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burkholderia ambifaria and b. caribensis promote growth and increase yield in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus and a. hypochondriacus) by improving plant nitrogen uptake.grain amaranth is an emerging crop that produces seeds having high quality protein with balanced amino-acid content. however, production is restricted by agronomic limitations that result in yields that are lower than those normally produced by cereals. in this work, the use of five different rhizobacteria were explored as a strategy to promote growth and yields in amaranthus hypochondriacus cv. nutrisol and a. cruentus cv. candil, two commercially important grain amaranth cultivars. the plants ...201424533068
effect of amaranth seeds (amaranthus cruentus) in the diet on some biochemical parameters and essential trace elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.the effect of amaranth seeds on the lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected trace element (na, k, ca and mg) levels were determined in high-fructose fed wistar rats. fructose addition to rat fodder caused changes mainly in the blood lipid profile, particularly manifesting in an increased triglyceride level within all subsequent pairs of rat groups, and ranged between 85% and 112%. administration of amaranth seeds to rats did not inhibit the increase of triglyceride induced ...201121462078
effect of pectin substances on contractile activity of the uterine myometrium in rats.we studied the effects of peptides from amaranthus cruentus l., rauwolfia serpentina benth., and citrus plants on contractile activity of the uterine myometrium in rats. pectin substances inhibited spontaneous contractile activity of uterine muscles and abolished the stimulatory effect of oxytocin. pectins had a synergistic effect with epinephrine and acetylcholine.200617152363
[isolation of pectin from amaranthus cruentus and study of its effect on the function of isolated rat heart]. 19979213470
assessment of extruded grain amaranth as a feed ingredient for broilers. 1. apparent metabolizable energy values.two trials were conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (ame) and nitrogen-corrected ame (amen) of extruded grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus). procedures for these determinations were the total collection method (tcm) and the use of acid-insoluble ash (aia) as a marker. the ame and amen values for the grain were determined both by regression analysis and by calculations based on differences from the basal diet. based on standard errors of the predicted values and coefficients ...19883405942
nutritive value of a vegetable amaranth cultivar for growing lambs.current interest in amaranth as a food resource for humans and animals has been stimulated by activities in germplasm collection and testing in the u.s. fifteen growing, intact male lambs weighing 18.7 kg were assigned randomly to three diets (five lambs/diet) for a 14-d growth trial followed immediately by an 8-d (4-d adjustment, 4-d collection) digestion and n balance trial to determine the utilization of the forage component (leaves and stems) of an african cultivar (zimbabwe cultivar pi 4820 ...19892592285
performance and yields of broilers fed extruded grain amaranth and grown to market weight.a trial was conducted to determine the effects of feeding extruded grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) on performance of male broilers grown in batteries to 49 days of age. practical corn-soy rations were supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50% amaranth and formulated to meet nutrient requirements for the starter (0 to 21 days), grower (21 to 42 days), and finisher (42 to 49 days) periods. each diet was fed to six replicate pens of 10 male birds each. no differences were observed for feed u ...19883405950
comparison of plant growth-promotion with pseudomonas aeruginosa and bacillus subtilis in three vegetables.our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) properties of bacillus subtilis and pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. solanum lycopersicum l. (tomato), abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and amaranthus sp. (african spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. at 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with b. subtilis and p. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for african spinach ...200824031240
[influence of amaranth on the production of alpha-amylase using aspergillus niger nrrl 3112].in this paper the influence of the amaranth seed meal and the aeration conditions on the alpha-amylase production by aspergillus niger nrrl 3112 were studied. the assays of selection of culture medium were carried out in a rotary shaker at 250 rpm and 2.5 cm stroke. the aeration conditions were studied in a mechanically stirred fermentor new brunswick type. a concentration of alpha-amylase of 2750 u.dun/ml was achieved at 120 h with a dry weight of 8.0 g/l, using a base medium with 5.0 g/l amara ...200011149149
characteristics of five new photoautotrophic suspension cultures including two amaranthus species and a cotton strain growing on ambient co(2) levels.suspension cultures of cotton (gossypium hirsutum), amaranthus cruentus, a. powellii, datura innoxia, and a nicotiana tabacum-n. glutinosa fusion hybrid were adapted to grow photoautotrophically under continuous light. the cotton strain grew with an atmosphere of ambient co(2) (about 0.06 to 0.07% in the culture room) while the other strains required elevated co(2) levels (5%). photoautotrophy was indicated by the requirement for co(2) and for light for growth. the strains grew with doubling tim ...198816666458
the effects of cover crop on weed control in collard (brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (lactuca sativa l.).leafy vegetables are not very competitive and weed interference can cause considerable yield losses in collard (brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (lactuca sativa l.). currently there are no pre or post emergence herbicides registered for weed control in these vegetables in turkey. for this reason, alternative weed control strategies need to be developed. cover crop residue could represent an alternative method of weed management in these crops. field studies were conducted in 2004 at t ...200617390812
