anopheles barbirostris/campestris as a probable vector of malaria in aranyaprathet, sa kaeo a result of dramatic increase in malaria cases in sa kaeo province from 666 cases in 1995 to 4,381 in 1997, a brief entomological study was carried out during january 1998 to december, 1999 in pa rai subdistrict where most malaria cases were reported. of fourteen species of mosquitos found, only anopheles barbirostris group was the most abundant species throughout the year. adult identification was not able to confirm species within an. barbirostris group, particularly between an. barbirostri ...200112041547
anopheline (diptera:culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central sri lanka.a 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at mahameegaswewa village within the huruluwewa watershed in north central sri lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. the watershed is representative of the ancient small tank-based irrigation network that still forms an important component of the rice production system in the low elevation dry zone. in total, 3,818 immatures representing 12 species were obtained from 2,940 s ...19979151492
composition and biting activity of anopheles (diptera: culicidae) attracted to human bait in a malaria endemic village in peninsular malaysia near the thailand border.nine species of anopheles mosquitoes were collected biting humans indoors and outdoors in a malaria endemic village in northern peninsular malaysia. outdoor biting was higher than that observed indoors. biting of an. maculatus was observed throughout the night. peak indoor biting occurred at 2130 h while outdoor biting was higher after midnight. outdoor biting of anopheles barbirostris and an. sinensis was observed throughout the night with several peaks after the second half of the night. outdo ...200111469187
anopheles barbirostris (diptera: culicidae) as a vector of the timor filaria on flores island: preliminary observations. 197715122
potential for anopheles campestris (diptera: culicidae) to transmit malaria parasites in pa rai subdistrict (aranyaprathet, sa kaeo province), thailand.member(s) of the anopheles barbirostris group reid, particularly anopheles barbirostris and anopheles campestris reid are the suspected vectors of plasmodium vivax in pa rai (aranyaprathet, sa kaeo province). to determine if an. barbirostris, an. campestris, or both, are present in pa rai and to determine their potential to transmit malaria, a field and laboratory study was conducted. isofemale colonizations of wild caught mosquitoes captured by landing catches were made for species confirmation ...200212144288
environmental factors associated with spatial and temporal distribution of anopheles (diptera: culicidae) larvae in sukabumi, west java, indonesia.a 12-mo ecological study of the spatial-temporal distribution of immature stages of anopheles species was conducted in sukabumi district, west java, indonesia. the study characterized 1,600 sites from a contiguous coastal and hill zone (0-800-m elevation) of which 64% contained anopheles larvae. principal component and multiple logistic regression analyses identified ecological parameters associated with presence of nine [anopheles aconitus doenitz, anopheles annularis van de wulp, anopheles bar ...200717695007
a brief survey of the mosquitoes of south sulawesi, indonesia, with special reference to the identity of anopheles barbirostris (diptera: culicidae) from the margolembo area. 197718607
ecology of invasive mosquitoes: effects on resident species and on human health.investigations of biological invasions focus on patterns and processes that are related to introduction, establishment, spread and impacts of introduced species. this review focuses on the ecological interactions operating during invasions by the most prominent group of insect vectors of disease, mosquitoes. first, we review characteristics of non-native mosquito species that have established viable populations, and those invasive species that have spread widely and had major impacts, testing wh ...200517637849
malaria prevalence in nias district, north sumatra province, indonesia.the nias district of the north sumatra province of indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in december 2004 and march 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. the present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associ ...200717760967
persistence of brugia malayi dna in vector and non-vector mosquitoes: implications for xenomonitoring and transmission monitoring of lymphatic filariasis.xenomonitoring (detection of filarial larvae or their dna in mosquitoes) is a sensitive marker for assessing the endemicity of filariasis and a useful tool for evaluating elimination programs. to examine the fate of microfilariae (mf) and filarial dna in vector competent and non-competent mosquito strains, we compared the detection of brugia malayi parasites by dissection and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in three different mosquito strains. we conclude that pcr is mu ...200717360875
timor filariasis: epidemiologic and clinical features in a defined community.the epidemiology of timor filariasis was observed during a clinical and parasitologic survey of persons living in a remote village on the island of flores, southeast indonesia. infection and disease was distributed evenly throughout the community, which was in accord with the breeding and feeding habits of the only identified vector, anopheles barbirostris. although micfofilaremia rates appeared independent of host variables of age and sexes and sex, symptoms of disease were greater among males ...197612668
cytogenetic and molecular evidence for two species in the anopheles barbirostris complex (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.seventeen isolines of anopheles barbirostris derived from animal-biting female mosquitoes showed three karyotypic forms: form a (x2, y1) in five isolines from phetchaburi province; form b (x1, x3, y2) in three and eight isolines from chiang mai and ubon ratchathani provinces, respectively; form c (x2, y3) in one isoline from phetchaburi province. all 17 isolines exhibited an average branch summation of seta 2-vi pupal skins ranging from 12.1-13.0 branches, which was in the limit of a. barbirostr ...200717659361
