biological features of anopheles fluviatilis and its role in the transmission of malaria in iran.anopheles fluviatilis is a vector of malaria in the southern regions of iran. its biological features and its significance are described.1976941241
gel diffusion analysis of anopheles bloodmeals from 12 malarious study villages of orissa state, orissa state, india, the double gel diffusion technique was used to analyze 97,405 bloodmeals of all fed anophelines that were caught during standardized monthly surveys in 12 malarious study villages, from 1982 through 1988. anopheles culicifacies contributed the highest number of smears from the 19 anopheles species recovered. it was observed that a pronounced predilection to take mixed bloodmeals attenuates the vector potential of the species concerned. consequently, prevalences based only ...19911787405
susceptibility status of anopheles fluviatilis in some areas of karnataka, kerala and goa (1973-78). 19807203565
anopheles fluviatilis complex: host feeding patterns of species s, t, and u.the host feeding specificity of anopheles fluviatilis sibling species s, t, and u was determined by analyzing blood meal source using countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis. a distinct difference in the feeding patterns was observed among these species. species s was found to be predominantly anthropophagic with 91% of the population having fed on human blood. in contrast, species t and u were either exclusively or primarily zoophagic.19968723275
evaluation of lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bednets in a malaria endemic area of india. part 2. impact on malaria malaria endemic villages of the indian state of orissa, the impact of bednets treated with lambdacyhalothrin at 25 mg/m2 on malaria vectors was assessed during a 3-year intervention trial beginning in may 1990. the main malaria vector was anopheles culicifacies with a small contribution from anopheles fluviatilis. the impregnated bednets caused a significant reduction in vector density as assessed by morning indoor resting catches, man-biting rate, light trapping, the proportion of females en ...199810084138
studies on bionomics of anopheles fluviatilis and its sibling species in nainital district, u.p.a study on the bionomics of anopheles fluviatilis sensu lato was carried out in two physiographic regions, viz. bhabar and terai of district nainital, uttar pradesh. in both areas, an. fluviatilis was found resting indoors predominantly in cattlesheds. cytological examination of an. fluviatilis revealed that species t and u were sympatric in bhabar and terai villages with predominance of species t. these two sibling species appear to be poor vectors of malaria.199810448226
efficacy of aqueous suspension and granular formulations of bacillus thuringiensis (vectobac) against mosquito vectors.the efficacy of aqueous suspension (as) and granular (g) formulation of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (vectobac) was tested against the immatures of mosquito vectors in the laboratory and under field conditions. laboratory tests showed that the aqueous suspension was relatively more effective against culex quinquefasciatus than aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi, the respective lc(50) values being 0.046, 0.060 and 0.190 mg/l. in stream pools, with the application of vectobac as at 1 ...200010708664
some aspects of changing behaviour of malaria vectors in tribal areas of india.the field entomological studies and surveys carried out in 72 tribal districts out of 100 in seven penninsular states namely, andhra pradesh, bihar, gujarat, madhya pradesh, maharashtra, orissa and rajasthan indicated that in most of the areas the vector mosquitoes encountered during the present study were almost the same as recorded by the earlier workers except that anopheles fluviatilis james, 1902 was recorded in the areas of district raipur, durg, bilaspur, raigarh, shahdol, rajnandgaon, ba ...199810810568
studies on anopheles fluviatilis and anopheles culicifacies sibling species in relation to malaria in forested hilly and deforested riverine ecosystems in northern orissa, a malaria-endemic region in northwestern orissa, india, a longitudinal study was undertaken to delineate information on the sibling species of anopheles fluviatilis and anopheles culicifacies and their bionomics and role in malaria transmission in forested and deforested ecosystems. in forested villages, an. fluviatilis sibling species s (97.97%) and t (2.02%) were present. the former was highly anthropophagic (human blood index 0.88). among the sibling species of an. culicifacies, species b ...200011081646
epidemiological profile of malaria in a university hospital in the eastern region of saudi study the epidemiological, clinical and hematological profile of laboratory-diagnosed malaria cases at king fahd hospital of the university, al-khobar, saudi arabia, during the period from january 1990 to december 1999, and to provide suitable recommendations accordingly.200111299407
[comparison of the morphology of wing spot between anopheles minimus and anopheles fluviatilis].to compare the morphology of wing spot between anophelesminimus theobald, 1901 and anopheles fluviatilis james, 1902 and find out the reliable diagnostic characteristics.199812078229
comparative experimental infections in anopheles fluviatilis and anopheles stephensi (type) with plasmodium falciparum welch, 1897. 195513262833
impact of alphacypermethrin treated bed nets on malaria in villages of malkangiri district, orissa, india.the impact of use of bed-nets treated with alphacypermethrin, at 20 mg (ai)/m2, in comparison to untreated nets or no nets on malaria vectors and malaria incidence was studied in tribal villages of malkangiri district, orissa state, india, which are highly endemic for falciparum malaria. treated or untreated nets were supplied to the villagers in june 1999 and the nets were re-treated in september 1999, just before the rise in vector abundance and malaria incidence. the seasonal pattern of indoo ...200314636983
changing scenario of malaria in central india, the replacement of plasmodium vivax by plasmodium falciparum (1986-2000).since 1986, we have been studying the changing epidemiology of malaria in a forest belt of mandla, which has the highest number of malaria cases in central india (madhya pradesh) to define the epidemiological characteristics of the infection with each plasmodium species in different seasons of the year. our long-term objective was to determine the dynamics of plasmodium vivax vs.p. falciparum infections.200414996366