natural occurrence of zearalenone and toxicogenic fungi in amaranth grain.zearalenone was detected as the natural contaminant in two samples of amaranthus cruentus grains (1980 micrograms/kg and 420 micrograms/kg, respectively). fungi isolated from these samples were screened for mycotoxin production. two of eight isolates of fusarium (f. equiseti and f. moniliforme) produced zearalenone. one of four isolates of aspergillus flavus and all four isolates of a. parasiticus produced aflatoxins. other species potentially toxicogenic such as aspergillus versicolor, penicill ...19911830753
the rate of nitrite reduction in leaves as indicated by o₂ and co₂ exchange during photosynthesis.light response (at 300 ppm co(2) and 10-50 ppm o(2) in n(2)) and co(2) response curves [at absorbed photon fluence rate (pad) of 550 μmol m(-2) s(-1)] of o(2) evolution and co(2) uptake were measured in tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.) leaves grown on either no(3)(-) or nh(4)(+) as n source and in potato (solanum tuberosum l.), sorghum (sorghum bicolor l. moench), and amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.) leaves grown on nh(4)no(3). photosynthetic o(2) evolution in excess of co(2) uptake was measured ...201121239375
contribution of selected wild and cultivated leafy vegetables from south india to lutein and beta-carotene intake.carotenoids, especially lutein and beta-carotene, offer benefits to human health in general and to eye health in particular. however, more data on the contribution of plant foods to carotenoid intake is of importance for developing strategies for promoting eye health in regions where cataract is highly prevalent such as in south india. the most frequently consumed 5 uncultivated and 5 commercially grown south andhra pradesh leafy vegetables were selected based on interviews with 100 local women. ...201020805087
treatment of amaranthus cruentus with chemical and biological inducers of resistance has contrasting effects on fitness and protection against compatible gram positive and gram negative bacterial pathogens.amaranthus cruentus (ac) plants were treated with the synthetic systemic acquired resistance (sar) inducer benzothiadiazole (bth), methyl jasmonate (meja) and the incompatible pathogen, pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (pss), under greenhouse conditions. the treatments induced a set of marker genes in the absence of pathogen infection: bth and pss similarly induced genes coding for pathogenesis-related and antioxidant proteins, whereas meja induced the arginase, lox2 and amarandin 1 genes. bth ...201424913050
chemical and nutritional evaluation of two amaranth (amaranthus cruentus)-based infant formulas.the objective of this study was to calculate, prepare and evaluate the protein efficiency ratio (p.e.r.) and net protein utilization (n.p.u.) of two infant formulas made with amaranth (amaranthus cruentus). both formulas were formulated to match a previously developed and tested soy-oats infant formula. no significant differences were found between the three formulas with respect to corrected protein efficiency ratio (p.e.r.) and net protein utilization (n.p.u.) values. only the product made wit ...19938475001
protein quality evaluation of amaranth in adult humans.this study was carried out to determine the nutritional quality of the protein of amaranth grain submitted to extrusion and popping processes, using cheese protein as reference. for the biological evaluation, the short-term nitrogen balance index method was followed with 12 experimental adult male human subjects. a latin square series 3 x 3 was used (three periods, three subjects) as an experimental design balanced to minimize residual effects by randomly ordering treatments, columns and rows. t ...19938475000
effects of feeding extruded grain amaranth to laying hens.extruded grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) was incorporated into corn-soybean meal layer rations at 0, 10, 20, or 30%. diets were each fed to 20 single comb white leghorn laying hens for 6 wk beginning at 65 wk of age. data collected from the week prior to the test period were used as a covariate. egg production was significantly higher and egg weights were significantly lower for birds fed the 10 and 20% inclusion levels of amaranth than for those fed the control diet. however, no difference ...19873432197
identification of a catalase-phenol oxidase in betalain biosynthesis in red amaranth (amaranthus cruentus).betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of caryophyllales. their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of l-tyrosine to l-dopa through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. here we report that a group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as accatpo), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. the purified enzyme a ...201526779247
effect of african leafy vegetables on the micronutrient status of mildly deficient farm-school children in south africa: a randomized controlled study.a randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effect of african leafy vegetable (alv) consumption on fe, zn and vitamin a status in children.201626146039
a rapid and reliable pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) marker for the identification of amaranthus cruentus species.a rapid and reliable pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) marker was developed to identify the amaranthus cruentus species by comparing sequences of the starch branching enzyme (sbe) locus among the three cultivated grain amaranths. we determined the partial sbe genomic sequence in 72 accessions collected from diverse locations around the world by direct sequence analysis. then, we aligned the gene sequences and searched for restriction enzyme cleavage sites specific to each speci ...201425914599
phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and potential health beneficial effects: a review.quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd.) and amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. the proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. however, recent research strongly suggests that the essential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also with potential health beneficial effects. this review focuses on the phytochemica ...201728239982