epidemiological and clinical features of brugia timori in a newly established village. karakuak, west flores, indonesia.the epidemiological and clinical features of brugia timori filariasis in a newly established village, karakuak, west flores, is described. the microfilarial rate by finger stick and nuclepore filtration was 24% and 30%, respectively, and the disease rate 64%. infected persons were found in every family and household with no predominant age or sex preference. development of elephantiasis in the population was associated with residence in the new village of karakuak, where extensive rice field cul ...1978717635
repellent properties of celery, apium graveolens l., compared with commercial repellents, against mosquitoes under laboratory and field our search for new bioactive products against mosquito vectors, we reported the slightly larvicidal and adulticidal potency, but remarkable repellency of apium graveolens both in laboratory and field conditions. repellency of the ethanolic preparation of hexane-extracted a. graveolens was, therefore, investigated and compared with those of 15 commercial mosquito repellents including the most widely used, deet. hexane-extracted a. graveolens showed a significant degree of repellency in a dose- ...200516262746
effectiveness of zanthoxylum piperitum-derived essential oil as an alternative repellent under laboratory and field applications.recently, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. in this study, zanthoxylum piperitum-derived essential oil isolated by steam distillation was investigated and compared to the standard synthetic repellent, n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet), for repellency against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions. the oil of z. piperitum alone and also with 5% ...200716896651
impact of two rounds of mass drug administration using diethylcarbamazine combined with albendazole on the prevalence of brugia timori and of intestinal helminths on alor island, indonesia.annual mass drug administration (mda) using diethylcarbamizine (dec, 6 mg/kg) combined with albendazole (alb, 400 mg) is recommended by the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (gpelf). this strategy has been shown to be efficient in the of control bancroftian filariasis, but data on brugian filariasis as well as on the positive side effects on intestinal helminths are lacking.200516014169
larvicidal, adulticidal and repellent effects of kaempferia galanga.four fractions of kaempferia galanga (hexane fraction, dichloromethane fraction 1, dichloromethane fraction 2 and methanolic fraction) were tested for larvicidal activity toward fourth instar culex quinquefasciatus. the hexane fraction was found to exhibit the highest larvicidal effect with the lc50 of 42.33 ppm. testing for adulticidal activity, the hexane fraction did not show any promising adulticidal effect. however, it caused a knockdown effect which might be useful as a repellent. it was t ...199910774653
species composition of adult anopheles populations and their breeding habitats in hulu perak district, peninsular malaysia.using the cow-baited trap (cbt) method, 1,845 anopheles mosquitos, comprising 14 species, were caught in malaria-endemic area of hulu perak district, peninsular malaysia. the two dominant species were an. barbirostris (18.59%) and an. aconitus (18.86%). anopheles maculatus, the main malaria vector, constituted 9.11% of the total number of mosquitos sampled. three hundred and seventy-seven anopheles larvae, comprising 8 species, were sampled using the north carolina biological station dipper. ano ...200212693589
molecular and cytogenetic evidence of three sibling species of the anopheles barbirostris form a (diptera:culicidae) in thailand.nine isoline colonies of anopheles barbirostris form a, derived from individual isofemale lines from chiang mai, phetchaburi, and kanchanaburi, were established in our insectary at chiang mai university. all isolines shared the same mitotic karyotype (x(1), x(2), y(1)). molecular analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) sequences and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products of its2, coi, and coii regions revealed three distinct groups: a1 (chiang mai), a2 (phetchaburi), and a3 (kanchanaburi). cro ...200818038149
a molecular phylogeny of mosquitoes in the anopheles barbirostris subgroup reveals cryptic species: implications for identification of disease vectors.the barbirostris subgroup of the genus anopheles includes six mosquito species that are almost identical in adult morphology, but differ in their roles in the transmission of malaria and filariasis within southeast asia. the lack of robust, diagnostic morphological characters in adults has contributed to extensive misidentification of the species. mosquitoes were collected from localities in thailand and indonesia, with an emphasis on specimens identified in the field as an. barbirostris and an. ...200919000771
distribution of mosquito (diptera: culicidae) species and wolbachia (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) infections during the bird immigration season in pathumthani province, central thailand.mosquito distribution in the immigration bird-nested area, pathumthani province, was investigated from august to december in 2006. mosquitoes were collected by using co2-baited centers for disease control light traps in which dry ice was used as a source of co2 to attract mosquitoes. six traps were operated from 4 p.m. until 7 a.m. on each study day. four genera, which were anopheles, armigeres, culex, and mansonia with 14 species of mosquitoes were collected. culex gelidus (13.94-59.41%) and cu ...200818066693
colonization of anopheles barbirostris from central java, indonesia.the colonization of anopheles barbirostris from central java is described. locally acquired materials and ambient laboratory temperature, humidity, and daylight proved acceptable for continuous rearing. a simple, inexpensive larval diet based on a 10:4 powdered mixture of beef and rice hulls proved advantageous.19957616180
mosquitoes of bali island, indonesia: common species in the village environment.routine sampling of mosquito populations in rural villages was carried out during 13 months at 4 locations in southern bali island, indonesia. sampling was by light trapping and early night resting collections around animal stables. specimens collected were preserved for assay of arthropod-borne viruses; 104,608 specimens representing 20 species were prepared in 2681 pools for viral assay. anopheles barbirostris and an. subpictus have been shown to be important vectors of brugia malayi and b. ti ...19836140760