transmission of malaria and its control in the northeastern region of india.let alone the eradication, malaria control itself has amounted to be a challenge, and is detrimental to the all round development of the northeastern region of india. focal outbreaks are frequent taking heavy tool on human lives. plasmodium falciparum is the predominant parasite species and is solely responsible for increased morbidity and mortality. the region contributes bulk of p. falciparum cases for the rest of india, and its proportions are increasing. efficient vectors like anopheles mini ...200315260392
ddt indoor residual spray, still an effective tool to control anopheles fluviatilis-transmitted plasmodium falciparum malaria in india.this study from two districts of orissa state which are endemic for plasmodium falciparum transmitted by anopheles fluviatilis and a. culicifacies investigated the impact of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (ddt) indoor residual spraying, in view of the ongoing discussion on phasing out ddt in india. based on their high annual parasite incidence and logistical considerations, 26 villages in malkangiri and 28 in koraput district were selected for ddt spraying. for comparison, six and four unspray ...200515679559
relationship between anopheles fluviatilis & a. stephensi (diptera: culicidae) catches & the prevalence of malaria cases at kalsi area in dehradun district (uttaranchal).though the relationship between mosquito density and transmission of malaria in different regions of the country is known, no studies are available on the relationship between mosquito catches and malaria cases in kalsi area of dehradun district in uttaranchal. hence, the present study was done to evaluate the role of anopheline mosquitoes catches and prevalence of malaria cases in this area.200616575114
wash resistance and bioefficacy of olyset net--a long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito net against malaria vectors and nontarget household pests.during recent years, long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (llins) have been developed to overcome the problems of low retreatment rates, washing, and erratic dose of the insecticide resulting in the dilution of efficacy of the conventional insecticide-treated mosquito nets. these nets are treated at factory level with insecticide either incorporated into or coated around fibers. olyset net, a polyethylene net with 2% permethrin incorporated within fibers, is one type of llin. therefore, these n ...200617017224
identification, sequence analysis, and comparative study on gste2 insecticide resistance gene in three main world malaria vectors: anopheles stephensi, anopheles culicifacies, and anopheles fluviatilis.glutathione s-transferases (gsts) are soluble dimeric proteins that are involved in the metabolism, detoxification, and excretion of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds such as insecticides from the cell. in the current study, field specimens of anopheles stephensi liston, anopheles fluviatilis james, and anopheles culicifacies giles collected from sistan and baluchistan province in iran and subjected to world health organization susceptibility test. only an. stephensi was resis ...200617162949
molecular identification of palearctic members of anopheles maculipennis in northern iran.members of anopheles maculipennis complex are effective malaria vectors in europe and the caspian sea region in northern iran, where malaria has been re-introduced since 1994. the current study has been designed in order to provide further evidence on the status of species composition and to identify more accurately the members of the maculipennis complex in northern iran.200717233887
host feeding patterns of malaria vectors of orissa, india.blood meals of 1,491 anopheles fluviatilis sensu lato (s.l.), 1,690 an. culicifacies s.l., 719 an. annularis s.l., and 358 an. varuna sensu stricto were examined by gel diffusion method. the overall anthropophilic index (ai) was 78.9%, 1.6%, 3.2%, and 6.7% for an. fluviatilis, an. culicifacies, an. annularis, and an. varuna, respectively. out of 4 anopheline species studied, only 0.2% of an. culicifacies blood meals contained blood from humans and cattle. anopheles fluviatilis and an. culicifaci ...200617304929
multiplex pcr assay for the detection of anopheles fluviatilis species complex, human host preference, and plasmodium falciparum sporozoite presence, using a unique mosquito processing method.a multiplex pcr assay has been developed for detection of anopheles fluviatilis cryptic species, their human host preference, and plasmodium falciparum presence in the mosquito. pcr conditions were optimized using primer sets specific for a. fluviatilis cryptic species, homo sapiens, and p. falciparum and evaluated with field-collected mosquitoes. a unique mosquito processing method was used for screening p. falciparum carrying capacity and human host preference of a. fluviatilis mosquitoes in f ...200717488901
genomic resources for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens, and the role of vectorbase.high-throughput genome sequencing techniques have now reached vector biology with an emphasis on those species that are vectors of human pathogens. the first mosquito to be sequenced was anopheles gambiae, the vector for plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. further mosquitoes have followed: aedes aegypti (yellow fever and dengue fever vector) and culex pipiens (lymphatic filariasis and west nile fever). species that are currently in sequencing include the body louse pediculus humanus (typhus ...200918262474
the endosymbiont wolbachia pipientis induces the expression of host antioxidant proteins in an aedes albopictus cell line.wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria which commonly infect arthropods. they are maternally inherited and capable of altering host development, sex determination, and reproduction. reproductive manipulations include feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis, and cytoplasmic incompatibility. the mechanism by which wolbachia avoid destruction by the host immune response is unknown. generation of antimicrobial peptides (amps) and reactive oxygen species (ros) by the host are among the fir ...200818461124
building small dams can decrease malaria: a comparative study from sundargarh district, orissa, india.the adverse health effect of environmental changes brought about with the construction of large and small dams has often been reported. here, we present results of a 5-year (2001-2005) study documenting the positive effect of such developmental projects in reducing malaria in an area where malaria transmission is mainly due to the highly efficient anthropophagic vector anopheles fluviatilis with some contribution from anopheles culicifacies. the former breeds exclusively in the slow-flowing stre ...200818585671