influence of processing methods on proximate composition and dieting of two amaranthus species from west cameroon.the effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of amaranthus hybridus and amaranthus cruentus from west cameroon were investigated in this study. both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked), milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. thirty-six wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named d0 (protein-fr ...201628078277
the antioxidant and phenolic profiles of five green vegetables grown in southern nigeria.regular consumption of vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. the phenolic and free radical scavenging properties of five green vegetables grown in southern nigeria were determined.201728071016
bioaccumulation and associated dietary risks of pb, cd, and zn in amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) and jute mallow (corchorus olitorius) grown on soil irrigated using polluted water from asa river, nigeria.dietary uptake of heavy metals through the consumption of vegetables grown on polluted soil can have serious human health implications. thus, the study presented in this paper investigated the bioaccumulation and associated dietary risks of pb, zn, and cd present in vegetables widely consumed in nigeria, namely amaranth and jute mallow, grown on soil irrigated with polluted water from asa river. the study found that the soil was polluted with zn, pb, and cd with pb and cd being contributed by po ...201525899541
the tolerance of grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.) to defoliation during vegetative growth is compromised during flowering.the biochemical processes underlying variations of tolerance are often accompanied by source-sink transitions affecting carbon (c) metabolism. we investigated the tolerance of amaranthus cruentus l. to total mechanical defoliation through development and in different growing seasons. defoliated a. cruentus recovered ∼80% of their above-ground biomass and ∼100% of grain yield compared to intact plants if defoliation occurred early during ontogeny, but could not compensate when defoliation occurre ...201525863889
analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genome size evolution of the amaranthus genus using gbs indicates the ancestors of an ancient crop.the genus amaranthus consists of 50-70 species and harbors several cultivated and weedy species of great economic importance. a small number of suitable traits, phenotypic plasticity, gene flow and hybridization made it difficult to establish the taxonomy and phylogeny of the whole genus despite various studies using molecular markers. we inferred the phylogeny of the amaranthus genus using genotyping by sequencing (gbs) of 94 genebank accessions representing 35 amaranthus species and measured t ...201728057554
physiological and biochemical characterization of two amaranthus species under cr(vi) stress differing in cr(vi) tolerance.the present study was undertaken to evaluate cr(vi) toxicity tolerance in two amaranthus species viz. amaranthus viridis and amaranthus cruentus exposed to hexavalent chromium [cr(vi)] stress. to ascertain this, both amaranthus species were grown under various concentrations (0, 10 and 50 μm) of cr(vi) in the hydroponic system. after 7 days of cr(vi) treatment, various traits such as growth, cr accumulation, photochemistry of photosystem ii (ps ii) (jip-test), oxidative stress and antioxidant de ...201627393992
distribution of amblydromalus limonicus in northeastern spain and diversity of phytoseiid mites (acari: phytoseiidae) in tomato and other vegetable crops after its introduction.amblydromalus limonicus (garman and mcgregor) was detected for the first time in 2011 on tomatoes of several locations of the northeastern spain. during 2012 and 2013 samplings on tomato crop cultivars in the two provinces of catalonia where the species was found were carried out. the goals of the study were to know the range of spread of the species in these two provinces, its abundance in tomato cultivars, non-crop vegetation among them, in the different parts of the tomato plant and in some o ...201627193216
hematopoietic effect of amaranthus cruentus extract on phenylhydrazine-induced toxicity in rats.amaranthus cruentus (amaranthaceae) is one of the popularly grown leafy vegetables in the indian subcontinent. leaves of the plant are rich in polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, and betalains. the plant also contains rich amounts of protein, calcium, iron, vitamins a, e, and c, and folic acid. the present work was undertaken to evaluate the antianemic effect of amaranthus cruentus. ethanol extract of amaranthus cruentus was prepared. acute oral toxicity of the extr ...201627027824
evaluation of the nutritional quality of the grain protein of new amaranths varieties.the efforts for promoting the consumption of food of plant origin are increasingly growing. the amaranth grain is an important vegetable protein source, superior in content and quality to traditional cereals. in the central-west region of argentina, new amaranth varieties have been obtained to optimize its agronomic traits and promote its use. in this work, the analysis of the wholemeal flour protein from seeds of two new varieties of amaranthus cruentus var. candil (cc) and amaranthus hypochond ...201525501792
chemical composition and bile acid binding activity of products obtained from amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) seeds.cardiovascular diseases are currently the greatest cause of mortality in the world, and dislipidemia is appearing as one of the most important risk factors. the binding of bile acids (bas) has been hypothesized as a possible mechanism by which dietary fibers lower blood cholesterol levels. besides the fibers, other components in the amaranth seeds may be related to this hypocholesterolemic effect. the objective of the present study was to evaluate the ba binding capacity of some products obtaine ...201121901402
molecular characterization of an isoamylase 1-type starch debranching enzyme (dbei) in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.).the purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of a starch debranching enzyme (dbe) in grain amaranth. a cdna clone that encodes a putative dbe was isolated from amaranth perisperm and then sequenced. this amaranth dbe appears to be an isa1-type dbe (dbei), based on its substrate specificity and the sequence similarity between the 2,391-bp cdna clone and isa1 s from potato and arabidopsis. the mature dbei of amaranth consists of 796 amino acids (90.5 kda). we analyzed the tr ...201425167854