experiments in crossing two strains of anopheles barbirostris van der wulp 1884 (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.crossing experiments between two strains of anopheles (anopheles) barbirostris from chumphon and chon buri provinces in thailand were done by induced copulation in order to determine the genetic relationship. on comparison of the f1 hybrids and those of their parent species as the control, there was a difference in the number of eggs laid, hatchability and viability. the low viability of the f1 hybrids with high larval and pupal mortalities, producing only a few f hybrids, and the fact that f1 h ...19836635759
comparative susceptibility of two strains of anopheles barbirostris van der wulp 1884 (diptera: culicidae) to infection with brugia malayi. 19846740376
multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in sri lanka.the current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, anopheles subpictus in five districts (anuradhapura, kurunegala, moneragala, puttalam and trincomalee) of sri lanka. eight other anophelines, anopheles annularis, anopheles barbirostris, anopheles jamesii, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles peditaeniatus, anopheles tessellatus, anopheles vagus and anopheles varuna from a ...200818755020
longitudinal study of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax in a karen population in thailand.clinical case treatment of malaria infections where plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are sympatric has achieved effective reductions in p. falciparum prevalence and incidence rates, but has been less successful for p. vivax. the high transmissibility of p. vivax and its capacity to relapse have been suggested to make it a harder parasite species to control.200818518964
anopheles barbirostris (van der wulp) still an efficient vector of brugia malayi in central sulawesi (celebes), indonesia. 1976982523
entomologic and molecular investigation into plasmodium vivax transmission in singapore, 2009.singapore has been certified malaria free since november 1982 by the world health organization and despite occasional local transmission, the country has maintained the standing. in 2009, three clusters of malaria cases were reported in singapore.201021029478
bionomics of anopheles spp. (diptera: culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of sukabumi, west java, indonesia.a 15-month bionomic study of anopheles species was conducted in two ecologically distinct villages (coastal and upland) of sukabumi district, west java, indonesia from june 2006 to september 2007. mosquitoes were captured using human-landing collections at both sites. during the study, a total of 17,100 anopheles mosquitoes comprising 13 anopheles species were caught: 9,151 at the coastal site and 7,949 at the upland site. anopheles barbirostris, anopheles maculatus, and anopheles vagus were the ...200920836823
experimental brugia timori and wuchereria bancrofti infections in certain species of mosquitoes.laboratory reared aedes aegypti (black eye and jakarta strains), aedes togoi, (taiwan), aedes albopictus, (jakarta), wild caught anopheles barbirostris, (java) and mansonia uniformis, (jakarta) were fed on a carrier with mixed infection of brugia timori and wuchereria bancrofti. b. timori and w. bancrofti were able to develop in a. aegypti (black eye) and a. togoi, with development proceeding more rapidly for of b. timori than w. bancrofti. both species of parasites were readily distinguishable ...197724275
serological investigations of flavivirus prevalence in khammouane province, lao people's democratic republic, 2007-2008.a large-scale cross-sectional seroprevalence study of dengue (den) and japanese encephalitis (je) was conducted in khammouane province, lao pdr, as part of the initial baseline health impact assessment of the nam theun 2 hydroelectric dam construction project. health surveys were performed between may 2007 and february 2008 with serum samples collected from healthy individuals involved in the resettlement program of 16 villages (total surveyed population 4,369). hemagglutination inhibition assay ...201021036856
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in the asia-pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic precis.abstract: background: the final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (dvs) of malaria is presented here. the first publication examined the dvs from the americas, with the second covering those species present in africa, europe and the middle east. here we discuss the 19 dvs of the asian-pacific region. this region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence ...201121612587
diversification of the genus anopheles and a neotropical clade from the late cretaceous.the anopheles genus is a member of the culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. the genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among anopheles subgenera. we assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the coi, coii and 5.8s rrna genes and used maximum likelihood and bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times o ...201526244561
entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in western a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (itn) in western myanmar the malaria protective effect of itn was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. a coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector abundance and biting behaviour and the human population sleeping habits, factors relevant to itn effectiveness.201324119994
a household randomized, controlled trial of the efficacy of 0.03% transfluthrin coils alone and in combination with long-lasting insecticidal nets on the incidence of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax malaria in western yunnan province, china.mosquito coils are the most commonly used household insecticidal product in the world with sales exceeding 50 billion coils, used by two billion people worldwide annually. despite strong evidence that coils prevent mosquito bites a systematic review concluded that there is no evidence that burning mosquito coils prevents malaria acquisition. therefore, the current trial was designed to measure and compare prevention of malaria infection by mosquito coils or long-lasting insecticidal net (llin) o ...201424885993