the usefulness of a new rapid diagnostic test, the first response malaria combo (pldh/hrp2) card test, for malaria diagnosis in the forested belt of central india.malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in tribal belt of central india where two plasmodium species, plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax, are prevalent. in these areas, rapid detection of the malaria parasites and early treatment of infection remain the most important goals of disease management. therefore, the usefulness of a new rapid diagnostic (rdt), the first response(r) combo malaria ag (pldh/hrp2) card test was assessed for differential diagnosis between p. falciparum with other p ...200818620560
competency of anopheles stephensi mysorensis strain for plasmodium vivax and the role of inhibitory carbohydrates to block its sporogonic cycle.despite the abundance of studies conducted on the role of mosquitoes in malaria transmission, the biology and interaction of plasmodium with its insect host still holds many mysteries. this paper provides the first study to follow the sporogonic cycle of plasmodium vivax in a wild insecticide-resistant mysorensis strain of anopheles stephensi, a major vector of vivax malaria in south-eastern iran. the study subsequently demonstrates that host-parasite sugar binding interactions are critical to t ...200818627630
impact of lambdacyhalothrin capsule suspension treated bed nets on malaria in tribal villages of malkangiri district, orissa, india.insecticide treated mosquito nets are increasingly being used in malaria control programmes. one of the problems with the treatment of bed nets with conventional formulations of insecticides was that regular washing of treated nets diminish insecticidal effect. lambdacyhalothrin 2.5 capsule suspension (cs) (2.5% a.i., w/v), a new water-based microencapsulated formulation is reported to have wash-resistant property and longer persistence on the netting material than other formulations. we evaluat ...200819052336
molecular characterization of antifolates resistance-associated genes, (dhfr and dhps) in plasmodium vivax isolates from the middle iran, co-infections of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum are common and p. vivax infections are often exposed to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (sp). in the present study, the frequency distribution of mutations associated to sp resistance was investigated in pvdhfr and pvdhps genes from field isolates.200919175936
field evaluation of olyset nets: a long-lasting insecticidal net against malaria vectors anopheles culicifacies and anopheles fluviatilis in a hyperendemic tribal area of orissa, india.a village-scale trial was conducted on the efficacy of olyset nets: a long-lasting insecticidal net (llin) factory treated with 2% wt:wt permethrin against malaria vectors anopheles culicifacies giles and anopheles fluviatilis james, in sundargarh district, orissa, india. the study area comprised 22 villages that were randomized into three clusters and designated as olyset net, untreated net, and no net clusters. baseline studies showed that both vector species were 100% susceptible to permethri ...200919351086
fighting malaria in madhya pradesh (central india): are we losing the battle?malaria control in madhya pradesh is complex because of vast tracts of forest with tribal settlement. fifty four million individuals of various ethnic origins, accounting for 8% of the total population of india, contributed 30% of total malaria cases, 60% of total falciparum cases and 50% of malaria deaths in the country. ambitious goals to control tribal malaria by launching "enhanced malaria control project" (emcp) by the national vector borne disease control programme (nvbdcp), with the world ...200919419588
a unique methodology for detecting the spread of chloroquine-resistant strains of plasmodium falciparum, in previously unreported areas, by analyzing anophelines of malaria endemic zones of orissa, india.generally, clinical data is referred to study drug-resistance patterns of plasmodium falciparum in an area. this is only possible after a clear manifestation of drug-resistance parasites inside the human host, and thereafter detection by healthcare persons. the detection of spread of drug-resistant p. falciparum in a population, before any pathological symptoms detected in humans is possible by analyzing the anopheline vectors, transmitting malaria. in the present study we implemented a new stra ...200919460311
analysis of von willebrand factor a domain-related protein (warp) polymorphism in temperate and tropical plasmodium vivax field isolates.the identification of key molecules is crucial for designing transmission-blocking vaccines (tbvs), among those ookinete micronemal proteins are candidate as a general class of malaria transmission-blocking targets. here, the sequence analysis of an extra-cellular malaria protein expressed in ookinetes, named von willebrand factor a domain-related protein (warp), is reported in 91 plasmodium vivax isolates circulating in different regions of iran.200919549316
mosquito species associated within some western himalayas phytogeographic zones in the garhwal region of india.thirty four species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were collected across three phytogeographic zones; tropical (300 to 1000 m), sub tropical (1000 to 2000 m) and temperate (2000 to 3000 m) in the garhwal region of india. they included 5 genera: aedes, anopheles, armigeres, culex and uranotaenia. of these, the immature forms of 23 species were recovered from different breeding habitats. the larval habitats were seepage pools, river beds, rice fields, tanks, forest pools, ditches, streams, roc ...200720233101
wash-resistance and field evaluation of alphacypermethrin treated long-lasting insecticidal net (interceptor) against malaria vectors anopheles culicifacies and anopheles fluviatilis in a tribal area of orissa, india.a field trial was conducted on the efficacy of interceptor nets-a long-lasting insecticidal net (lln) factory treated with alphacypermethrin 0.667% (w/w) corresponding to 200mg/m(2), against malaria vectors anopheles culicifacies and anopheles fluviatilis in one of the highly endemic areas of orissa. the study area comprised 19 villages which were randomized into three clusters and designated as interceptor net cluster, untreated net cluster, and no net cluster. baseline studies showed that both ...201020465990
prevalence of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum in two districts of nepal.sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (sp) and chloroquine (cq) have been used in treatment of falciparum and vivax malaria in nepal. recently, resistance to both drugs have necessitated a change towards artemisinin combination therapy (act) against plasmodium falciparum in highly endemic areas. however, sp is still used against p. falciparum infections in low endemic areas while cq is used in suspected cases in areas with lack of diagnostic facilities. this study examines the prevalence of molecular marke ...201121457533