comparative proteomic analysis of amaranth mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts and their adaptation to salt stress.the effect of salt stress was analyzed in chloroplasts of amaranthus cruentus var. amaranteca, a plant nad-malic enzyme (nad-me) type. morphology of chloroplasts from bundle sheath (bsc) and mesophyll (mc) was observed by transmission electron microscopy (tem). bsc and mc from control plants showed similar morphology, however under stress, changes in bsc were observed. the presence of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining in both type ...201425046763
salt stress-induced alterations in the root proteome of amaranthus cruentus l.salt stress is one of the major factors limiting crop productivity worldwide. amaranth is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with remarkable nutraceutical properties; it is also a stress-tolerant plant, making it an alternative crop for sustainable food production in semiarid conditions. a two-dimensional electrophoresis gel coupled with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) approach was applied in order to analyze the changes in amaranth root protein accumulation ...201424942474
effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties.grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. this study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of amaranthus hypochondriacus l. and amaranthus cruentus l. grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant act ...201424804060
the study of nad-malic enzyme in amaranthus cruentus l. under drought.decarboxylating nad-malate dehydrogenase (nad-malic enzyme, nad-me, ec 1.1.1.39) has been investigated under a long-term drought during pre-anthesis, anthesis and seed-formation phases of ontogenesis of a nad-me type c4 plant amaranthus cruentus l. using cytosol, chloroplast and mitochondrial fractions of mesophyll (m) and bundle sheath (bs) cells. we detected several molecular forms of nad-me with different subcellular localization patterns in the studied phases of amaranth ontogenesis. however ...201424444721
cytogenetic studies in four cultivated amaranthus (amaranthaceae) species.in the present study, the chromosomes numbers were confirmed, 2n = 34 for amaranthus cruentus linnaeus, 1759, and 2n = 32 for amaranthus hypochondriacus linnaeus, 1753, amaranthus mantegazzianus passer, 1864, and amaranthus caudatus linnaeus, 1753. the distribution and variability of constitutive heterochromatin were detailed using dapi-cma3 banding technique. the position of the nucleolus organizer region (nor) was observed using ag-nor banding (active loci) and fluorescent in situ hybridizatio ...201324260690
the effect of amaranth oil on monolayers of artificial lipids and hepatocyte plasma membranes with adrenalin-induced stress.in this paper the oil from seeds of amaranthus cruentus l. (amo) was shown to be an efficient modulator of the physical chemical properties of artificial lipid and rat hepatocyte plasma membranes. amo improved the membrane stability, their stress resistance and the adsorption of neurotensin to plasma membranes with the distinct biphasic interactions being observed even after adrenalin stress exposure. the analysis of pro-/antioxidant balance in rat blood revealed a mild prooxidant activity after ...201424206699
grain amaranths are defoliation tolerant crop species capable of utilizing stem and root carbohydrate reserves to sustain vegetative and reproductive growth after leaf loss.tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. this trait was studied in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus and a. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. the physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mech ...201323861825
characterization and expression analysis of the starch synthase gene family in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.).characterization and expression analysis of the starch synthase gene family was performed from grain amaranth. extensive searches for sequence data for amaranth starch synthase genes were done in the literature and in genbank, and identified four genes encoding gbssi, sssi, sssii, and sbe. alignment of predicted amino acid sequences showed that there were low levels of sequence identity among these four genes (10.6-34.5%). there was higher homology in the c-terminal region and lower homology in ...201223412630
iron, zinc and calcium dialyzability from extruded product based on whole grain amaranth (amaranthus caudatus and amaranthus cruentus) and amaranth/zea mays blends.amaranth is a native american grain appreciated for its high nutritional properties including high mineral content. the aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of fe, zn and ca from extruded products made with two varieties of amaranth and their mixtures with maize at two levels of replacement. mineral availability was estimated using dialyzability method. the contents of fe (64.0-84.0 mg/kg), ca (1977.5-2348.8 mg/kg) and zn (30.0-32.1 mg/kg) were higher in amaranth than in maize prod ...201323256750
major peptides from amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) protein inhibit hmg-coa reductase activity.the objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coa reductase (hmg-coa reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. a protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. after hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kda membrane ...201525690031
metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory.amaranthus cruentus and a. hypochondriacus are crop plants grown for grain production in subtropical countries. recently, the generation of large-scale transcriptomic data opened the possibility to study representative genes of primary metabolism to gain a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying tolerance to defoliation in these species. a multi-level approach was followed involving gene expression analysis, enzyme activity and metabolite measurements.201222966837
elevated co2 increases cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of phytolacca americana linn (pokeweed) and amaranthus cruentus l. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of cs.general concern about increasing global atmospheric co(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated co(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. to assess the combined effects of elevated co(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and cs uptake, phytolacca americana l ...201222507353
