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dirofilaria immitis and its potential mosquito vectors in central new york state.screening of 25,822 dog blood samples indicated approximately a 1% infection rate with dirofilaria immitis. dipetalonema reconditum microfilariae were found in approximately 2% of 1,876 feral dogs examined. laboratory experimentation indicated that 6 of 10 local mosquito species examined allowed successful extrinsic incubation of d immitis. indices of experimental infection indicated aedes triseriatus and anopheles quadrimaculatus were excellent hosts for d immitis, but other factors considered, ...197720828
canine filariasis in salamanca (northwest spain).a survey of dogs in four areas of salamanca province (northwest spain) was carried out to determine the prevalence of filariids in the canine population. blood samples from 293 dogs were tested for the presence of microfilariae, using a modification of the knott technique. for correct identification of filariid species, blood smears associated with the 43 positive knott tests were histochemically stained for demonstration of the somatic distribution of acid phosphatase activity. the survey revea ...19892604454
monoclonal antibodies to parasite antigens found in the serum of dirofilaria immitis-infected dogs.we recently reported that parasite antigens are detectable in the serum of dirofilaria immitis-infected dogs by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (cie). hybridoma cell lines that produce monoclonal antibodies specific for these antigens were obtained by immunizing mice with a partially purified antigen preparation, fusing spleen cells with sp-2 myeloma cells, and screening cell culture supernatants for antibody by elisa and cie inhibition. antibodies specific for two epitopes shared by the two major ...19852578155
identification of dirofilaria immitis-infected dogs with a coagglutination assay.the presence of dirofilaria immitis excretory-secretory (es) products was detected in the urine of infected dogs using a coagglutination assay. urine samples from 30 naturally infected dogs were positive. seventeen of them were microfilaremic, whereas 13 had become amicrofilaremic after receiving 2 courses of diethylcarbamazine. urine samples from 20 dogs infected with other parasites, dipetalonema reconditum (7), toxocara canis (5), and ancylostoma caninum (8), and urine samples from 20 healthy ...19921738064
[finding of dipetalonema reconditum (grassi, 1890) (nematoda: filarioidea) in a dog in cuba]. 19846390578
experimental dipetalonema reconditum infections in dogs. 19846539822
dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum infections in oklahoma dogs. 1976943387
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from a humane shelter in ohio.hearts of 500 dogs more than 1 year old from a humane shelter in columbus, oh, were examined for dirofilaria immitis infection. peripheral blood from dogs with worms in the heart was examined for microfilariae. dirofilaria immitis adults were found in 24 (4.8%) hearts. the number of worms in infected hearts were: 19 (1 dog), 6 (2 dogs), 5 (1 dog), 4 (2 dogs), 3 (1 dog), 2 (9 dogs), and 1 (8 dogs). of the 24 infected dogs, 4 had only male worms, 8 had only female worms, and 12 had worms of both s ...1977870466
dipetalonema (acanthocheilonema) didelphis sp. n. (nematoda: filarioidea) from opossums, with a redescription of d. (a.) pricei (vaz and pereira 1934).dipetalonema (acanthocheilonema) didelphis sp. n. recovered from the subcutaneous and periesophageal connective tissues of didelphis virginiana from several localities in the united states and of d. marsupialis from colombia is described. dipetalonema didelphis sp. n. resembles d reconditum and d. mansonbahri in size, in lacking a two-segmented buccal capsule, and in the female having a long, digitiform tail. dipetalonema reconditum, however, has a much longer glandular esophagus and d. mansonba ...1979575550
diagnostic criteria for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for occult heartworm disease: standardization of the test system in naturally exposed dogs.the development of criteria for interpreting and reporting the results of an occult heartworm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to practitioners is described. the antigen is a saline extract of adult female dirofilaria immitis. the cutoff absorbance a400 nm values were estimated, using 106 dogs free of infection. any a400 nm value less than 0.526 is considered negative and values greater than or equal to 0.784 are positive. intermediate a400 nm values are interpreted as suspect. absorbance value ...19846543102
high dipetalonema reconditum microfilarial counts in two dogs.dipetalonema reconditum microfilarial counts of 509 and 932/ml of blood, respectively, were found in 2 dogs thought to have been infected with dirofilaria immitis. the high counts were attributed to a state of immunosuppression. it was concluded that microfilarial width is a more reliable criterion that microfilarial numbers for the differentiation of d immitis and d reconditum infections. for reliable width measurements, it is necessary to use the modified knott or polycarbonate filter techniqu ...1978566740
[comparison between the microfilariae of dipetalonema reconditum (grassi, 1890) and dirofilaria immitis (leidy, 1856) (nematoda: filarioidea)]. 19846399596
clinical responses of dogs to experimentally induced dipetalonema reconditum infection.six male and 6 female beagles, 6 to 7 months old, were allotted to 2 groups: group i--inoculated subcutaneously with 30 dipetalonema reconditum infective larvae/dog, and group ii--noninoculated controls. group comparisons were made in regard to hematologic values, knott test results, body weights, blood urea nitrogen, total serum protein, serum albumin and alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities. routine urinalysis data were compared at 1 week before and at 28 weeks after the ino ...19836685983
