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the epidemiology of equine strongylosis in southern queensland. 2. the survival and migration of infective larvae on herbage.the seasonal changes in longevity on herbage of the infective larvae of strongylid nematodes of the horse were studied. during the summer months, 1% of the larvae survived on herbage for 2-3 weeks, with 0.2% still viable for a further 2-3 weeks. equivalent survival periods in winter were 7-11 weeks and over 11 weeks respectively. during spring and autumn, larvae survived for periods varying from 3-8 weeks. on rhodes grass (chloris gayana) growing vigorously in the summer of 1976, the majority of ...1979518432
effects of cobalt deficiency on the ovarian function in the east african short-horned goat.24 normocyclic east african short-horned goats were made vitamin b12-deficient through feeding cobalt-deficient rhodes grass (chloris gayana) hay. the deficiency was confirmed by controls of the blood level, by the occurrence of anaemia, by increased cortisol levels, and by hypertrophy of the fasciculata and reticulata zones in the adrenal cortex. the oestrogen level increased initially, and then decreased markedly from the 3rd cycle on, and reached levels below those of the control. ovulations ...19854041181
methane production and energy partition of cattle in the tropics.the aim of this experiment was to determine ch4 production and energy partition for a range of diets fed to bos indicus cattle. six brahman cattle were fed on three different diets in a replicated latin square experiment over three periods. the diets were (1) long-chopped angleton grass (dicanthium aristatum) hay ad libitum (dm digestibility (dmd) 41 (se 2)%; 4 g n/kg), (2) long-chopped rhodes grass (chloris gayana) hay ad libitum (dmd 60 (se 1)%; 14 g n/kg) or (3) 2 kg long-chopped lucerne (med ...199910434849
effects of supplementing a basal diet of chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of cassia rotundifolia, lablab purpureus and macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some nutritional parameters in goats.growth and digestibility experiments were conducted on growing east african type goats offered chloris gayana hay supplemented with one of three high-protein (119-128 g cp/kg dm) legume hays, cassia rotundifolia (cassia), lablab purpureus (lablab) or macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro), and crushed maize to investigate the feed intake, digestibility, growth and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. goats in the supplemented groups had higher total dry matter and nitrogen intakes and higher n ...200011020947
the effects of replacing rhodes grass (chloris gayana) hay with ghaf (prosopis cineraria) pods on the performance of omani native sheep.a feeding trial using various levels of dry pods of ghaf (prosopis cineraria) was carried out with 28 omani native male sheep. individual feed intake and body weight were determined for 50 days to allow assessment of the effects of the feeds on growth, feed intake, feed conversion and carcase measurements. the ripened ghaf pods contained 91% dry matter (dm), 13.5% crude protein (cp), 14.3% crude fibre (cf), 1.3% ether extract (ee) and 5.2% ash (on dm basis). four levels of ghaf (0, 15%, 30% and ...200415080543
comparison of the effect of sporobolus virginicus and rhodes (chloris gayana) hay diets on the absorption pattern of phenylbutazone in the camel (camelus dromedarius).the effect of feeding sporobolus and rhodes hay on phenylbutazone (4 g) relative absorption was examined in six camels using a two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment crossover design. serum concentration of the drug was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. the measured values (means+/-sd) for rhodes and sporobolus hay, respectively, were cmax 35.59+/-22.36 and 36.55+/-18.99 microg/ml, tmax 26+/-2.53 and 26.3+/-1.97 h and auc0-72 h 1552+/-872.6 and 1621+/-903.6 microg h/ml. broad ...200515683768
thyroid hormones and metabolic rate during induction of vitamin b12 deficiency in goats.vitamin b12 deficiency was induced in 15 small east african goats by feeding cobalt deficient chloris gayana hay (containing 0.02 mg of co/kg dry matter) over a 25 week experimental period. cobalt was supplemented as an oral drench to supply 0.3 g of co/goat/week to 15 treated goats. at intervals of 3-4 weeks, serum concentrations of vitamin b12 , total thyroxine (tt4), free tetra-iodothyronine (ft4) and free tri-iodothyronine (ft3) were determined by radioimmunoassay, while the rate of resting ...199416031778
effects of fluoride emissions on two tropical grasses: chloris gayana and panicum maximum cv. colonião.in order to detect early effects of plant contamination by fluoride emission on two tropical grasses, chloris gayana and panicum maximum, previously cultivated under greenhouse conditions, were exposed to a single source of fluoride emission at a station at 1.1 km from an aluminum smelter in ouro preto, mg, brazil. controls were placed at a reference station 78km from the fluoride source. during an 8-day period of exposure leaf injury, ionic permeability, photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductan ...200716876246
fluid and particle retention in the digestive tract of the addax antelope (addax nasomaculatus)--adaptations of a grazing desert ruminant.retention time of food in the digestive tract is a major aspect describing the digestive physiology of herbivores. differences in feed retention times have been described for different ruminant feeding types. in this study, a dominantly grazing desert ruminant, the addax (addax nasomaculatus), was investigated in this respect. eight animals with a body weight (bw) of 87+/-5.3 kg on an ad libitum grass hay (chloris gayana) diet were available. co-edta and cr-mordanted fibers (<2 mm) were used as ...200818083600