bread supplemented with amaranth (amaranthus cruentus): effect of phytates on in vitro iron absorption.the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the bread supplemented with whole amaranth flour (0, 20 and 40%) on iron bioavailability using caco-2 cells model. the phytate and lower myo-inositol phosphates content in in vitro bread digests were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. the breads made with amaranth showed significant increase of soluble phytates levels (up to 1.20 μmol/g in dry matter for the 40% of substitution) in comparison with controls, which have ...201222298026
multielemental analysis and classification of amaranth seeds according to their botanical origin.the characterization of amaranth seeds (amaranthus spp.) was developed for amaranthus hypochondriacus, amaranthus cruentus, and amaranthus dubius. the elemental concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optic atomic spectroscopy. pattern recognition methods were used for the characterization of seed samples: nonsupervised methods included principal components analysis and cluster analysis; supervised methods were linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares discrimin ...201121797241
growth and cesium uptake responses of phytolacca americana linn. and amaranthus cruentus l. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated co2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium burkholderia sp. d54, or in combination.growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated co(2) and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. the present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of burkholderia sp. d54 inoculation and elevated co(2) (860 μl l(-1)) on growth and cs uptake by phytolacca americana and amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of c ...201122074893
determination and toxicity of saponins from amaranthus cruentus seeds.the concentrations of four triterpene saponins present in amaranth seeds were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. it was shown that the total concentration of saponins in seeds was 0. 09-0.1% of dry matter. in germinating seeds an increase in concentration to 0.18% was observed after 4 days of germination, which remained stable for the next 3 days and later dropped to 0.09%. highly purified extracts from the seeds were tested for their toxicity against hamsters. the hydrophob ...199910552705
recycling of organic wastes through composting for land applications: a nigerian experience.in-vessel composting, a contribution to sustainable solid waste management, was conducted on source-separated waste materials generated in abeokuta city, south-west nigeria. feedstock (household, agricultural and municipal waste) and the resultant composts were chemically characterized using standard procedures. identification and changes in the microbial population during composting, the effects of composting on waste volume reduction (wvr) and elemental composition of composts were evaluated. ...201121159738
potential of amaranthus cruentus brs alegria in the production of flour, starch and protein concentrate: chemical, thermal and rheological characterization.amaranth is a little-known culture in brazilian agriculture. amaranthus cruentus brs alegria was the first cultivar recommended by embrapa for the soil of the brazilian scrubland. in order to evaluate the potential of this species in the production of flour, starch and protein concentrates, the latter products were obtained from a. cruentus brs alegria seeds, characterized and compared with the products obtained from the a. caudatus species cultivated in its soil of origin.201020394000
biogas digestates affect crop p uptake and soil microbial community composition.fermentation residues from biogas production are known as valuable organic fertilisers. this study deals with the effect of cattle slurry, co-digested cattle slurry, co-digested energy crops and mineral fertilisers on the activity and composition of soil microbiota. furthermore, the effect of solid-liquid separation as a common pre-treatment of digestate was tested. the fertilising effects were analysed in an 8-week pot experiment on loamy sand using two crops, amaranthus cruentus and sorghum bi ...201626410342
selenium supplementation of amaranth sprouts influences betacyanin content and improves anti-inflammatory properties via nfκb in murine raw 264.7 macrophages.sprouts contain potent compounds which while influencing crucial transduction pathways in cell reveal anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. in this study, we report the biological activity for seeds and colourful sprouts of four types of edible amaranth, as amaranth has recently attracted interest due to its appreciable nutritional value. mtt assay conducted for the amaranth seeds and sprouts did not show any adverse effect on the viability of murine raw 264.7 cells. as amaranth accumulat ...201626162623
molecular identification of ageratum enation virus, betasatellite and alphasatellite molecules isolated from yellow vein diseased amaranthus cruentus in india.natural occurrence of yellow vein disease on amaranthus cruentus was observed at lucknow, india in the year 2008. the causal virus was successfully transmitted through whiteflies (bemisia tabaci) from diseased a. cruentus to healthy seedlings of a. cruentus and other test species which indicated begomovirus infection. the begomovirus dna-a, betasatellite, and alphasatellite components associated with yellow vein disease were amplified by rolling circle amplification using ø-29 dna polymerase fro ...201323963765
[amaranthus cruentus protein concentrate. extraction methods. functional properties].the most favorable conditions of ph, temperature ratio for the yielding of a protein concentrate (pc) of seed flour from amaranthus cruentus was determined. the optimal values were: extraction ph 11, stirring time 1 h 30 min, precipitation ph 4.5 and a flour/ solvent ratio of 1:15. obtained the pc, its functional properties were assayed. the pc chemical composition expressed in g/100 g was: protein 50.9: humidity 3.3; ethereal extract 5.8; raw fiber 6.4; ashes 3.8; total carbohydrates 29.9. the ...19969239293