seasonal abundance and host-feeding patterns of anopheline vectors in malaria endemic area of iran.seasonal abundance and tendency to feed on humans are important parameters to measure for effective control of malaria vectors. the objective of this study was to describe relation between feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of four malaria vectors in southern iran. this study was conducted in ten indicator villages (based on malaria incidence and entomological indices) in mountainous/hilly and plain regions situated south and southeastern iran. mosquito vectors were collected from ...201021559055
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in the asia-pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic precis.abstract: background: the final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (dvs) of malaria is presented here. the first publication examined the dvs from the americas, with the second covering those species present in africa, europe and the middle east. here we discuss the 19 dvs of the asian-pacific region. this region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence ...201121612587
glutathione s transferase activity in indian vectors of malaria: a defense mechanism against ddt.glutathione s transferases (gsts) are multifunctional enzymes involved in detoxification of xenobiotic compounds in majority of the insect groups. significance of insect gsts is their elevated level of activity in association with insecticide resistance. this investigation was to explore the metabolic status of gsts in two indian ddt-resistant malaria vectors, anopheles culicifacies and anopheles annularis, and one ddt-susceptible vector, anopheles fluviatilis. malkangiri and koraput districts o ...201121661317
demonstration of malaria situation analysis, stratification and planning in minab district, southern demonstrate malaria situation analysis, stratification and planning for an endemic area in southern iran.201121771420
VectorBase: improvements to a bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vector genomics.VectorBase ( is a NIAID-supported bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. It hosts data for nine genomes: mosquitoes (three Anopheles gambiae genomes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus), tick (Ixodes scapularis), body louse (Pediculus humanus), kissing bug (Rhodnius prolixus) and tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans). Hosted data range from genomic features and expression data to population genetics and ontologies. We describe improvements ...201222135296
malaria control in bhutan: a case study of a country embarking on elimination.abstract: background: bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. this case study seeks to characterize the bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. methods: a review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control recor ...201222230355
evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, cassia didymobotrya (fresenius) irwin & barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae).to evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of culex quinquefasciatus.201223569999
climate change and spatiotemporal distributions of vector-borne diseases in nepal--a systematic synthesis of literature.despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (vbds), namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. there is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on vbds especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of vbds in nepal can be ...201526086887
species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern is increasingly recognized that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of vector-borne diseases (vbds) with shifts of disease vectors to higher altitudes and latitudes. in particular, an increasing risk of malaria and dengue fever epidemics in tropical highlands and temperate regions has been predicted in different climate change scenarios. the aim of this paper is to expand the current knowledge on the seasonal occurrence and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other dise ...201425430654
monitoring of malaria, japanese encephalitis and filariasis vectors.vector monitoring in military stations would help in protecting the armed forces from vector borne diseases such as malaria, japanese encephalitis and filariasis.201324843200
anopheles subpictus carry human malaria parasites in an urban area of western india and may facilitate perennial malaria transmission.india contributes 1.5-2 million annual confirmed cases of malaria. since both parasites and vectors are evolving rapidly, updated information on parasite prevalence in mosquitoes is important for vector management and disease control. possible new vector-parasite interactions in goa, india were tested.201626919828
anopheline species and their plasmodium infection status in aligarh, india.malaria is a global issue and india contributes substantially to global malaria incidence. information related to malaria vectors is very limited in aligarh. the environmental and climatological situations permit the continual breeding of vectors in permanent breeding sites. this study was designed with the aim to screen all the anophelines species and possible malaria vectors in three different localities of aligarh. anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three different localities (fort, jal ...201527579016
mitochondrial dna variation in the malaria vector anopheles minimus across china, thailand and vietnam: evolutionary hypothesis, population structure and population history.the effects of pleistocene environmental fluctuations on the distribution and diversity of organisms in southeast asia are much less well known than in europe and north america. in these regions, the combination of palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and inferences about population history from genetic data has been very powerful. in southeast asia, mosquitoes are good candidates for the genetic approach, with the added benefit that understanding the relative contributions of historical and curre ...201020517346
seasonal prevalence & resting behaviour of anopheles minimus theobald & an. fluviatilis james (diptera: culicidae) in east-central india.anopheles minimus has recently been reported to have re-appeared in keonjhar district of orissa after a period of about 45 years of launching the malaria eradication programme. an. minimus and an. fluviatilis were the incriminated major malaria vectors in the district, endemic for falciparum malaria. the information on seasonal prevalence and resting behaviour of the vectors is crucial for implementing appropriate malaria control measures. therefore, a study was undertaken on seasonal prevalence ...201121727666