canine heartworm in the domestic and wild canids of southeastern nebraska.the prevalence of canine heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) was examined in the domestic dog, coyote (canis latrans), and red fox (vulpes fulva) populations of southeastern nebraska. microfilariae were detected in 21.4% (22 of 103) of the domestic dogs. the average age of infection for dogs was 5.8 yr. nine of the 22 infected dogs also were positive for dipetalonema reconditum. thirty-nine of 443 (8.9%) coyotes were found to have adult heartworms. the average number of male and female worms per hea ...19854093815
[imported arthropod-borne parasites and parasitic arthropods in dogs. species spectrum and epidemiologic analysis of the cases diagnosed in 1995/96].between january 1995 and december 1996 nonendemic or only regionally occurring arthropodborne parasites including ehrlichiae and parasitic arthropods in germany were detected in 484 dogs, whereby at least 15 species were involved. listed in decreasing order, leishmania infections occurred most frequently, followed by infections/infestations with babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, rhipicephalus sanguineus, dirofilaria immitis and dermacentor reticulatus. the other species, namely babesia gibsoni, tr ...19989531673
microfilaricidal activity of ivermectin against dipetalonema reconditum. 19836687905
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum in greyhounds.blood samples from 331 greyhounds in the hunter valley and nearby coastal areas of new south wales were examined for microfilariae using a filtration technique. species were identified by histochemical staining; 10.9% of the greyhounds were infected with dirofilaria immitis and 3.6% with dipetalonema reconditum. the prevalence of infection of both species was significantly greater in summer than in winter (p = less than 0.05). infection with d. immitis was correlated with differences in age, sex ...19853842800
studies on naturally occurring filarial infections in dogs in lebanon. i. dipetalonema reconditum.a survey for filarial parasites was carried out on dogs in lebanon. the peripheral blood was examined for microfilariae and the skins and carcasses for adult worms. three methods were used for blood examination: (a) thick blood films stained with giemsa; (b) a modified knott's technique (methylene blue stained); (c) sodium citrate technique. two species of filarial worm were found, dipetalonema reconditum and another species of dipetalonema which will be described in a later paper. the morpholog ...1978566087
survey of canine heartworm in the city of recife, pernambuco, brazil.six hundred and eleven random-source dogs (338 male, 273 female) one year of age or older, from six sections of the city of recife, pernambuco, were examined antemortem for circulating microfilariae dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum adult heartworm (d. immitis) antigen, and examined postmortem for adult heartworms. the prevalence of heartworm infection was 2.3% (14/611), as determined by necropsy for adult worms, and 1% (6/611) had circulating microfilariae of d. immitis; thus, 57. ...199910464398
dipetalonema reconditum in dogs with microfilaraemia. 19854039925
[dipetalonema reconditum (grassi, 1890) (nematoda: filaroidea). first report in the isla de la juventud]. 19863299542
[importation of the dog filariae dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum into austria]. 19873687286
dipetalonema reconditum in the human eye. 200111702740
comparison of serologic tests for detection of antigen in canine heartworm infections.in 30 random-source dogs, we determined sensitivity and specificity of 5 serologic tests for detection of canine heartworm antigens. seventeen of the dogs were infected naturally with adult dirofilaria immitis, and 4 of the infected dogs were amicrofilaremic. the ability of the serologic tests to predict whether a dog was infected or uninfected (overall test accuracy) ranged from 73 to 97%. sensitivity was not affected by circulating d immitis microfilariae, but was markedly influenced by the nu ...19883391834
occurrence of some blood and intestinal parasites in dogs in curaçao, netherlands antilles.in august 1986, 133 dogs at the veterinary service of the netherlands antilles and the spca of curaçao were examined for microfilaremia and for evidence of gastrointestinal parasitism. microfilariae of dipetalonema reconditum were present in 27.8% of the dogs examined with no significant difference in the infection rate between domestic and feral dogs. microfilariae of the canine heartworm dirofilaria immitis were found in 9% of the dogs with a significantly higher rate of infection in domestic ...19883265813
prepatent period of dipetalonema reconditum in experimentally-infected dogs. 1978566317
specific polymerase chain reaction for differential diagnosis of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum using primers derived from internal transcribed spacer region 2 (its2).both dirofilaria immiti and dipetalonema reconditum may be found in blood of infected dogs but it is not easy to distinguish d. immitis from d. reconditum in morphology. we cloned and sequenced the contiguous internal transcribed spacer (its) region, its1-5.8s-its2, of these two different parasites and published on genbank as af217800 for d. immiti and af217801 for d. reconditum in this study. we designed two pairs of specific primers derived from its2 being used for polymerase chain reaction (p ...200212062512
the incidence of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum in dogs and cats in sydney. 19734734728