influence of amaranthus betacyanin pigments on the physical properties and color of wheat flours.the effect of betacyanin pigments from amaranthus tricolor and amaranthus cruentus on chromatic and physicochemical properties of three wheat flours was studied. addition of amaranthus betacyanins increased the gelatinization temperatures (t(o), t(p), and t(c)) of all wheat flours without altering their transition ranges (t(c)-t(o)). the melting enthalpies (deltah) were either increased or decreased depending on the types of flour and pigment. amaranthus betacyanins decreased the peak viscosity ...200818683942
potential of crops uncommon to alabama for management of root-knot and soybean cyst nematodes.vigna unguiculata, cassia fasiculata, and sesamum indicum did not support meloidogyne arenaria, m. incognita, or heterodera glycines race 4 in greenhouse studies with soils from peanut and soybean fields. fagopyron eseulentum, cyamopsis tetragonoloba, and cucurbita pepo were hosts to the two meloidogyne spp. but were nonhosts to h. glycines. meloidogyne arenaria and m. incognita galled but reproduced poorly in the roots of three types of amaranthus cruentus, and low densities of these two meloid ...198819290317
[activity of oil isolated from amaranth seeds on energetic functions of rat liver mitochondria after adrenaline introduction].it has been shown that a three-week feeding of rats with oil derived from seeds of amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.) leads to a moderate activation of respiration of coupled and uncoupled rat liver mitochondria (mch) that oxidize succinate and succinate + glutamate, as well as alpha-ketoglutarate and alpha-ketoglutarate + malonate. in animals receiving the amaranth oil, the injection of adrenaline did not affect the oil-activated respiration of mch during succinate oxidation; i. e., animals prep ...200718357794
relationships between quantum yield for co2 assimilation, activity of key enzymes and co2 leakiness in amaranthus cruentus, a c4 dicot, grown in high or low light.in c(4) photosynthesis, a part of co(2) fixed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) leaks from the bundle-sheath cells. because the co(2) leak wastes atp consumed in the c(4) cycle, the leak may decrease the efficiency of co(2) assimilation. to examine this possibility, we studied the light dependence of co(2) leakiness (phi), estimated by the concurrent measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination, initial activities of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubi ...200818032398
evaluation of antioxidant activity of amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) grain and by-products (flour, popping, cereal).the objective of our study was evaluation antioxidant activity of amaranthus cruentus grain and by-products (flour, cereals and popping). the evaluation was performed by frap, dpph and abts methods. frap and abts assays gave comparable results, dpph method gave lower values. among by-products cereal had the highest activity as the least processed product. additionally, antioxidant capacities of two cultivars of amaranth (varieties aztek and rawa) were compared and the influence of grain soaking ...200717711088
effects of growth light and nitrogen nutrition on the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in leaves of a c4 plant, amaranthus cruentus.properties of c4 photosynthesis were examined in amaranthus cruentus l. (nad-malic enzyme (me) subtype, dicot) grown under different light and nitrogen (n) conditions, from the viewpoint of n investment into their photosynthetic components. in low-light (ll) leaves, chlorophyll content per leaf area was greater and chlorophyll alb ratio was lower than in high-light (hl) leaves. these indicate that ll leaves invest more n into their light-harvesting systems. however, this n investment did not con ...200617080618
influence of a protein concentrate from amaranthus cruentus seeds on lipid metabolism.it is widely known that elevated cholesterol and triglycerides levels favor the development of heart disease. in this paper we studied the effect of a protein concentrate from amaranthus cruentus (ac) on the lipid content in serum and liver tissue of male wistar rats. the animals were separated into two groups, each group with 16 rats. the control diet had casein as protein source (cd), and the experimental one had ac protein concentrate (pcacd). the diets contained 1% cholesterol. parameters of ...200616380644
effect of addition of grit made of crude and expanded amaranth seeds on the quality of canned meat.grit made of crude and expanded amaranth seeds was added to meat-fat batter in order to determine its effect on its quality. amaranthus cruentus seeds were expanded by the nonpressure method and graded by density (degree of expansion) into three fractions: 341, 208 and 135 kg/m3; crude seed density was 800 kg/m3. then the seeds were ground to a homogeneous mass with granulation of 0.8 mm. the water-holding capacity and viscosity of grit made of crude and expanded seeds were determined. class ii ...200212224423
quantum yields and rate constants of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitation quenching (experiment and model).sunflower (helianthus annuus l.), cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.), tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.), sorghum (sorghum bicolor moench.), amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.), and cytochrome b6f complex-deficient transgenic tobacco leaves were used to test the response of plants exposed to differnt light intensities and co2 concentrations before and after photoinhibition at 4000 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1 and to thermoinhibition up to 45[deg]c. quantum yields of photochemical and nonphotochemical excitatio ...199712223845
amaranthus cruentus flour edible films: influence of stearic acid addition, plasticizer concentration, and emulsion stirring speed on water vapor permeability and mechanical properties.films forming solutions composed of amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) flour (4.0 g/100 ml), stearic acid (5-15 g/100 g of flour), and glycerol (25-35 g/100 g of flour) were prepared by an emulsification process, with varying stirring speed values (6640-13360 rpm). the influence of these parameters (stearic acid and glycerol concentrations and stirring speed) on the water vapor barrier and mechanical properties of films was evaluated using the response surface methodology (rsm). other characterizati ...200616939322