diversification of the genus anopheles and a neotropical clade from the late cretaceous.the anopheles genus is a member of the culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. the genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among anopheles subgenera. we assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the coi, coii and 5.8s rrna genes and used maximum likelihood and bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times o ...201526244561
mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of anophelines and their association with resistance to pyrethroids - a review.constant and extensive use of chemical insecticides has created a selection pressure and favored resistance development in many insect species worldwide. one of the most important pyrethroid resistance mechanisms is classified as target site insensitivity, due to conformational changes in the target site that impair a proper binding of the insecticide molecule. the voltage-gated sodium channel (nav) is the target of pyrethroids and ddt insecticides, used to control insects of medical, agricultur ...201425292318
epidemiology of plasmodium vivax malaria in india.historically, malaria in india was predominantly caused by plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. after the spread of drug-resistant plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. by 2014, the proportion of p. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. in 2014, p. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in india; almost a sixth of all p. vivax cases reported ...201627708188
time series analysis of malaria in afghanistan: using arima models to predict future trends in incidence.malaria remains endemic in afghanistan. national control and prevention strategies would be greatly enhanced through a better ability to forecast future trends in disease incidence. it is, therefore, of interest to develop a predictive tool for malaria patterns based on the current passive and affordable surveillance system in this resource-limited region.201627876041
plasmodium vivax msp-3α polymorphisms: analysis in the indian subcontinent.plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite and accounts for approximately the same number of malaria cases as plasmodium falciparum in india. compared with p. falciparum, p. vivax is difficult to eradicate because of its tendency to cause relapses, which impacts treatment and control strategies. the genetic diversity of these parasites, particularly of the merozoite surface protein-3 alpha (msp-3α) gene, can be used to help develop a potential vaccine. the present stu ...201627663527
an experimental hut evaluation of olyset plus, a long-lasting insecticidal net treated with a mixture of permethrin and piperonyl butoxide, against anopheles fluviatilis in odisha state, development of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors prompted the development of new vector control tools including combination of insecticides with different modes of action as part of resistance management strategies. olyset plus® is a new long-lasting insecticidal net, in which, permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (pbo), are incorporated into filaments. mixture nets such as this may have application against resistant mosquitoes, particularly those whose resistance is based ...201627439398
where chloroquine still works: the genetic make-up and susceptibility of plasmodium vivax to chloroquine plus primaquine in bhutan.bhutan has made substantial progress in reducing malaria incidence. the national guidelines recommend chloroquine (cq) and primaquine (pq) for radical cure of uncomplicated plasmodium vivax, but the local efficacy has not been assessed. the impact of cases imported from india on the genetic make-up of the local vivax populations is currently unknown.201627176722
usage pattern, physical integrity & insecticidal efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets in odisha state, of the major strategies being pursued for malaria control by the national vector borne disease control programme is the distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets (llins) in endemic areas since 2009. information on durability of insecticidal efficacy and physical integrity of llins and community usage at different time intervals of their use is essential to plan net replacements to maintain universal coverage for an effective and sustainable malaria control strategy. therefore, a study w ...026905246
triple insecticide resistance in anopheles culicifacies: a practical impediment for malaria control in odisha state, odisha state, the control of malaria vectors has become dependent on synthetic pyrethroids, which are used for treatment of all approved long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins). the vast use of just one class of insecticide has led to the problem of resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors. one of the major malaria vectors in odisha state is anopheles culicifacies giles. the aim of this study was to determine the resistance status of an. culicifacies to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroi ...026905243
insecticide resistance in areas under investigation by the international centers of excellence for malaria research: a challenge for malaria control and elimination.scale-up of the main vector control interventions, residual insecticides sprayed on walls or structures and/or impregnated in bed nets, together with prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, have led to a global reduction in malaria transmission. however, resistance in vectors to almost all classes of insecticides, particularly to the synthetic pyrethroids, is posing a challenge to the recent trend of declining malaria. ten international centers of excellence for malaria research (icemr) locate ...201526259947
entomological monitoring and evaluation: diverse transmission settings of icemr projects will require local and regional malaria elimination strategies.the unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. these changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. integrated vector management will require focal and tailored vector control to achieve malaria elimination. ...201526259942
topographical distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in an area under elimination programme in the south of iran.malaria is a major vector-borne disease in tropical and sub-tropical countries caused by plasmodium infection. it is one the most important health problem in south and southeast of iran. since iran has recently launched to the elimination phase of malaria and vector control is one of the main strategies for elimination, this study was conducted to determine the topographical distribution of malaria vectors in minab county, one of the important malaria endemic areas in south of iran.201526148647