canine filariasis (dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum): survey in southwestern connecticut. 19734795934
histochemical differentiation of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum. 19715101887
an investigation into the health status and diseases of wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in the kruger national park.many factors have been cited as possible reasons for the decline in the number of wild dogs (lycaon pictus), but few studies have provided supportive data. between 1990 and 1993, the dynamics of 10 wild dog packs in the southern district of the kruger national park in south africa were monitored. casual observations of the causes of disease and mortality in the entire population were also recorded. during the same period, 46 wild dogs were immobilised, weighed, and subjected to physical examinat ...19957629782
prevalence of microfilaraemia in episodic weakness and clinically normal dogs belonging to hunting breeds.blood samples from 50 dogs with episodic weakness and 50 clinically normal dogs, all belonging to hunting breeds, were examined for microfilariae using the modified knott's method. the prevalence of microfilaraemia in dogs belonging to the episodic weakness group was 10% for dirofilaria immitis, 30% for dirofilaria repens and 8% for acanthocheilonema reconditum. in the clinically normal group, the figures were 14% for dirofilaria repens and 4% for acanthocheilonema reconditum. the overall percen ...19947829845
circulating non-human microfilaria in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.a 12-yr-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus requiring steroid therapy was found to have a circulating microfilaria during an exacerbation of her illness. morphologically, the microfilaria does not correspond precisely with any previously described species, though similarities exist between the patient's microfilaria and those of dipetalonema reconditum of the dog and d. interstitium of the grey squirrel. the organism reported here is probably an undescribed species from a wild mammal. alt ...1978568893
the prevalence of dirofilaria immitis in dogs in sydney.four hundred and four dogs from 9 pounds in sydney were examined for circulating microfilariae and antigens of dirofilaria immitis. one hundred of these were also examined post mortem for adult heartworms. the prevalence of infection in the 404 dogs as shown by serology was 11.4%, and 5.9% had circulating microfilariae of d immitis. adult heartworms were present in 15 of 100 dogs. dipetalonema reconditum microfilariae were present in 3.7% of dogs. dirofilariosis is still a common and important p ...19968660208
[imported parasites in dogs: dirofilaria repens and dipetalonema reconditum].between june 1993 and may 1996 infections with filariae were diagnosed in 80 dogs. five animals were infected with dirofilaria repens and three other dogs with dipetalonema reconditum. one of the d. reconditum positive dogs was also infected with dirofilaria immitis. an epidemiological analysis of the cases was possible for three d. repens and two d. reconditum infected dogs. two of the dogs with d. repens infections had been imported from italy or greece, the third dog had been taken by its own ...19979312900
canine filarial infections in north taiwan.to assess the current status of dirofilaria immitis infection and to determine whether there were other canine filarial infections in north taiwan, postmortem examination was conducted in 180 stray dogs more than 12 months old. blood and serum samples were examined using a modified knott's test and an antigen-detecting enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit, respectively. filarial infection was found in 60.6% of the dogs: 55% with d. immitis and 12.2% dipetalonema reconditum. moreover, th ...19979352007
canine filariasis. importance and transmission in the baix llobregat area, barcelona (spain).field and laboratory studies were performed in order to assess the degree of canine dirofilariasis caused by dirofilaria immitis (leidy) in the baix llobregat region, a fluvial area near barcelona, spain. a total of 188 dogs were sampled between may and august of 1994. three main areas were chosen: the western delta, the eastern delta and the northern zone. simultaneously, a mosquito sampling programme was carried out with co2 light traps, to search for infective larvae (l3) of d. immitis. of th ...19989763317
development of a pcr- and probe-based test for the sensitive and specific detection of the dog heartworm, dirofilaria immitis, in its mosquito intermediate host.the mosquito-borne filarial worm, dirofilaria immitis, causes heartworm disease in dogs. detection of this parasite in its mosquito intermediate host currently involves dissection and microscopic examination for larval stages. although this method is used commonly as a screening tool for epidemiological surveys, it lacks both sensitivity and specificity. in this study, a more efficient pcr- and probe-based diagnostic assay was developed. the target selected for this assay is a segment of the 16 ...199910657147
distribution, prevalence, and relative risk of filariasis in dogs from the state of washington (1997-1999).using antigen capture and filter tests, 6,078 dogs throughout the state of washington were examined for filariasis between july 1, 1997 and october 31, 1999. in western washington, 791 males and 901 females examined were outdoors, not on prophylaxis, and had traveled out of the state; 6/791 (0.8%) males and 7/901 (0.8%) females were infected with dirofilaria immitis (d. immitis), and one (0.1%) male and one (0.1%) female were infected with dipetalonema reconditum (d. reconditum). there were also ...200111450834