uptake and release of cesium-137 by five plant species as influenced by soil amendments in field experiments.phytoextraction field experiments were conducted on soil contaminated with 0.39 to 8.7 bq/g of 137cs to determine the capacity of five plant species to accumulate 137cs and the effects of three soil treatments on uptake. the plants tested were redroot pigweed (amaranthus retroflexus l. var. aureus); a mixture of redroot pigweed and spreading pigweed (a. graecizans l.); purple amaranth (a. cruteus l.) x powell's amaranth (a. powellii s. watson), referred to here as the amaranth hybrid; indian mus ...201214674551
uptake of 134cs in the shoots of amaranthus tricolor and amaranthus cruentus.amaranthus tricolor l. and amaranthus cruentus l. were grown in pots containing 7.5 kg soils artificially contaminated with three levels of 134cs activity: 5.55 x 10(5) bq pot-1, 1.11 x 10(6) bq pot(-)1, and 1.665 x 10(6) bq pot(-1), respectively. forty-nine days after sowing and growth, plants were harvested. the plants growing in soils with increasing 134cs concentrations showed increasing concentration of this radionuclide in shoots. there were significant differences in uptake of 134cs appli ...200312826408
cholesterol-lowering properties of amaranth grain and oil in hamsters.amaranth was an important ancient grain and has current nutritional potential, being high in protein, fiber, lysine, magnesium, calcium, and squalene. limited, inconsistent evidence demonstrates amaranth grain or oil can lower cholesterol in animal models. in the present study, hamsters received hypercholesterolemic diets consisting of a control, 10 or 20% amaranthus cruentus grain, or 2.5 or 5% crude amaranth oil for four weeks. amaranth oil (5%) decreased total and non-high-density lipoprotein ...200312690910
photosynthesis with single-rooted amaranthus leaves. ii. regulation of ribuelose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, nad-malic enzyme and nad-malate dehydrogenase and coordination between pcr and c4 photosynthetic metabolism in response to changes in the source-sink balance.we have studied source-sink relationships with a model consisting of single-rooted leaves without petioles. we previously reported that the rate of photosynthesis decreased when c4 model plants prepared from amaranthus cruentus leaves were subjected to sink-limited conditions by exposure to continuous light for a few days. it was suggested that the inhibition is due to a coordinated decrease in the activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubpcase) and phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxylase ...200212461129
phytochemical composition, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of amaranthus cruentus l. and amaranthus hybridus l. extracts.this paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of amaranthus cruentus (a. cruentus) and amaranthus hybridus (a. hybridus), two food plant species found in burkina faso. hydroacetonic (hae), methanolic (me), and aqueous extracts (ae) from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. hydroace ...201224281664
[trypsin inhibitor from amaranth (amaranthys cruentus) leaves].a protein that inhibited the proteolytic activity of trypsin was isolated from amaranth leaves (amaranthus cruentus) by affinity chromatography on trypsin-sepharose. the inhibition was noncompetitive (with n-nitroanilide-n-alpha-benzoyl-dl-arginine as substrate) and had a ki of 11.87 x 10(-7) 7 m. the protein caused a weaker inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin, had no effect on subtilisin, displayed a molecular weight of 8 kda, and contained no cysteine residues.200611042876
[evaluation of the chemical characteristics and physical and rheological properties of the starch isolated from 2 amaranth species (amaranthus cruentus and amaranthus hypochondriacus)].in this study the chemical composition, and the physical and rheological properties of starches isolated from seeds of three experimental varieties of amaranthus cruentus and amaranthus hypochondriacus, were evaluated. the starch content of amaranth grains was evaluated by two methods. the starch obtained showed a high purity with protein contents ranging from 0.90 to 0.93; the fat content was higher in a. cruentus starch than in the other two samples. the amylose content was different between t ...199810205917
globulin and albumin-2 associated with protein bodies in amaranthus cruentus seeds.to examine whether albumin-2, a specific protein found only in amaranth seeds so far, is associated with protein bodies, we isolated protein bodies from amaranthus cruentus seed embryos by rate-zonal centrifugation with a sucrose gradient. most protein bodies in the final preparation were intact when observed by electron microscopy. profiles by sds-page showed that the isolated protein bodies contained globulin and albumin-2.199827388648
patterns of light and nitrogen distribution in relation to whole canopy carbon gain in c3 and c4 mono- and dicotyledonous species.an analytical model was used to describe the optimal nitrogen distribution. from this model, it was hypothesized that the non-uniformity of the nitrogen distribution increases with the canopy extinction rate for light and the total amount of free nitrogen in the canopy, and that it is independent of the slope of the relation between light saturated photosynthesis (pm) and leaf nitrogen content (nl). these hypotheses were tested experimentally for plants with inherently different architectures an ...199528306967
a pitfall in determining the globulin/albumin ratio in amaranth grains.in amaranth grains (amaranthus hypochondriacus l. and amaranthus cruentus l.), there were two albumin (alb) fractions, alb-1 and alb-2; alb-1 was extracted with water or 0.5 m nacl, and alb-2 was extracted with water after extracting alb-1 and globulin. the amount of alb-2 comprised about 30% of the total albumin and globulin content. little or no measurable protein corresponding to the amaranth alb-2 was extracted from seeds of buckwheat (fagopyrum esculentum moench), quinoa (chenopodium quinoa ...19921506925
productivity and food value of amaranthus cruentus under non-lethal salt stress.stress effects from the accumulation of metal salts may pose a problem for plants in closed biological systems such as spacecraft. this work examined the effects of salinity on growth, photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the crop plant, amaranthus. plants were germinated and grown in modified hoagland's solution with nacl concentrations of 0 to 1.0%. plants received salt treatments at various times in development to assess effects on particular life history phases. for amaranthus cruentus, g ...198911537382
