolytic streptococci as opportunistic pathogens of marine mammals, including southern sea otters (enhydra lutris nereis), but little is known about their prevalence or pathophysiology. herein, we focus on risk factors for sea otter infection by a single beta-hemolytic streptococcal species, streptococcus phocae. streptococcus phocae was first identified as a marine mammal pathogen in 1994, and the first report in southern sea otters was in 2009. its broad ho ...201626555115
first isolation of streptococcus halichoeri and streptococcus phocae from a steller sea lion (eumetopias jubatus) in south korea.streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. we report the isolation and identification of streptococcus halichoeri and streptococcus phocae in a steller sea lion (eumetopias jubatus) in south korea.201626555114
genome sequence of streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis strain c-4t, isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar).streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a fish pathogen that has an important impact on the chilean salmon industry. here, we report the genome sequence of the type strain c-4(t) isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar), showing a number of interesting features and genes related to its possible virulence factors.201425502668
coinfection by streptococcus phocae and cetacean morbillivirus in a short-beaked common dolphin delphinus delphis.we describe gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of streptococcus phocae and cetacean morbillivirus coinfection in a short-beaked common dolphin delphinus delphis. major gross findings were cutaneous purulent nodules in the tail fluke, vegetative mitral valve endocarditis, and presumed postpartum pyometra. histologic examination revealed bacterial septicemia characterized by widespread intravascular coccoid bacterial emboli. these were associated with fibrinonecrotizing to ...201728492181
comparative analysis of innate immune responses to streptococcus phocae strains in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a gram-positive bacterium that causes mortality only in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) farmed in chile, even when this species is co-cultured with rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). this susceptibility could be determined by innate immune response components and their responses to bacterial infection. this fish pathogen shares subspecies status with streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae isolated from seals. the present study compared innate immune system mec ...201626876354
comparative genome analysis of two streptococcus phocae subspecies provides novel insights into pathogenicity.streptococcus phocae is a beta-hemolytic, gram-positive bacterium that was first isolated in norway from clinical specimens of harbor seal (phoca vitulina) affected by pneumonia or respiratory infection, and in 2005, this bacterium was identified from disease outbreaks at an atlantic salmon farm. a recent comparative polyphasic study reclassified streptococcus phocae as subsp. phocae and subsp. salmonis, and there are currently two s. phocae ncbi sequencing projects for the type strains atcc 519 ...201727720398
identification of a novel host-specific igg protease in streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae.streptococcus (s.) phocae subsp. phocae causes bronchopneumonia and septicemia in a variety of marine mammals. especially in harbor seals infected with phocine distemper virus it plays an important role as an opportunistic pathogen. this study was initiated by the detection of igg cleavage products in western blot analysis after incubation of bacterial supernatant with harbor seal serum. hence, the objectives of this study were the identification and characterization of a secreted igg cleaving p ...201728284621
biopreservation of sardinella longiceps and penaeus monodon using protective culture streptococcus phocae pi 80 isolated from marine shrimp penaeus indicus.the influence of streptococcus phocae pi80 on the shelf life of sardinella longiceps and penaeus monodon was investigated by measurement of microbial and chemical analysis after appraising the safety of the protective probiotic culture in wistar rat's model. the results of this safety assessment indicate that oral administration of protective culture does not demonstrate any toxicological effects. consumption of this lab strain had no adverse effects on animal's general health status, hematology ...201126781574
multiplex pcr for the detection of piscirickettsia salmonis, vibrio anguillarum, aeromonas salmonicida and streptococcus phocae in chilean marine farms.a multiplex (m-)pcr-based protocol was designed for the simultaneous detection of the main marine bacterial pathogens in chilean salmon farms: streptococcus phocae, aeromonas salmonicida, vibrio anguillarum and piscirickettsia salmonis. each of the 4 oligonucleotide primer pairs exclusively amplified the target gene of the specific bacterial pathogen. the detection limit of the m-pcr using purified total bacterial dna was 50 pg microl(-1) for v anguillarum, 500 fg microl(-1) for p. salmonis, and ...201122303630
purification and characterization of phocaecin pi80: an anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by streptococcus phocae pi80 isolated from the gut of peneaus indicus (indian white shrimp).a bacteriocin-producing strain pi80 was isolated from the gut of penaeus indicus (indian white shrimp) and identified as streptococcus phocae pi80. the bacteriocin was purified from a culture supernatant to homogeneity as confirmed by tricine sds-page. reverse-phase hplc analysis revealed a single active fraction eluted at 12.94 min, and maldi-tof mass spectrometry analysis showed the molecular mass to be 9.244 kda. this molecular mass does not correspond to previously described streptococcal ba ...200919996693
streptococcus phocae, an emerging pathogen for salmonid culture.this work describes the characterization of the causal agent of disease outbreaks that, from 1999, occurred repeatedly during the summer months (temperatures higher than 15 degrees c) in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) cage-farmed in chile affecting both smolts and adult fish cultured in estuary and marine waters, reaching in some occasions a cumulative mortality up to 25% of the affected population. diseased fish showed exophthalmia with accumulation of purulent and haemorrhagic fluid around eyes ...200818280675
streptococcus phocae isolated from a spotted seal (phoca largha) with pyometra in alaska.a spotted seal harvested by subsistence hunters in kotzebue sound, alaska (usa), showed a grossly enlarged uterus and associated lymph nodes. streptococcus phocae was isolated from the purulent uterine discharge. histopathologic examination revealed inflammation that was limited to the uterine mucosa. lymph nodes draining the affected organ were reactive but no evidence of active infection was found in the lymph nodes. this report is the first streptococcus phocae isolated from spotted seals as ...201122946378
optimization of media components for enhanced production of streptococcus phocae pi80 and its bacteriocin using response surface methodology.the standard mrs components were optimized using response surface methodology for increasing yield of streptococcus phocae pi80 viable cells and its bacteriocin. the highest amounts of bacteriocin activity and viable cells were recorded from prediction point of optimized mrs medium and achieved two fold higher (33049.8 and 14.05 than un-optimized counterpart.201124031685
erratum to: biopreservation of sardinella longiceps and penaeus monodon using protective culture streptococcus phocae pi 80 isolated from marine shrimp penaeus indicus. 201126781575
infectivity study of streptococcus phocae to seven fish and mammalian cell lines by confocal microscopy.streptococcus phocae is a beta-haemolytic bacterium that causes systemic infections in atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., cultured in southern chile and also in seals. in this study, the host-pathogen interaction between s. phocae and seven types of cell lines (fish and mammalian) was examined using an indirect fluorescent antibody and confocal microscopy (cm). chinook salmon embryo (chse-214), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (epc), salmon head kidney (shk-1) and atlantic salmon kidney were used as ...201222524521
comparative polyphasic characterization of streptococcus phocae strains with different host origin and description of the subspecies streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis subsp. nov.a polyphasic study was undertaken to clarify the taxonomic position of streptococcus phocae strains isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) cage-farmed in chile. four salmon and three seal isolates showed minor differences in the sds-page protein analysis. thus, a major protein band present in the salmon isolates, of approximately 22.4 kda, was absent in the pinniped strains, regardless of the growth media employed. in addition, the pinniped strains showed protein bands with molecular masses ...201424573159
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