helminths in dogs belonging to people in a resource-limited urban community in gauteng, south africa.one hundred and sixty-four faecal samples, 148 adhesive tape swabs and 132 blood samples were collected from dogs in boksburg, gauteng, to assess the prevalence of helminth parasites in the area. sixty-nine of these dogs were also necropsied and helminths recovered from the gastro-intestinal tracts. ancylostoma caninum was the most common helminth and was present in 88% of the dogs, followed by dipylidium caninum in 39% of dogs, toxocara canis in 36%, ancylostoma braziliense in 20%, spirocerca l ...200111585088
detection of dirofilaria immitis and other arthropod-borne filarioids by an hrm real-time qpcr, blood-concentrating techniques and a serological assay in dogs from costa rica.canine filarioids are important nematodes transmitted to dogs by arthropods. diagnosis of canine filariosis is accomplished by the microscopic identification of microfilariae, serology or pcr for filarial-dna. the aim of this study was to evaluate a molecular assay for the detection of canine filariae in dog blood, to compare its performance to other diagnostic techniques, and to determine the relationship between microfilarial concentration and infection with other vector-borne pathogens.201525851920
human subcutaneous dirofilariasis. 1. two new cases in venice. identification of the causal agent as dirofilaria repens raillet and henry, 1911.two human cases of subcutaneous dirofilariasis are described in a 41 year-old woman and in a 14 year-old boy living in venice lido. in the first case, the development of a nodule at the left forearm had been preceded by generalized symptoms such as pruriginous urticarioid patches in various regions of the body, transitory swellings and 8% eosinophilia. from the nodule, an adult female of dirofilaria repens was recovered with embryos visible in the uterus. in the second case, the parasite was loc ...19826926932
canine filarial infections in a human brugia malayi endemic area of india.a very high prevalence of microfilaremia of 42.68 per cent out of 164 canine blood samples examined was observed in cherthala (of alappuzha district of kerala state), a known human brugia malayi endemic area of south india. the species of canine microfilariae were identified as dirofilaria repens, brugia malayi, and acanthocheilonema reconditum. d. repens was the most commonly detected species followed by b. pahangi. d. immitis was not detected in any of the samples examined. based on molecular ...201424971339
dermatitis associated with dirofilaria (nochtiella) repens microfilariae in dogs from central italy.pruritic dermatitis associated with dirofilaria (nochtiella) repens microfilariae in the blood was diagnosed in 22 dogs from fermo (central italy). according to the history, previous unsuccessful treatments with corticosteroids, antibiotics, restricted diet, flea control, levamisole and ivermectin were recorded in 17 dogs (77.3%). the combined filtration tests and antigen tests, performed during the study, were negative for dirofilaria immitis and acanthocheilonema reconditum in each case. derma ...200212061238
cutaneous lesions in dogs with dirofilaria (nochtiella) repens infestation and concurrent tick-borne transmitted diseases.a pruritic dermatitis characterized by the presence of erythema, papules, focal or multifocal alopecia, crusting and nodules was seen in 28 dogs with dirofilaria repens microfilariae infestation in an endemic area in north-west italy. previous unsuccessful nonspecific antipruritic treatments, flea control and restricted diet were recorded in 53.6% of the patients. both the knott and the antigen tests were negative for dirofilaria immitis and acanthocheilonema reconditum. concurrent babesiosis an ...200212358611
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum infection in dogs: 805 cases (1980-1989).clinical records of 6,977 dogs examined at the small animal clinic of the university of tennessee college of veterinary medicine from january 1980 through december 1989 were analyzed to determine the prevalence and changing frequency of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum infection. using the knott's test on these dogs, 805 (11.54%) tested positive for microfilariae, with d immitis in 430 dogs (6.16%), and dip reconditum in 375 dogs (5.37%). statistical analysis confirmed that the pr ...19921612997
activity of levamisole hydrochloride against dipetalonema reconditum-like microfilariae in bat-eared foxes. 19807192704
a prevalence survey and risk analysis of filariosis in dogs from the mt. vesuvius area of southern italy.a dog microfilariae prevalence and risk factor survey was conducted in 51 contiguous municipalities of the mt. vesuvius area (campania region, southern italy) in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding filarial worms in this zone. between may 1999 and june 2000, blood samples were collected from 351 asymptomatic dogs. blood samples were examined using a modified knott's technique and histochemical staining in order to count and identify microfilariae. the ...200111777604
detection of circulating parasite antigens in canine dirofilariasis by counterimmunoelectrophoresis.circulating dirofilaria immitis antigen was detected in sera from 24 of 24 infected dogs by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (cie). parasite antigen was not detected in sera from uninfected dogs or dogs with dipetalonema reconditum infection. in experimentally infected dogs, the antigen was first detectable 6.5-8.5 months after infection. preliminary evidence suggests that the antigen is present in male and female adult worms but not in microfilariae. sera from dogs with microfilaremic and amicrofil ...19846731674