susceptibility of anopheles campestris-like and anopheles barbirostris species complexes to plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax in thailand.nine colonies of five sibling species members of anopheles barbirostris complexes were experimentally infected with plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax. they were then dissected eight and 14 days after feeding for oocyst and sporozoite rates, respectively, and compared with anopheles cracens. the results revealed that anopheles campestris-like forms e (chiang mai) and f (udon thani) as well as an. barbirostris species a3 and a4 were non-potential vectors for p. falciparum because 0% oocys ...201121340364
revised morphological identification key to the larval anopheline (diptera: culicidae) of sri revise morphological identification keys to the anophelines in sri lanka.025183086
molecular characterization of chittoor (batai) virus isolates from india.chittoor virus (chitv) belongs to genus orthobunyavirus, family bunyaviridae. it has been isolated from various species of mosquitoes and pig from different parts of india. five isolates of chitv were characterized at the molecular level and compared with other batai viruses (batv) to find out any kind of reassortment in their genome.201223287126
overhead tank is the potential breeding habitat of anopheles stephensi in an urban transmission setting of chennai, india.wells and overhead tanks (oht) are the major breeding sources of the local malaria vector, anopheles stephensi in the indian city of chennai; they play a significant role in vector breeding, and transmission of urban malaria. many other man-made breeding habitats, such as cemented cisterns/containers, barrels or drums, sumps or underground tanks, and plastic pots/containers are maintained to supplement water needs, temporarily resulting in enhanced mosquito/vector breeding. correlating breeding ...201627169513
comparative studies on the stenogamous and eurygamous behavior of eight anopheles species of the hyrcanus group (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. mating behavior of stenogamous anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (anopheles argyropus, anopheles crawfordi, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles nitidus, anopheles paraliae (=an. lesteri), anopheles pursati and anopheles sinensis), were investigated and compared in this study. the self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (drs) values, 3.6 and 7. ...201627023618
field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between southeast asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. however, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. among topical repellents, deet is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. the protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, includ ...201425522134
natural human plasmodium infections in major anopheles mosquitoes in western thailand.the thai-myanmar border is a remaining hotspot for malaria transmission. malaria transmission in this region continues year-round, with a major peak season in july-august, and a minor peak in october-november. malaria elimination requires better knowledge of the mosquito community structure, dynamics and vectorial status to support effective vector control.201626762512
change of strategy is required for malaria elimination: a case study in purworejo district, central java province, indonesia.malaria has been targeted for elimination from indonesia by 2030, with varying timelines for specific geographical areas based on disease endemicity. the regional deadline for malaria elimination for java island, given the steady decrease of malaria cases, was the end of 2015. purworejo district, a malaria-endemic area in java with an annual parasite incidence (api) of 0.05 per 1,000 population in 2009, aims to enter this elimination stage. this study documents factors that affect incidence and ...201526275822
past and new challenges for malaria control and elimination: the role of operational research for innovation in designing interventions.this meeting report presents the outcomes of a workshop held in bangkok on december 1st 2014, where the following challenges were discussed: the threat of resistance to artemisinin and artemisinin-based combination therapy in the greater mekong sub-region (gms) and in africa; access to treatment for most at risk and hard to reach population; insecticide resistance, residual and outdoors transmission. the role of operational research and the interactions between research institutions, national ma ...201526185098
genetic compatibility between anopheles lesteri from korea and anopheles paraliae from assess differentiation and relationships between anopheles lesteri and anopheles paraliae we established three and five iso-female lines of an. lesteri from korea and an. paraliae from thailand, respectively. these isolines were used to investigate the genetic relationships between the two taxa by crossing experiments and by comparing dna sequences of ribosomal dna second internal transcribed spacer (its2) and mitochondrial dna cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) and subunit ii (coii). resul ...023778670
pcr-based detection and identification of the filarial parasite brugia timori from alor island, indonesia.brugia timori is widely distributed on alor island, indonesia, where it causes a high degree of morbidity. the hhai tandem repeat of b. timori was found to be identical to that of b. malayi, for which sensitive pcr-based assays have already been developed. using one of these assays, a single microfilaria (mf) of b. timori, present in a spot of dry blood on filter paper, could be detected. the assay was equally sensitive in the detection of b. timori and b. malayi. when the collected mosquitoes w ...200212625936
false positive circumsporozoite protein elisa: a challenge for the estimation of the entomological inoculation rate of malaria and for vector incrimination.abstract: background: the entomological inoculation rate (eir) is an important indicator in estimating malaria transmission and the impact of vector control. to assess the eir, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect the circumsporozoite protein (csp) is increasingly used. however, several studies have reported false positive results in this elisa. the false positive results could lead to an overestimation of the eir. the aim of present study was to estimate the level of false po ...201121767376