liveweight performance of crossbred and zebu cattle grazing on native or rhodes grass pastures.two experiments are described involving 33 crossbred (mainly simmental and jersey x zebu) and 33 zebu (horro and boran) bulls and steers. in experiment i, growth rates of crossbred and zebu cattle rotationally grazed on either native pasture or rhodes grass (chloris gayana) were compared during a 140 day grazing period at a stocking rate of 2.4 animals/ha. in experiment ii, growth rate of cattle rotationally grazed for 140 days on native pasture was compared with that of a similar group grazed o ...1978746593
diurnal changes and effect of ration on concentrations of the rumen ciliate charon ventriculi.charon ventriculi comprised over 30% of the total protozoa observed in rumen contents of a flamenga cow fed rhodes grass hay (chloris gayana). both percentage of composition and concentration decreased markedly when concentrate was added to the ration or the animal was fed in pasture. although c. ventriculi is classified as a holotrich, concentrations of this species in the rumen appear to follow a diurnal cycle more closely related to be entodiniomorph protozoa.1978104658
the effect of pelleting on the voluntary intake and digestibility of leaf and stem fractions of three grasses.1. leaf is eaten in greater quantities than stem of similar digestibility. to determine whether this difference is caused by physical or chemical factors, leaf and stem fractions from digitaria decumbens, chloris gayana and setaria splendida were fed ad lib, to sheep in the chopped and pelleted forms. pellets were made from leaf and stem which had been ground through a screen with 3 mm holes. all sheep received a protein and mineral supplement. 2. voluntary intake of chopped leaf was 34 percent ...19751115758
mechanism of c4 photosynthesis in chloris gayana: pool sizes and kinetics of 14co2 incorporation into 4-carbon and 3-carbon intermediates. 1979443796
binding of carbon dioxide to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deduced from carbon kinetic isotope effects.phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [atp:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (transphosphorylating), ec 4.1.1.49] from chloris gayana kunth has been purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography on agarose-hexane-atp. in the direction of oaa formation, the specific activity of the enzyme was 33 mumol/(min.mg of protein). the carbon isotope effect on carboxylation was measured by successive analysis of remaining co2 over the course of ...19921567882
elongation growth in leaf blades of chloris gayana under saline conditions.in chloris gayana, salinity-associated yield decreases are due mainly to leaf area reductions. to understand the physiological basis for such reduction, the effects of salinity were studied on the spatial and temporal distribution of extension in the intercalary meristem at the leaf base, and on hydraulic conductance in that zone. c. gayana plants were grown on sand irrigated with hoagland solution with the addition of 0 or 200 mmol/l nacl, and all measurements were performed on tiller leaf four ...200312806780
why are chloris gayana leaves shorter in salt-affected plants? analyses in the elongation zone.reduced hydraulic conductance calculated from growth data was suggested to be the main reason for reduced leaf expansion in salt-stressed chloris gayana (rhodes grass). in this work, xylem vessel cross-sections and wall enzyme activities were analysed to re-examine the effects of salinity on leaf growth in this species. maximal segmental growth rates were 20% lower and the growth zone was 23% shorter in leaves from salinized plants than in controls; however, growth rates between 0 mm and 15 mm f ...200617101716
localization and chemical speciation of pb in roots of signal grass (brachiaria decumbens) and rhodes grass (chloris gayana).lead (pb) contamination of soils is of global importance but little is known regarding pb uptake, localization, or the chemical forms in which pb is found within plants, or indeed how some plants tolerate elevated pb in the environment. two grasses, signal grass (brachiaria decumbens stapf) (pb-resistant) and rhodes grass (chloris gayana kunth)(pb-sensitive), were grown for 14 d in dilute nutrient solutions before examination of roots using transmission electron microscopy (tem) to determine the ...200818605592
particle inflow gun-mediated transformation of multiple-shoot clumps in rhodes grass (chloris gayana).rhodes grass (chloris gayana) is one of the most important warm-season forage grasses. it is cultivated in tropical and subtropical parts of the world and is mostly used for grazing and hay production. we have established a particle-bombardment transformation protocol for rhodes grass using multiple-shoot clumps (mscs) as the target tissue. a vector pahc25 containing a herbicide-resistance gene (bar) together with the beta-glucuronidase (gus) gene was used in transformation experiments. the most ...200918778876
salinity induced anatomical and morphological changes in chloris gayana kunth roots.chloris gayana kunth is a grass species valuable as forage which was introduced into argentina to be used as pasture in saline soils of subtropical and warm-temperate zones, given its good adaptability to drought, salinity and mild freezing. however, its tolerance varies according to the cultivar. in tetraploid cultivars, important reductions in yield have been observed. here, a study of the variations produced on the root and stem system by salinity at different nacl concentrations (0, 150 and ...201121667667