vulpes vulpes: a possible wild reservoir for zoonotic filariae.foxes (vulpes vulpes, n = 132) killed during the hunting seasons 2005-2006 in central italy (tuscany region) were examined in order to investigate the possible importance of this animal as a wild reservoir for zoonotic filariae. in each specimen adult worms of dirofilaria immitis and hematic microfilariae were searched for. species identification was performed by morphology, morphometry, the barka staining technique applied to pulmonary and splenic blood smears, and, finally, by molecular diagno ...200818260788
survey of canine dirofilariasis in vojvodina, serbia.in 2006 and 2007, a total of 193 blood samples were collected from privately owned dogs housed predominantly outdoors, resident in four provinces in vojvodina, serbian republic. circulating microfilariae of dirofilaria repens, dirofilaria immitis and acanthocheilonema reconditum were found in 49.2%, 7.2% and 2.1% of dogs, respectively. two additional occult heartworm infections were revealed with an antigen test of 90 amicrofilaraemic dogs. prevalence values were not influenced by sex and breed, ...200818712415
coyotes and canine heartworm in california.adult dirofilaria immitis were found in the hearts of 43 of 115 coyotes (canis latrans) trapped within a 50 km radius of the el dorado county seat. of mature coyotes, 45% were positive, with worm numbers averaging 9.0 in females and 16.2 in males. d. immitis microfilariae occurred in the peripheral blood and in lung smears. microfilariae of dipetalonema reconditum were present in 14 of the coyotes examined (12%). several coyotes showed enlarged hearts with gross pathological changes.19807431518
filaricidal properties of a wild herb, andrographis paniculata.water decoction of the leaves of andrographis paniculata killed in vitro the microfilaria of dipetalonema reconditum in 40 min. three subcutaneous injections of the extract into infected dogs at 0.06 ml per kg body-weight reduced the number of microfilariae in blood by more than 85%. the larvae were not totally eliminated with more infections but the reduced microfilarial level persisted. no toxic effect of the extract was observed in rabbits. the treated dogs became lethargic initially for a we ...19827201486
epidemiological aspects on vector-borne infections in stray and pet dogs from romania and hungary with focus on babesia spp.canine arthropod-borne infections are of major interest in small animal practice and have been widely investigated in central and western europe. however, only limited epidemiological data are available from south-eastern european countries, although diseases including babesiosis or dirofilariosis are widely recognised as important canine infections in these countries. a steadily increasing number of dogs imported from south-eastern europe into germany require particular attention by small anima ...201121947342
a multiplex pcr for the simultaneous detection of species of filarioids infesting dogs.the present study reports the applicability of a multiplex pcr for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of common filarioids infecting dogs, i.e., dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens, acanthocheilonema reconditum and cercopithifilaria sp. amplicons of different sizes (i.e., 170bp, 480bp, 590bp and 300bp, respectively) of regions within the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were amplified on a single-step multiplex pcr using a mix of species-specific forwar ...201222248527
on a cercopithifilaria sp. transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus: a neglected, but widespread filarioid of dogs.abstract:201222212459
mosquito-borne heartworm dirofilaria immitis in dogs from australia.heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) in dogs is considered endemic in australia, but the clinical heartworm disease caused by the heartworm is rare and prevalence is low. the mainstream prevention of the heartworm is based on macrocyclic lactone (ml) administration. the aim of this study was to confirm endemism of the heartworm under current australian conditions using a cohort of recent microfilaria-positive dogs which were on variable heartworm prevention.201627717406
role of golden jackals (canis aureus) as natural reservoirs of dirofilaria spp. in romania.dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are mosquito-transmitted zoonotic nematodes, causing heartworm disease and skin lesions, respectively, in carnivores. in europe, the domestic dog is apparently the main definitive host, but patent infections occur also in other species of carnivores. the rapid spread of the golden jackals (canis aureus) throughout europe opens a question of involvement of this species in the sylvatic cycle of pathogens in the colonised territories, including dirofilaria ...201627121617
[prevalence of canine filariasis by dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum in maceió, alagoas state, brazil].a survey on the prevalence of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum was conducted in 1,519 dogs from maceió and two coastal areas in the state of alagoas, northeast brazil, from 1995 to 1999, by testing for microfilariae in blood. all blood samples were from exclusively domiciled dogs with a known history, showing that the infections were autochthonous, confirming transmission of canine filariasis in these areas. in greater metropolitan maceió, 15 (1.3%) microfilaremic dogs were detect ...200111784911
filarioid infections in wild carnivores: a multispecies survey in romania.filarioids are vector-borne parasitic nematodes of vertebrates. in europe, eight species of filarioids, including zoonotic species, have been reported mainly in domestic dogs, and occasionally in wild carnivores. in romania, infections with dirofilaria spp. and acanthocheilonema reconditum are endemic in domestic dogs. despite the abundant populations of wild carnivores in the country, their role in the epidemiology of filarioid parasites remains largely unknown. the aim of the present study was ...201728705255