applications and limitations of centers for disease control and prevention miniature light traps for measuring biting densities of african malaria vector populations: a pooled-analysis of 13 comparisons with human landing catches.measurement of densities of host-seeking malaria vectors is important for estimating levels of disease transmission, for appropriately allocating interventions, and for quantifying their impact. the gold standard for estimating mosquito-human contact rates is the human landing catch (hlc), where human volunteers catch mosquitoes that land on their exposed body parts. this approach necessitates exposure to potentially infectious mosquitoes, and is very labour intensive. there are several safer an ...201526082036
spatio-temporal distribution of malaria and its association with climatic factors and vector-control interventions in two high-risk districts of nepal.over the last decade, the incidence of confirmed malaria has declined significantly in nepal. the aim of this paper is to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria and its association with climatic factors and vector control interventions in two high-risk districts of nepal.201425421720
effect of house spraying with lambdacyhalothrin 10 per cent capsule suspension (cs) formulation in comparison with 10 per cent wettable powder (wp) against malaria vector in malkangiri district, odisha, india.selection of an insecticide and its appropriate formulation is a prerequisite of formulating any chemical control strategy against vectors. a hut scale field trial was carried out to study the effectiveness of house spraying with capsule suspension (cs) formulation of lambdacyhalothrin in comparison with its wettable powder (wp) formulation on mortality, density and behaviour of malaria vector in malkangiri district, odisha, india.025488449
environmental management through sluice gated bed-dam: a revived strategy for the control of anopheles fluviatilis breeding in streams.integrated vector management (ivm) emphasizes sustainable eco-friendly methods and minimal use of chemicals. in this context, the present study highlights the environmental control of breeding of anopheles fluviatilis, the primary malaria vector, through water management in a natural stream in koraput district, odisha, india.025297364
bionomic aspects of the anopheles subpictus species complex in sri lanka.anopheles subpictus grassi s.l. (diptera: culicidae) functions as a secondary malaria vector to anopheles culicifacies giles s.l. (diptera: culicidae) in sri lanka. the taxon a. subpictus is reported to exist as a species complex comprising four sibling species (a-d) that can be differentiated through polytene chromosome banding patterns and stage-specific morphometric traits in india. based on the morphological characteristics described for the indian subpictus complex, the presence of all four ...025205254
species composition and seasonal activities of malaria vectors in an area at reintroduction prevention stage, khuzestan, south-western iran.the most part of iran become malaria-free region and fall in prevention of re-introduction stage. these regions however are struggling with imported of malaria cases where malaria vectors exist. therefore, understanding the situation of mosquito vectors is crucial. this study was carried out to find out the present situation of malaria vectors and malaria transmission potential in a malaria-free area.201426114144
prediction of outcome of severe falciparum malaria in koraput, odisha, india: a hospital-based study.infection with plasmodium falciparum, caused 627,000 deaths in 2012 in the world. p. falciparum infection causes myriads of clinical manifestations. exact clinical manifestation resulting in poor prognosis in hyper-endemic epidemiological settings need to be ascertained to save human lives. a hospital-based study was conducted to elucidate the different severe clinical presentations of falciparum malaria and to examine the critical clinical and laboratory parameters on the prognosis of these sev ...025250231
a review of malaria transmission dynamics in forest ecosystems.malaria continues to be a major health problem in more than 100 endemic countries located primarily in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. malaria transmission is a dynamic process and involves many interlinked factors, from uncontrollable natural environmental conditions to man-made disturbances to nature. almost half of the population at risk of malaria lives in forest areas. forests are hot beds of malaria transmission as they provide conditions such as vegetation cover, tempe ...201424912923
analyzing mosquito (diptera: culicidae) diversity in pakistan by dna barcoding.although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in pakistan is poorly known. recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. dna barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications.201424827460
the ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in aligudarz county (luristan province, western iran).to determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus anopheles (dipetra: culicidae) in aligudarz county, western iran.025183088
characterization of larval habitats for anopheline mosquitoes in a malarious area under elimination program in the southeast of determine the effects of environmental characteristics of larval habitats on distribution and abundance of anopheline mosquitoes in bashagard county, a malarious area in southeast of iran.025183151
response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of odisha state, india.updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of odisha state, which are endemic for plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of anopheles fluviatilis and an. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria.024718406
molecular characterization, biological forms and sporozoite rate of anopheles stephensi in southern identify the biological forms, sporozoite rate and molecular characterization of the anopheles stephensi (an. stephensi) in hormozgan and sistan-baluchistan provinces, the most important malarious areas in iran.024144130
some ecological attributes of malarial vector anopheles superpictus grassi in endemic foci in southeastern determine the bionomics and susceptibility status of the malarial vector anopheles superpictus (an. superpictus) to different insecticides in the sistan-baluchestan province which has the highest malarial prevalence in iran.024093794