cytogenetic and molecular evidence for an additional new species within the taxon anopheles barbirostris (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.its2 dna sequences of 42 isoline colonies of anopheles barbirostris species a1 and a2 were analyzed and a new genetic species, temporarily designated as species a4 (chiang mai), was revealed. the large sequence divergences of the its2 (0.116-0.615), coi (0.023-0.048), and coii (0.030-0.040) genes between a. barbirostris species a4/a1 (chiang mai), a4/a2 (phetchaburi), a4/a3 (kanchanaburi), and a4/anopheles campestris-like form e (chiang mai) provided good supporting evidence. species a1, a2, a3, ...200919043741
metaphase karyotypes of anopheles of thailand and southeast asia: iv. the barbirostris and umbrosus species groups, subgenus anopheles (diptera: culicidae).metaphase karyotypes of 2 and 3 species of the umbrosus and the barbirostris groups, respectively, of the subgenus anopheles occurring in thailand and indonesia show inter- and intraspecific differences with respect to the amount and distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in the sex chromosomes and/or autosomes. four forms of metaphase karyotypes have been recognized in the wild samples of anopheles barbirostris based on differences in size and shape of x and y chromosomes. it is not known ...19958551301
analysis of female salivary gland proteins of the anopheles barbirostris complex (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.electrophoretic protein profiles of female salivary glands of five sibling species within the anopheles barbirostris complex, namely a. barbirostris species a1 (forms a, b, and d), a2, a3, and a4 and anopheles campestris-like (forms b and e), were analyzed. at least eight major and several minor protein bands were detected in the glands of each species, of which each morphological region contained different major proteins. the protein profiles distinguished the five sibling species. the variabil ...201020428888
review of insecticide resistance and behavioral avoidance of vectors of human diseases in thailand.physiological resistance and behavioral responses of mosquito vectors to insecticides are critical aspects of the chemical-based disease control equation. the complex interaction between lethal, sub-lethal and excitation/repellent ('excito-repellent') properties of chemicals is typically overlooked in vector management and control programs. the development of "physiological" resistance, metabolic and/or target site modifications, to insecticides has been well documented in many insect groups and ...201324294938
entomological investigations on malaria vectors in some war-torn areas in the trincomalee district of sri lanka after settlement of 30-year civil disturbance.background. malaria was an endemic problem in trincomalee district, eastern province of sri lanka. very few recent data concerning anopheles are available which transmit malaria. therefore, the aim of this study is to identify various anopheles species and the dynamics of anophelines including malaria vectors in trincomalee district for effective vector control under the current malaria elimination program embarked in the country. method. entomological surveys were conducted on a monthly basis, ...201525789195
a phase iii trial to evaluate the efficacy, fabric integrity and community acceptance of netprotect using a recommended long-lasting insecticidal net as positive control.the evaluation of new long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (llins) is coordinated by the who pesticide evaluation scheme (whopes). in 2007, netprotect® was granted whopes interim recommendation after phase i and ii evaluations. present study evaluates netprotect in a phase iii trial in rural cambodia.201424998677
early malaria resurgence in pre-elimination areas in kokap subdistrict, kulon progo, indonesia.indonesia is among those countries committed to malaria eradication, with a continuously decreasing incidence of malaria. however, at district level the situation is different. this study presents a case of malaria resurgence kokap subdistrict of the kulon progo district in yogyakarta province, java after five years of low endemicity. this study also aims to describe the community perceptions and health services delivery situation that contribute to this case.201424684702
molecular characterization of cryptic species of anopheles barbirostris van der wulp in china.anopheles barbirostris sensu lato belongs to the barbirostris subgroup of the subgenus anopheles that is distributed in southeast asia. different molecular forms have been identified based on the rdna-its2 and mtdna-coi sequences. anopheles barbirostris occurs in china. the species status was uncertain due to the lack of molecular characterization. the present study characterized chinese an. barbirostris using rdna-its2 and mtdna-coi gene sequences. two cryptic species were identified.201425511420
malaria vectors of timor-leste.the island of timor lies at the south-eastern edge of indonesia on the boundary of the oriental and australian faunal regions. the country of timor-leste, which occupies the eastern part of the island, is malarious, but anopheline faunal surveys and malaria vector incrimination date back to the 1960 s. over the last decade the malaria vectors of south-east asia and the south-west pacific have been intensely studied using molecular techniques that can confirm identification within complexes of is ...201020122278
anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in trincomalee district of sri lanka.anopheles culicifacies, the major vector of malaria in sri lanka, is known to breed in clean and clear water. the main objective of the study was to detect the breeding habitat diversity of an. culicifacies.201323958454
progress towards malaria elimination in sabang municipality, aceh, indonesia.indonesia has set 2030 as its deadline for elimination of malaria transmission in the archipelago, with regional deadlines established according to present levels of malaria endemicity and strength of health infrastructure. the municipality of sabang which historically had one of the highest levels of malaria in aceh province aims to achieve elimination by the end of 2013.201323363768
complete genome sequencing of four geographically diverse strains of batai virus.batai virus (batv) is a widely distributed but poorly studied member of the orthobunyavirus genus in the family bunyaviridae and is of particular interest as a known participant in natural reassortment events. both research and surveillance efforts on this and other related viruses have been hampered by the lack of available full-length sequence data covering all three genomic segments. here, we report the complete genome sequence of four batv strains (mm2222, chittoor/ig-20217, ugmp-6830, and m ...023166251