vector-borne pathogens in stray dogs in northeastern turkey.this experiment was carried out to attain prevalence and molecular characterization of pathogens causing canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) including babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniasis, filariosis (dirofilaria immitis, dirofilaria repens, and acanthocheilonema reconditum), ehrlichiosis (ehrlichia canis), and anaplasmosis (anaplasma platys) in stray dogs. the study material consisted of 133 asymptomatic female (n = 96) and male (n = 37) stray dogs (≤1 year old, n = 16 and 1-6 years old, ...201728632488
intradermal reactivity of excretory and secretory products of onchocercal microfilariae.the intradermal reactivity of excretory and secretory (es) products derived from the in vitro cultivation of onchocercal microfilariae was evaluated. the es products from onchocerca volvulus were highly sensitive in the detection of active onchocerciasis in both liberian and guatemalan subjects. a low level of cross-reactivity occurred in patients with loaisis and in dogs with dipetalonema reconditum, but not in dogs with dirofilaria immitis. es products from o. gutturosa evoked reactions in gua ...19806160775
endemicity of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum in dogs of pleasants valley, northern california.a house-to-house survey of dogs in a 26-km2 area of pleasants valley (northern california) was done to determine the prevalence of the filariids dirofilaria immitis leidy and dipetalonema reconditum grassi in the canine population. blood samples were taken from the cephalic vein of 97 dogs (greater than or equal to 5 months of age) and were tested for the presence of microfilariae, using a modification of the knott technique. two dogs with autochthonous d immitis (2.1% of the dogs examined) were ...19817194612
Macrocyclic Lactones in the Treatment and Control of Parasitism in Small Companion Animals.Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) have many anti-parasitic applications in small companion animal medicine. They were first developed as chemoprophylactics against heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection to be applied monthly for retroactive killing of third- and fourth-stage larvae. ML-containing products formulated for oral (ivermectin, milbemycin oxime), topical (selamectin, moxidectin) or injectable sustained release (moxidectin, ivermectin) are approved for heartworm prevention in dogs or cats ...201122039798
prevalence of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum infections in missouri dogs.the prevalence of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum infections in missouri dogs was investigated by means of a statewide veterinary mail survey and a study of shelter dogs from central missouri and mississippi river communities. the veterinary survey revealed microfilariae of d immitis in 447 of 11,823 (3.8%) dogs, microfilariae of d reconditum in 14 (0.1%), and microfilariae of both species in 8 (less than 0.1%). of 493 shelter dogs examined, using the modified knott test, 23 (4. ...19817196395
human and canine dirofilariasis in greece.human dirofilariasis is a disease which is considered to be rare in greece, less than 20 cases having been reported prior to 1990. the clinical manifestations were usually subcutaneous nodules, and in only two cases there was ocular dirofilariasis. eight new cases were recognized in humans during the last six years in athens, two of which with ophthalmic involvement. twelve additional cases have been detected but not published in thessaloniki. in all human cases, the worms were identified as bei ...19979802098
research of canine filariasis in trapani province (western sicily). morphology on sem of male dirofilaria repens.the prevalence of canine filariasis was investigated in 4 municipalities of trapani province (campobello di mazara, castelvetrano, marsala and mazara del vallo), an area where 8 human cases of dirofilariasis due to dirofilaria (nochtiella) repens have occurred during the last decade. blood samples were collected late in the afternoon, during august and september 1995, and examined by knott technique for the presence of microfilariae. sixtythree (29.3%) out of 215 domestic dogs (98 males, 117 fem ...19979802102
[presence of dipetalonema reconditum in dogs in mexico]. 196213934275
combination of filtration and histochemical stain for detection and differentiation of dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum in the dog. 19817196718
canine filariosis caused by dirofilaria immitis in mozambique: a small survey based on the identification of microfilariae.dirofilaria immitis was diagnosed in 4 of 13 indigenous dogs from the province of zambézia, mozambique, by acid phosphatase staining of microfilariae. the finding reconfirms the occurrence of the parasite in mozambique after 3 decades and emphasises the need for extensive surveys. additionally, in 1 of the infected dogs, microfilariae of dipetalonema reconditum were detected, which is the 1st record of this parasite in mozambique.200212515299
a simple molecular method for discriminating common filarial nematodes of dogs (canis familiaris).accurate diagnosis of canine filariosis is essential for choosing correct therapeutic approach. therefore, reliable methods for discriminating among the different filarial infections in dogs are needed. the authors report simple and highly specific molecular methods that identify the three most common filarial nematodes of european dogs: dirofilaria immitis, d. repens and acanthocheilonema (syn. dipetalonema) reconditum, based on (1) pcr amplifications of mitochondrial dna (12s rdna and coxi) wi ...200616857318