a study on relapse/re-infection rate of plasmodium vivax malaria and identification of the predominant genotypes of p. vivax in two endemic districts of nepal.malaria is a major public health problem in nepal inflicted primarily by the parasite plasmodium vivax, - the only species responsible for relapse cases in nepal. knowledge on its relapse rate is important for successful malaria control, but is lacking in nepal. the information on circulating predominant genotypes of p. vivax is equally relevant for high endemic districts of nepal to understand the transmission dynamics of the parasite and to uncover the coverage and efficacy of potential vaccin ...201324041296
dynamics of forest malaria transmission in balaghat district, madhya pradesh, epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in balaghat district, madhya pradesh, india to understand the dynamics of forest malaria transmission in a difficult and hard to reach area where indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets were used for vector control.201324023900
a clinical and molecular study of artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in three districts of central and eastern india.artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (as + sp) is recommended throughout india as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. due to the presence of several eco-epidemiological zones of malaria and variable drug pressure, it is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this combination in different regions of india. the objective of this study was to use clinical and molecular methods to monitor the efficacy of as + sp in three diverse sites.201323866298
persistent foci of falciparum malaria among tribes over two decades in koraput district of odisha state, india.koraput, a predominantly tribe-inhabited and one of the highly endemic districts of odisha state that contributes a substantial number of malaria cases to the india's total. control of malaria in such districts would contribute to change the national scenario on malaria situation. hence, a study was carried out to measure the magnitude of malaria prevalence in the district to strengthen the malaria control activities.201323433186
the impact of artemisinin combination therapy and long-lasting insecticidal nets on forest malaria incidence in tribal villages of india, tools for malaria control, artemisinin combination therapy (act) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (llins) were recently introduced across india. we estimated the impact of universal coverage of act and act plus llins in a setting of hyperendemic, forest malaria transmission.201323437229
the malaria transition on the arabian peninsula: progress toward a malaria-free region between 1960-2010.the transmission of malaria across the arabian peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. it is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free arabian peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. from as early as the 194 ...023548086
molecular evidence of misidentification of anopheles minimus as anopheles fluviatilis in assam (india).anophelesminimus s.l. and anophelesfluviatilis s.l., two closely related taxa, are reported vectors of malaria in assam state of india. we determined the dna sequences of morphologically identified a. minimus s.l. and a. fluviatilis s.l. collected from the kamrup district in assam, for two rdna loci-internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) and d3 domain of 28s rdna (28s-d3). analysis of rdna data revealed that the sequences of both the morphologically identified a. minimus s.l. and a. fluviatilis s. ...201019913489
rdna-its2 based species-diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of sibling species of anopheles fluviatilis in iran.a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay using primers already designed, based on differences in the nucleotides of the second internal transcribed spacer (its2), was used to identify the species composition of the anopheles fluviatilis complex in iran. all the amplified dna samples obtained from specimens collected from different areas using different collection methods yielded to a fragment of 450 bp size, a pcr product corresponding to the species denoted as y. some 21 its2 re ...200319230572
epidemiology of malaria transmission in forest and plain ecotype villages in sundargarh district, orissa, india.a study of the epidemiology of malaria transmission was undertaken in 13 tribal villages located in forest and plain areas of sundargarh district of orissa state, india, from january 2001 to december 2003. in forest areas, intense transmission of malaria is attributed to the highly anthropophagic vector anopheles fluviatilis sibling species s and is complemented by a. culicifacies sibling species c. in plain areas, a. culicifacies sibling species c is responsible for malaria transmission. the en ...200616697022
comparative susceptibility of three important malaria vectors anopheles stephensi, anopheles fluviatilis, and anopheles sundaicus to plasmodium vivax.the 3 laboratory-colonized malaria vectors, i.e., anopheles stephensi, an. sundaicus, and an. fluviatilis, were studied for their comparative susceptibility to plasmodium vivax sporogony. there was no significant difference in oocyst and sporozoite recruitment by these 3 species, whereas the geometric mean (gm) of the oocyst number per midgut was significantly lower in an. fluviatilis as compared with that in the other 2 species. there was no difference in the gm of oocyst between an. stephensi ...200515856876
molecular characterization of anopheles fluviatilis species complex in the islamic republic of iran.a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to identify the species composition of the anopheles fluviatilis complex in the islamic republic of iran. all the amplified dna samples from specimens collected from different areas yielded a fragment of 450 bp size, a pcr product corresponding to that of the species denoted as y. the sequence data from 21 its2 [second internal transcribed spacer] regions were compared with those publicly available in the genbank database and conf ...200315751917
the changing dynamics of plasmodium vivax and p. falciparum in central india: trends over a 27-year period (1975--2002).the changing epidemiology of malaria since 1975 was studied in a tribal forested belt of central india, chhattisgarh state, which is the second most highly malarious state in india. chhattisgarh, which accounts for 2% of the total population of the country, contributed >16% of the total malaria cases, 23% of plasmodium falciparum, and 7% of deaths due to malaria in the country. retrospective analysis further revealed that, in 1975--76, p. vivax was the predominant species (58%); however, since 1 ...200415631069