development and evaluation of a low-cost amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) containing food for preschool children.a powdered blend for feeding preschool children was prepared from whole amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) seeds, pearled oats, soybeans, sucrose and vegetable oil. the blend was similar in proximal chemical analysis and total caloric content, and identical in calorie distribution and vitamin and mineral patterns to a soy/oats infant formula previously developed. the amaranth blend equalled the fao/who 1973 children's pattern in tryptophan and exceeded this pattern, as well as the soy/oats formula i ...19873506402
genetics of grain amaranths : 4. variation and early generation response to selection in amaranthus cruentus l.two landrace populations of amaranthus cruentus l. were crossed to generate f2 populations for quantitative genetic analyses of variation. evidence for significant inbreeding depression in comparisons of f1 and f2generation means suggested some role of nonadditive gene action for days to first anthesis, leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, plant height, panicle length, and panicle weight. a pooled f2 population was subjected to bidirectional mass selection for time of first anthesis (two cyc ...198724241466
milling procedures and air classification of amaranth flours.the different milling characteristics of amaranthus cruentus, a domestic variety prevailing in mexico, selected as representative sample, are herein discussed. this was subjected to proximate analysis, which confirmed its good quality. milling trials were carried out for the preparation of whole flour by means of conventional mills and by combining some of these with the raymond and alpine separators for air classification. results were then compared to those obtained with a strong-scott pearler ...19853842925
industrial corn flour enrichment with whole amaranth flour and milling fractions in corn-based products.whole flour and milling fractions of raw amaranth seeds were used in 90:10, 80:20 and 50:50 mixtures with industrialized corn flour (minsa) to prepare tortillas and arepas, basic nutritional foods in several latin american countries. the three corn-amaranth mixtures showed a good protein and fat content as well as amino acid profile, and presented adequate physical characteristics for making tortillas. amaranth whole flour and commercial corn flour mixtures in the proportion of 80:20 and 50:50 w ...19853842057
comparison of the chemical composition and nutritional value of amaranthus cruentus flour and its protein concentrate.plants constitute an alternative source of proteins in the human diet, with advantages over animal proteins because of their low content of saturated fats and absence of cholesterol. within the framework of a wider research project on the role of amaranthus cruentus (ac) in lipid metabolism, in this work the chemical composition and biological value of the ac flour and its protein concentrate were compared. proximate chemical composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, some antinutrient fac ...200415675147
prevention of garlic-induced hemolytic anemia using some tropical green leafy vegetables.garlic (allium sativum) is popularly consumed in nigeria because of its health benefit in treatment and management of several disease conditions. however, excessive intake of garlic may cause hemolytic anemia. this project sought to investigate the ability of some commonly consumed tropical green leafy vegetables-namely, amaranthus cruentus, baselia alba, solanum macrocarpon, ocimum gratissimum, and corchorus olitorius-to prevent garlic-induced hemolytic anemia. wister strain albino rats were fe ...200415671698
[chemical and nutritional characterization of amaranthus (amaranthus cruentus)].two samples of amaranthus cruentus harvested in 1987 (sample a) and 1990 (sample b) were studied. whole and refined flours were obtained. the whole flours contained 14.6 and 12.6% protein and 6.6 and 7.3 ether extraction, respectively. both samples contained significant levels of ca, p, mg and k. amaranth oil contained 19% palmitic acid, 3.4% stearic acid, 3.4% stearic acid, 34% oleic acid and 33% linoleic acid. docosaenoic acid (c22:1) was present at the level of 9%. the ratio of saturated to u ...19947717808
optimization of the isoelectric precipitation method to obtain protein isolates from amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) seeds.this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of extraction ph (7.8-9.2) and precipitation ph (4.3-5.7) on four selected quality attributes of protein isolates from amaranth seeds (amaranthus cruentus) such as protein content (pc), whiteness index (wi), enthalpy of transition (en), and denaturation temperature (dt). ten different treatments involving extraction and precipitation ph combinations were analyzed by a central composite design; the experimental data were fitted by a second-order ...200212381143
[production of pectinases by penicillium simplicissimum a3263 in an amaranth-seed flour medium].the present work studies the production of pectinases using a strain of penicillium simplicissimum a3263 and considering the influence of adding amaranthus cruentus seed meal in a selected medium. we also considered the influence of aeration on enzyme production. research was oriented towards the production of pectin lyase, the enzyme having the highest commercial value. this work was carried out in erlenmeyer flasks in rotary shaker to select the medium and in a mechanically stirred fermentor t ...201311942079
extraction and purification of squalene from amaranthus grain.grain amaranth has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as a natural source of squalene. oil contents, squalene contents, and fatty acid profiles were determined in 11 genotypes of four grain amaranth species. although the oil contents of grain amaranth were low (from 5.1% in amaranthus tricolor to 7.7% in amaranthus cruentus) as compared to other oil-containing grains, high concentrations of squalene were found in total lipids, ranging from 3.6% in amaranthus hypochondriacus to 6. ...200211782209
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