a high resolution melting real time pcr for mapping of filaria infection in domestic cats living in brugian filariosis-endemic areas.we present here a real time pcr with high resolution melting (hrm) analysis for determining the prevalence and distribution of filarial species in domestic cats residing in brugian filariosis endemic areas of narathiwat province, thailand. filarial species can be clearly distinguished in a single well using a single pair of primers. blood samples were taken from a total of 2039 domestic cats living in endemic areas. microfilariae were detected in 5.7% of the sample, while the overall prevalence ...201424462253
epidemiological aspects of canine dirofilariasis in the north of iran.dirofilaria immitis is an important parasite in dog and other carnivores. our objective was study on incidence and periodicity of heartworm in north of iran and using other methods for its diagnosis in addition to parasitology exam.201122347277
canine filarial infections in tuscany, central italy.this study was conducted in order to investigate the epidemiology of filarial species in a region of central italy (tuscany) in dogs that did not undergo prophylaxis for filariasis. from 2007 to 2009, 630 blood samples were collected from 40 kennels throughout the regional territory. samples were analysed with knott's modified test and with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of dirofilaria immitis antigens, those positive for microfilariae were also subjected to histo ...201121457611
dirofilaria infections in dogs in different areas of greece.the nematodes dirofilaria immitis and d. repens are enzootic in greece. in the light of evidence of dirofilariosis spreading to new areas around the world, the aim of the present study was to update and enrich the current knowledge on the prevalence of dirofilaria infections in dogs in greece, to assess the risk factors of heartworm infection, and to initiate the drawing of the epizootiological map of canine dirofilariosis, investigating dirofilaria infections in five locations along the north-s ...201627646111
filarioids infecting dogs in northeastern brazil.species of filarial nematodes belonging to the genera dirofilaria and acanthocheilonema are recognised as common parasites of dogs throughout the world. recently, other filarioids featured by the presence of dermal microfilariae (e.g., onchocerca lupi and cercopithifilaria spp.) have been recognised in europe. in brazil, reports of filarioids in dogs are limited to dirofilaria immitis, acanthocheilonema reconditum and cercopithifilaria bainae. to investigate the distribution of filarial infectio ...201627514878
vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of brandenburg, germany.dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern european regions but was recently found in germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of d. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in brandenburg. dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. in total, 1023 dog blo ...201627270389
molecular detection of leishmania infantum, filariae and wolbachia spp. in dogs from southern portugal.leishmaniosis caused by the protozoan leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis caused by the nematodes dirofilaria immitis or dirofilaria repens are vector-borne zoonoses widely present in the mediterranean basin. in addition, some studies reported that the endosymbiont wolbachia spp. play a role in the biology and pathogenesis of filarial parasites. the aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of mono- and co-infections by l. infantum, filariae and wolbachia spp. and their association with ...201627160085
filarial infections in domestic dogs in lusaka, zambia.filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-saharan africa. a study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in lusaka, zambia. giemsa stained blood smear and knott's concentration methods revealed microfilariae in 16 (5.9%) of the dogs. pcr confirmed that most of these dogs had acanthocheilonema reconditum infection. ten (4.0%) of the examined dogs were positive for di ...201525944406
canine filarial infections in liguria, north-west italy.this paper reports the findings of a study on the presence of various species of filarial nematodes in dogs in liguria, north-west italy, a region traditionally considered free from the disease. between 2009 and 2012 blood samples were taken from 365 dogs in rural areas in liguria. the blood samples were then submitted to knott's test, histochemical staining, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for dirofilaria immitis antigens. overall, 35 of the 365 ...201625758206
comments on potential efficacy of monthly administrations of spot-on moxidectin 2.5%/imidacloprid 10% in the simultaneous prevention of major canine filarioses.information on the efficacy of pharmaceutical protocols for the prevention of the major canine filarioses (i.e., dirofilaria immitis, dirofilaria repens, and acanthocheilonema reconditum) under natural conditions is scant. chemoprophylaxis for canine filarioses under field conditions deserves to be studied more fully and information about vector biology, ecology, and seasonality has to be well appreciated to correctly set control protocols. it is advisable that researchers planning field trials ...201324096604