host feeding patterns and preference of anopheles minimus (diptera: culicidae) in a malaria endemic area of western thailand: baseline site feeding patterns of anopheles minimus in relation to ambient environmental conditions were observed during a 2-year period at tum sua village, located in mae sot district, tak province, in western thailand, where an. minimus is found in abundance and regarded as the most predominant malaria vector species. detailed information on mosquito behavior is important for understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and developing more effective and efficient vector control methods.201222676415
a global map of dominant malaria maps, in particular those based on vector distributions, have long been used to help visualise the global extent of malaria. few, however, have been created with the support of a comprehensive and extensive evidence-based approach.201222475528
anopheles subpictus carry human malaria parasites in an urban area of western india and may facilitate perennial malaria transmission.india contributes 1.5-2 million annual confirmed cases of malaria. since both parasites and vectors are evolving rapidly, updated information on parasite prevalence in mosquitoes is important for vector management and disease control. possible new vector-parasite interactions in goa, india were tested.201626919828
role of underappreciated vectors in malaria transmission in an endemic region of bangladesh-india border.despite the efforts of the national malaria control programme, malaria remains as an important public health problem in bangladesh, particularly in the south-eastern region bordering india. successful malaria control strategies rely on a detailed understanding of the underlying causes of malaria transmission. here, an entomological survey was conducted in a malaria endemic area of bangladesh bordering india to investigate the anopheles mosquito community and assess their plasmodium infection sta ...201525889228
anopheline species and their plasmodium infection status in aligarh, india.malaria is a global issue and india contributes substantially to global malaria incidence. information related to malaria vectors is very limited in aligarh. the environmental and climatological situations permit the continual breeding of vectors in permanent breeding sites. this study was designed with the aim to screen all the anophelines species and possible malaria vectors in three different localities of aligarh. anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three different localities (fort, jal ...201527579016
relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in west timor and java, indonesia.malaria is a serious health issue in indonesia. mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. to focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. this research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in west timor and java.201020796265
effects of microclimate condition changes due to land use and land cover changes on the survivorship of malaria vectors in china-myanmar border the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. however, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. this study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, anopheles sinensis and an. minimus in the ...201627171475
mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of anophelines and their association with resistance to pyrethroids - a review.constant and extensive use of chemical insecticides has created a selection pressure and favored resistance development in many insect species worldwide. one of the most important pyrethroid resistance mechanisms is classified as target site insensitivity, due to conformational changes in the target site that impair a proper binding of the insecticide molecule. the voltage-gated sodium channel (nav) is the target of pyrethroids and ddt insecticides, used to control insects of medical, agricultur ...201425292318
entomological monitoring and evaluation: diverse transmission settings of icemr projects will require local and regional malaria elimination strategies.the unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. these changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. integrated vector management will require focal and tailored vector control to achieve malaria elimination. ...201526259942
plasmodium vivax malaria in cambodia.the cambodian national strategic plan for elimination of malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across cambodia with an initial focus on plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including plasmodium vivax in 2025. the emergence of artemisinin-resistant p. falciparum in western cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of p. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of p. vivax lags m ...201627708187
salivary gland proteome during adult development and after blood feeding of female anopheles dissidens mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. anopheles dissidens (formerly anopheles barbirostris species a1) is a potential vector of plasmodium vivax in thailand. in this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female an. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out us ...201627669021
'nature or nurture': survival rate, oviposition interval, and possible gonotrophic discordance among south east asian anophelines.mosquito survival, oviposition interval and gonotrophic concordance are important determinants of vectorial capacity. these may vary between species or within a single species depending on the environment. they may be estimated by examination of the ovaries of host-seeking mosquitoes.201627405767
species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern is increasingly recognized that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of vector-borne diseases (vbds) with shifts of disease vectors to higher altitudes and latitudes. in particular, an increasing risk of malaria and dengue fever epidemics in tropical highlands and temperate regions has been predicted in different climate change scenarios. the aim of this paper is to expand the current knowledge on the seasonal occurrence and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other dise ...201425430654