effects of different forms of white lupin (lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of washera sheep fed rhodes grass (chloris gayana) hay-based diets.protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (lupinus albus) grain is commendable. the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (wlg) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. twenty-five yearling male washera sheep with initial body weight (bw) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± s ...201526250152
irrigation levels affects biomass yields and morphometric characteristics of range grasses in arid rangelands of kenya.production of range grasses under irrigation has been widely adopted in the arid environments of kenya as a strategy for seasonal forage supply gap. however, their productivity has only been done under conventional methods without an evaluation of their performance at varied soil moisture conditions. this information is needed for making sustainable management of irrigation water and also increased pasture productivity at the current intensification of the production systems.201627722058
characterization of spatial variability of soil physicochemical properties and its impact on rhodes grass productivity.characterization of soil properties is a key step in understanding the source of spatial variability in the productivity across agricultural fields. a study on a 16 ha field located in the eastern region of saudi arabia was undertaken to investigate the spatial variability of selected soil properties, such as soil compaction 'sc', electrical conductivity 'ec', ph (acidity or alkalinity of soil) and soil texture and its impact on the productivity of rhodes grass (chloris gayana l.). the productiv ...201728149182
evaluation of six candidate dna barcode loci for identification of five important invasive grasses in eastern australia.invasive grass weeds reduce farm productivity, threaten biodiversity, and increase weed control costs. identification of invasive grasses from native grasses has generally relied on the morphological examination of grass floral material. dna barcoding may provide an alternative means to identify co-occurring native and invasive grasses, particularly during early growth stages when floral characters are unavailable for analysis. however, there are no universal loci available for grass barcoding. ...201728399170
influence of nonhost plants on population decline of rotylenchulus reniformis.the influence of chloris gayana, crotalaria juncea, digitaria decumbens, tagetes patula, and a chitin-based soil amendment on hawaiian populations of rotylenchulus reniformis was examined. chloris gayana was a nonhost for r. reniformis. the nematode did not penetrate the roots, and in greenhouse and field experiments, c. gayana reduced reniform nematode numbers at least as well as fallow. tagetes patula was a poor host for reniform nematode and reduced reniform nematode numbers in soil better th ...199119283098
changes in plant-parasitic nematode populations in pineapple fields following inter-cycle cover crops.the use of plant-covers oat (arena sativa l.), rhodesgrass (chloris gayana kunth), soybean (glycine max [l.] merr.), and marigold (tagetes patula l.) during pineapple inter-cycle planting periods was investigated at two sites (kunia and whitmore, oahu, hi) as a potential means to reduce population densities of rotylenchulus reniformis, helicotylenchus dihystera, and paratylenchus spp. clean fallow and fallow covered with pineapple-plant residues (mulch) were the controls without plant-cover. reg ...199619277173
effects of phyto-oestrogens on progesterone synthesis by isolated bovine granulosa cells.the effects of phyto-oestrogens on progesterone synthesis by isolated bovine granulosa cells in vitro were assessed. various concentrations (0.37-3700 nmol/1) of biochanin a, genistein or oestradiol were added to cultures of bovine granulosa cells and the consequent changes in progesterone synthesis were measured. the effects of alkali-soluble extracts of rhodes grass (chloris gayana) and fodder beet (beta vulgaris, var.) were also examined. another series of experiments tested the effects of ge ...19817195925
effect of air temperature and humidity on ingestive behaviour of sheep.thirty-two polwarth ewes, of ages up to 1 year, were observed in a climatic chamber (24 to 45 degrees c) for eight periods of 5 h each. the observations were made through a window in the chamber wall. all animals were observed four times, then shorn and observed four times again. the animals were given weighed quantities of water and feed consisting of commercial concentrate plus rhodes grass (chloris gayana) hay. the water and feed remaining after 5 h of observation were weighed. the following ...19921428223
Effect of supplementing Rhodes grass hay (Chloris gayana) with Berchemia discolor or Zizyphus mucronata on the performance of growing goats in Kenya.Twenty growing Small East African goats were used to determine the effects of feeding sun-dried leaves of the browse forages Berchemia discolor and Zizyphus mucronata as supplements to low-quality basal diet, Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay, on voluntary feed intake (VFI), digestibility and growth performance. The grass hay and maize bran were used as a control. The dried leaves were then included at the rates of 15% and 30% of the dry matter intake (DMI). Berchemia discolor had the highest cr ...201121699586
feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to rhodes grass hay.the effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (bwg), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (bw of 13.8?±?0.12 kg). six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: rhodes grass (chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (t1), hay?+?150 g moringa leaf (t2), hay?+?300 g moringa leaf (t3), hay?+?450 g moringa leaf (t4) were offered daily. a 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth ...201121786162
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