potential efficacy of monthly administrations of spot-on moxidectin 2.5%/imidacloprid 10% in the simultaneous prevention of major canine filarioses.dirofilaria immitis, dirofilaria repens, and acanthocheilonema reconditum are the most important canine filariae. these species are expanding their distribution in both endemic regions and in previously free areas, thus enhancing the risk for single and mixed infestations in both dogs and humans. the present study evaluated the potential use of moxidectin in a spot-on formulation in preventing these dog filarioses in a confined area where the three major canine filariae live in sympatry. the tri ...201323925446
serological detection of circulating angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies in dogs from central and northern italy.the most frequently employed method for the diagnosis of angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs is the detection of first stage larvae (l1) in faeces. the sensitivity of coproscopy, however, is limited in case of low parasite load, intermittent larval excretion, and during pre-patency. an epidemiological survey on dogs was conducted applying serological methods in two italian regions where angiostrongylosis is endemic in foxes. 265 dog serum samples from tuscany (central italy - site a) and 447 from li ...201323182301
acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. (nematoda: filarioidea) from japanese badgers (meles anakuma): description, molecular identification, and wolbachia screening.acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. (filarioidea: onchocercidae: onchocercinae) is described based on adult filarioids and microfilariae obtained from subcutaneous connective tissues and skin, respectively, of japanese badgers (meles anakuma) in wakayama prefecture, japan. no endemic species of the genus had been found in japan. recently, some filarioids (e.g., acanthocheilonema reconditum, dirofilaria spp., and onchocerca spp.) have come to light as causative agents of zoonosis worldwide. the new ...201322926421
new insights into the ecology and biology of acanthocheilonema reconditum (grassi, 1889) causing canine subcutaneous filariosis.in spite of its wide distribution among dogs and the evidence of its implication as a zoonotic agent, scant information is available on the biology of acanthocheilonema reconditum (spirurida, onchocercidae). in this study, blood samples from 152 sicilian dogs were examined for a. reconditum microfilariae at the beginning of the study and 1 year later. the periodicity of microfilaraemia was investigated by bleeding 2 highly microfilaraemic dogs twice a day for 10 days and, later on, every 2 weeks ...201222336052
current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of dirofilaria spp. and acanthocheilonema reconditum infections in dogs in romania.during the last decades, dirofilaria spp. infection in european dogs has rapidly spread from historically endemic areas towards eastern and northeastern countries, but little or no information is available from these geographical regions. the present study provides a picture of filarial infections in dogs from romania and compares two tests for the diagnosis of dirofilaria immitis. from july 2010 to march 2011, blood samples were collected from 390 dogs from nine counties of romania and serologi ...201525544702
development of acanthocheilonema reconditum (spirurida, onchocercidae) in the cat flea ctenocephalides felis (siphonaptera, pulicidae).to investigate larval development of acanthocheilonema reconditum in the cat flea ctenocephalides felis, fleas were fed through an artificial feeding system with dog blood containing different concentrations of microfilariae (i.e. low, group l = 250; medium, group m = 500; high, group h = 1500 microfilariae per ml) or no microfilariae (group c). fleas were sampled at 12 different time-points throughout the study period (d1-d28) and a. reconditum was detected by dissection, pcr and histology. of ...201425068432
epidemiological aspects of filariosis in dogs on the coast of paraná state, brazil: with emphasis on dirofilaria immitis.the present study determined the prevalence and geographical distribution of dirofilaria immitis and other filariae, from dogs in littoral areas of paraná state, in brazil. this survey spanned eight months, between 1998 and 1999, and was also designed to compare the efficacy of different tests for diagnosis of heartworm infection in that area. blood samples were collected from 256 native-owned dogs distributed along the paraná coastal area. five diagnostic procedures were used: direct smear exam ...200415262005
survey for heartworm, dirofilaria immitis, and dipetalonema reconditum (nematoda:filarioidea) in dogs from virginia and north carolina.random-source dogs (n = 100) in virginia and north carolina were surveyed for the microfilariae of dirofilaria immitis. microscopic examination of fresh thin-films and modified knott preparations were made. dirofilaria immitis and dipetalonema reconditum were found in 19% and 6% of the animals, respectively. there was no animal that harbored both species. prevalence was significantly higher in north carolina (28.6%) than in virginia (13.6%) (p less than 0.025). mean pcv was significantly lower ( ...19827200339
diagnosis of imported canine filarial infections in germany 2008 - 2010.filarial infections of dogs are attracting attention across europe because of the risk of spread into previously non-endemic areas (e.g. dirofilaria repens with culicidae as vectors) and as emerging zoonotic agents. the occurrence of filarial infections in german dogs has been analysed based on 8,545 samples collected either from imported animals or following travel into endemic regions. all samples were tested by means of modified knott's test and heartworm antigen assay within the period 2008 ...201121739376
a case of canine filariasis due to dipetalonema reconditum (grassi 1889) in nigeria. 19817194948
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