epidemiology of malaria transmission and development of natural immunity in a malaria-endemic village, san dulakudar, in orissa state, india.we describe the epidemiology of malaria in san dulakudar, a village in sundargarh district in the state of orissa in eastern india. malaria transmission is perennial with plasmodium falciparum, accounting for greater than 80% of malaria cases. transmission intensity varies with season with high transmission after the monsoon rains in autumn and winter, low transmission in summer, and intermediate transmission in spring. the anthropophagic mosquito anopheles fluviatilis was identified as the main ...200415516643
differentiation of members of the anopheles fluviatilis species complex by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction based on 28s ribosomal dna sequences.anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major vectors of malaria in india, is a complex of at least three cryptic species provisionally designated as species s, t, and u. identification of the cryptic species of an. fluviatilis complex is of paramount importance in disease control program due to contrasting differences in their vectorial efficiency, preference for feeding on humans, and resting behavior. species s, t, and u are morphologically indistinguishable at any stage of their life cycle and can ...200414971694
anthropophily of anophelines in duars of west bengal and other regions of india.attempts have been made to identify the source of blood meals of twenty three anopheline species from various areas of high malaria endemicity in india. anopheles minimus, anopheles fluviatilis and anopheles dirus showed a high propensity for human blood in north-eastern parts of the country while anopheles sundicus was found to be anthropophilic in andaman & nicobar islands. anopheles culicifacies, anopheles maculatus and anopheles philippinensis were found primarily zoophilic in north-eastern ...200011198404
rdna-its2 polymerase chain reaction assay for the sibling species of anopheles fluviatilis.species-specific differences in the nucleotide sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (its2) region of the ribosomal dna (rdna) were used to develop a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay for two of the sibling species of the anopheles fluviatilis complex, members of which are major vectors of malaria in central and northern parts of india. this assay consisted of a three primer reaction, which could amplify the dna of both the species producing fragments of two distinct ...200111164744
human resistance to plasmodium falciparum increases during puberty and is predicted by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels.immunity to plasmodium falciparum develops slowly in areas of endemicity, and this is often ascribed to poorly immunogenic or highly variant parasite antigens. however, among populations newly exposed to malaria, adults acquire immunity more rapidly than children. we examined the relationship between pubertal development and resistance to p. falciparum. during two transmission seasons in western kenya, we treated the same cohort of young males to eradicate p. falciparum and then obtained blood s ...200111119497
field evaluation of spicbiomoss, a biolarvicidal formulation of bacillus sphaericus against immatures of culex quinquefasciatus & anopheles species.spicbiomoss, an aqueous suspension formulation of bacillus sphaericus was evaluated for its efficacy against immatures of culex quinquefasciatus at the application rate of 120 l/ha in cement tanks, cesspits and drains in pondicherry and in drains in kochi, kerala. the formulation was also tested against anophelines (anopheles fluviatilis and an. culicifacies) breeding in stream pools in malkangiri district, orissa. in cement tanks and cesspits more than 80 per cent reduction in immature density ...199910645100
population dynamics of anopheles culicifacies and malaria in the tribal area of central india.a longitudinal study (1993-94) on malaria was conducted in dungaria, a typical forest fringe tribal village in mandla district of central india (madhya pradesh). our initial objective was to obtain in-depth baseline data on malaria transmission in the tribal village to elucidate the factors responsible for persistent malaria in the area and thereby to help in formulating an improved malaria control program. anopheles culicifacies giles was the predominant vector of malaria, although anopheles fl ...199910480116
hut-scale trial of pyraclofos against malaria vectors in malkangiri district of orissa.a hut-scale trial of pyraclofos 50% ec applied as an indoor residual spray at 1 gm/sq m was carried out against malaria vectors. anopheles fluviatilis and an. culicifacies in kandhaguda village of malkangiri district, orissa. bandhaguda village was kept as control. pyraclofos was effective in reducing the vector density by 80-96% after 24 h of spray, but the density increased within three weeks. parity rates were reduced only for three weeks as measured by diurnal indoor resting collection. cont ...19968690128
distribution of indoor-resting anopheles fluviatilis in human dwellings and its implication on indoor residual spray. 19958549839
studies on dispersal of malaria vectors in a hilly tract of koraput district, orissa state, india.dispersal of malaria vectors was studied in a hilltop village in koraput, a highly malarious district of orissa. immatures from terraced stream beds and day-time resting adults from artificially dug pit shelters, distributed centrifugally at different distances from the village were sampled. breeding of anopheles fluviatilis, an. annularis and an. culicifacies was found up to a distance of 1,700 m. immature density of an. fluviatilis and an. culicifacies showed a negative correlation with the di ...19938160061
reliability of light trap sampling for anopheles fluviatilis, a vector of malaria.the utility of light traps for sampling anopheles fluviatilis, the major malaria vector in the hill tracts of koraput district, orissa, was assessed. a modified version of the cdc miniature light trap was used in the study. the data generated from light trap collections were analysed and compared with daytime resting, man-biting and night resting collections carried out in parallel. the number per trap recorded in cattle sheds was significantly higher than that recorded in human dwellings. a sim ...19947863849
age composition, natural survival and population growth of anopheles fluviatilis james, 1902, the major malaria vector in the endemic belt of koraput district, orissa, india.the population growth of anopheles fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, was studied in the hill tracts of koraput district. immature duration ranged from 11 to 14 days (mean = 12.42 +/- 0.99) in rainy and 12 to 17 days (mean = 14.78 +/- 1.64) in cold season. the probability of immature survival through different developmental stages was maximal in ponds. daily survival rate of adults fluctuated between 0.55 and 0.92. the net reproductive rate (ro) was estimated to be 3.0200 for cold and 0.6486 ...19947825013
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