species composition and population dynamics of malaria vectors in three previously ignored aquatic systems in sri 2015 alone there were an estimated 214 million new cases of malaria across the globe and 438,000 deaths were reported. although indigenous malaria has not been reported in sri lanka since 2012, to date 247 imported cases of malaria have been identified. knowledge of the locations, behaviour and vectorial capacity of potential malarial vectors is therefore needed to prevent future outbreaks. attention is now being focused on some previously ignored habitats.201627165184
determination of the foraging behaviour and blood meal source of malaria vector mosquitoes in trincomalee district of sri lanka using a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction assay.studies of host preference patterns in blood-feeding anopheline mosquitoes are crucial to incriminating malaria vectors. however, little information is available on host preferences of anopheles mosquitoes in sri lanka.201627118141
identification of sibling species status of anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in trincomalee district of sri lanka.anopheles culicifacies s.l., the major vector of malaria in sri lanka, is known to breed in clean and clear water. however, recent findings have confirmed breeding from waste water bodies in urban and semi-urban areas. no study has been conducted to identify whether it is vector or non-vector siblings. the objective of the study was to identify the sibling species status of an. culicifacies s.l.201525994607
monitoring of malaria, japanese encephalitis and filariasis vectors.vector monitoring in military stations would help in protecting the armed forces from vector borne diseases such as malaria, japanese encephalitis and filariasis.201324843200
molecular characterization of the malaria vector anopheles barbirostris van der wulp in sri lanka.anopheles barbirostris is a vector of malaria in sri lanka. the taxon exists as a species complex in the southeast asian region. previous studies using molecular markers suggest that there are more than 4 distinct clades within the an. barbirostris complex in southeast asia. the present study characterizes sri lankan an. barbirostris using mtdna cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) and ribosomal rna internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) gene sequences.201425073899
vertical stratification of adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) within a tropical rainforest in sabah, malaysia.malaria cases caused by plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in sabah, malaysia. one hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. a study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing behaviour of mosquitoes.201627430261
re-imagining malaria: heterogeneity of human and mosquito behaviour in relation to residual malaria transmission in certain regions in southeast asia, where malaria is reduced to forested regions populated by ethnic minorities dependent on slash-and-burn agriculture, malaria vector populations have developed a propensity to feed early and outdoors, limiting the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (llin) and indoor residual spraying (irs). the interplay between heterogeneous human, as well as mosquito behaviour, radically challenges malaria control in such residual transmission contexts. ...201525908498
spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st international symposium on geospatial health in lijiang, china, 2007.the 1st international symposium on geospatial health was convened in lijiang, yunnan province, people's republic of china from 8 to 9 september, 2007. the objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in southeast asia. the symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. the ...200919193214
salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of jaffna, sri lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of bacillus thuringiensis to aedes aegypti larvae.dengue, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and japanese encephalitis are common mosquito-borne diseases endemic to sri lanka. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, the major vectors of dengue, were recently shown to undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water bodies in the island. a limited survey of selected coastal localities of the jaffna district in northern sri lanka was carried out to identify mosquito species undergoing pre-imaginal development in brackish and saline waters. the effect ...201223174003
evidence-based malaria control in timor leste from 2006 to 2012.malaria has been a major public health problem in the newly established democratic republic of timor leste with over 200,000 cases being reported in 2006 and 2007. the national malaria control programme (nmcp) was established in 2003. the progress made in malaria control in timor leste is reported.201525890294
impact of a spatial repellent on malaria incidence in two villages in sumba, indonesia.a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine the effect of spatial repellent (sr) in households at risk of malaria in indonesia. following presumptive radical cure for malaria in 180 adult men representing sentinels of new infection in four clusters within two villages, all households were given either metofluthrin or placebo mosquito coils. weekly blood smear screening and human-landing mosquito catches were done throughout the 6 months intervention. malaria i ...201425311699
spatial clustering and risk factors of malaria infections in ratanakiri province, cambodia.malaria incidence worldwide has steadily declined over the past decades. consequently, increasingly more countries will proceed from control to elimination. the malaria distribution in low incidence settings appears patchy, and local transmission hotspots are a continuous source of infection. in this study, species-specific clusters and associated risk factors were identified based on malaria prevalence data collected in the north-east of cambodia. in addition, plasmodium falciparum genetic dive ...201425269827
outdoor malaria transmission in forested villages of cambodia.despite progress in malaria control, malaria remains an important public health concern in cambodia, mostly linked to forested areas. large-scale vector control interventions in cambodia are based on the free distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins), targeting indoor- and late-biting malaria vectors only. the present study evaluated the vector density, early biting activity and malaria transmission of outdoor-biting malaria vectors in two forested regions in cambodia.201324044424
sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. this study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season.201222443375
existence of the rdl mutant alleles among the anopheles malaria vector in indonesia.the gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) receptor-chloride channel complex is known to be the target site of dieldrin, a cyclodiene insecticide. gaba-receptors, with a naturally occurring amino acid substitution, a302s/g in the putative ion-channel lining region, confer resistance to cyclodiene insecticides that includes aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin and endosulphan.201222364613
variation in number and formation of repeat sequences in the rdna its2 region of five sibling species in the anopheles barbirostris complex in thailand.repeat sequences of approximately 100 base pairs in length were found in the rdna its2 region of anopheles barbirostris van der wulp (diptera: culicidae) species a1, a2, a3, a4, and an. campestris-like in the an. barbirostris complex. variation in the number of repeats was observed among the five sibling species. specifically, 10 repeats were observed in a1, eight in a2, a4, and campestris-like, and three in a3. based on similarities in the sequences of the repeats, related repeats were classifi ...022233453
evidence to support karyotypic variation of the mosquito, anopheles peditaeniatus in thailand.eight isoline colonies of anopheles peditaeniatus leicester (diptera: culicidae) were established from wild-caught females collected from buffalo-baited traps at 8 localities in thailand. they showed 2 types of x (x(2), x(3)) and 4 types of y (y(2), y(3), y(4), y(5)) chromosomes based on the number and amount of major block(s) of heterochromatin present in the heterochromatic arm, and were tentatively designated as forms b (x(2), x(3), y(2)), c (x(3), y(3)), d (x(3), y(4)) and e (x(2), x(3), y(5 ...021521137
prevalence of anopheline species and their plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of bangladesh.information related to malaria vectors is very limited in bangladesh. in the changing environment and various anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. this study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in bangladesh.201020074326
molecular epidemiological investigation of plasmodium knowlesi in humans and macaques in singapore.singapore reported its first locally acquired human plasmodium knowlesi infection in 2007, involving a soldier who had undergone training in a forested area where long-tailed macaques are frequently seen. comprehensive disease surveillance and monitoring system that was set up after the initial case detected four additional human p. knowlesi cases in 2007 and one in 2008. all involved military personnel who had undergone training in the forested area, and none had traveled out of singapore 1 mon ...201120586605
the salivary chromosomes of anopheles barbirostris var. ahomi. 19744855075
a study of anopheles barbirostris van der wulp in the collection of the malaria institute of india with first record of a. barbumbrosus strickland and chowdhury and a. vanus walker in india. 196214005330
functional constraints and evolutionary dynamics of the repeats in the rdna internal transcribed spacer 2 of members of the anopheles barbirostris group.the anopheles barbirostris group is widely distributed in southeast asia. although seven species have been formally described, a molecular analysis of the rdna its2 and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase i gene suggests that the group includes species that are morphologically very similar or identical.we have previously shown that species in the anopheles barbirostris subgroup have an exceptionally large its2 (>1.5 kb), greater than in any other anopheline group. however, the molecular process ...201424646478
chromosome studies of oriental anophelines. i. the salivary gland chromosomes of anopheles barbirostris. 19705417514
molecular taxonomy of members of the anopheles hyrcanus group from thailand and indonesia.during studies of malaria vectors in indonesia and thailand, several specimens identified by field staff as members of the anopheles barbirostris group (diptera: culicidae) were found to belong to the anopheles hyrcanus group, as shown by marked differences in the size of the nuclear rdna second internal transcribed spacer (its2) between the barbirostris (~1500 bp) and hyrcanus (~600 bp) groups. identification of the species concerned required a more detailed study of its2 sequences and subunit ...201121198713
morphological and protein analyses of adult female salivary glands of anopheles barbirostris species a1 (diptera: culicidae).morphology and protein profiles of female salivary glands of anopheles barbirostris species a1 were analyzed. female glands consisted of a distinctive tri-lobed structure connected to a main salivary canal, a single medial and two lateral lobes with proximal and distal portions. cellular architecture was similar among the lobes, with secretory material appearing as large masses. cells of the proximal-lateral lobes contained secretory masses with a finely filamentous aspect. in the distal-lateral ...201425776608
diversity and abundance of mosquito species in relation to their larval habitats in mizoram, north eastern himalayan region.the abundance, richness and diversity of anopheline and culicid mosquitoes associated with their habitats, season, and physico-chemical quality of water were surveyed along six districts of mizoram, north eastern himalayan region. the productivity of permanent and temporary habitat types was quantified by carrying out weekly larval sampling using a standard dipping method for a period of three years. diversity was estimated using the shannon index (h'), evenness index (heve), similarity measures ...201424795213
unusual sensilla on the antennae of female anopheles barbirostris.the 1st scanning electron microscopic study of the antennae of female anopheles barbirostris van der wulp revealed the presence of a sunken patch of 7-10 sensilla in well-developed sockets borne in an unusual location. such sensilla have not been reported in any species of anopheles, culex, or aedes. the position and arrangement of these sensilla are reported in this communication.200516506574
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