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redescription of apharyngostrigea ramai (verma, 1936). a trematode of cattle egret. 19751158294
visceral and subcutaneous acariasis caused by hypopi of hypodectes propus bulbuci in the cattle egret.twenty-one of 24 adult male and female cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis ibis) collected in geneva county, alabama had numerous white cyst-like structures (1,466 microns x 354 microns) found within the loose connective tissues of the skeletal muscles of the inguinal region, beneath the serosa of the proventriculus and in the heart beneath the epicardium (one adult male bird). these were identified as hypopi of hypodectes (hypodectoides) propus bulbuci. histologic sections were prepared from the subcu ...19873682100
endoparasites of the cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) in alabama. 19725042057
prevalence of antibodies to japanese encephalitis and west nile viruses among wild birds in the krishna-godavari delta, andhra pradesh, india.in the krishna-godavari delta region of the state of andhra pradesh, india, 866 sera obtained from trapped birds of 13 species were tested for neutralizing antibody to japanese encephalitis (je) virus; two species of birds belonging to the family ardeidae, ardeola grayii (pond heron) and bubulcus ibis (cattle egret), contributed 514 of these sera. neutralizing antibody to je virus--i.e. sera giving positive reactions--was detected in 179 sera (34.8%) from these two species; in addition, two sera ...19817303138
vector situation of tick-borne diseases in the caribbean islands.the most important ticks transmitting diseases to ruminants in the caribbean islands are: amblyomma variegatum, vector of cowdriosis and associated with acute dermatophilosis; amblyomma cajennense, potential vector of cowdriosis; boophilus microplus, vector of babesiosis and anaplasmosis. at the present time, amblyomma variegatum is widespread in the lesser antilles from barbados to puerto rico. the intensity of the tick control program varies in the different islands and the tick infestation in ...19957597781
[the relationship between mosquito vectors and aquatic birds in the potential transmission of 2 arboviruses].the authors studied for two years the role of the chicks of aquatic birds in the arboviral cycles in coastal lagoons in central panama in order to determine the relation between culex (melanoconion) ocossa and mansonia (mansonia) dyari mosquitoes in the transmission and dissemination of the viruses of saint louis encephalitis (sle) and venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee). mosquitoes were captured every fifteen days on two consecutive nights to isolate the virus, using light traps (cdc) and bait ...19938101009
growth and development of temperature regulation in nestling cattle egrets. 19744154173
danger of introducing heartwater onto the american mainland: potential role of indigenous and exotic amblyomma ticks.the existence of heartwater on 3 islands of the central lesser antilles and the presence of an efficient vector originating from africa, amblyomma variegatum, on most of the islands of this region constitute a serious threat for livestock on the american mainland. the disease can be introduced there either by infected animals or infected ticks. the most likely way is probably the transportation of domestic animals which are heavily infested by ticks. due to the low rate of infection of ticks in ...19873329328
potential impact of wildlife on the tropical bont tick eradication program in the caribbean.wildlife are hosts for a. variegatum throughout its range in africa, and have been demonstrated to serve as hosts for larvae and nymphs on several islands in the caribbean. studies conducted in the caribbean have indicated that most larvae and nymphs and all adults of the tick feed on livestock; therefore, eradication can be approached through the treatment of livestock. however, since small numbers of animals such as the mongoose are infested with larvae and nymphs, these animals may represent ...19968784488
an unusual group-a rotavirus associated with an epidemic of diarrhea among three-month-old calves.during the 1992 and 1993 breeding seasons, epidemics of diarrhea among calves approximately 3 months old in a cow/calf operation were reported. rotavirus was determined to be the probable cause, but because rotavirus typically affects younger calves, further investigations were conducted to determine the characteristics of the virus. virus isolated from the feces of 1 affected calf was found to be antigenically distinct from the vaccine strain used. the primary water source was a slough, and rap ...19968603906
propagation of the tick amblyomma variegatum in the caribbean.the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum, is an african tick species which infests livestock and wildlife. it was probably introduced in the central eastern islands of the caribbean during the 18th or 19th century, with cattle shipped from senegal. in africa and the caribbean, this tick is a vector of heartwater (a rickettsial disease of ruminants) and is associated with acute dermatophilosis (a bacterial skin disease of animals). until 1948, only guadeloupe and the neighbouring islands of m ...19958593414
potential role of cattle egrets, bubulcus ibis (ciconiformes: ardeidae), in the dissemination of amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) in the eastern caribbean.the potential role of cattle egrets, bubulcus ibis (l.), in the dissemination of amblyomma variegatum (f.) in the eastern caribbean was evaluated. the status of cattle egrets as hosts for a. variegatum in antigua was determined during seven survey periods between september 1988 and may 1991. the mean prevalences of infestation by larvae and nymphs were 2.3 and 0.5%, respectively. the mean intensity and relative density of infestation by larvae were 8.8 (sd = 9.80) and 0.2 (sd = 0.28), respective ...19938271244
heavy metal and selenium levels in feathers of young egrets and herons from hong kong and szechuan, china.several species of herons and egrets frequently nest in colonies in areas where humans also concentrate. since the birds feed on intermediate-sized fish that themselves concentrate pollutants, they can be used not only to assess the levels of contaminants in avian tissues but as indicators of contaminants in the environment. the concentration of heavy metals and selenium in the breast feathers of fledgling black-crowned night herons nycticorax nycticorax and chinese pond herons ardeola bacchus f ...19938215588
visual fields and eye movements in herons (ardeidae).the visual fields and eye movements of three heron species (ardeidae; ciconiiformes): the cattle egret (bubulcus ibis), the squacco heron (ardeola ralloides), the western reef heron (egretta gularis schistacea) were determined in alert, restrained birds using an ophthalmoscopic technique. all three species can gain panoramic visual coverage of the frontal field around the bill, and a bird standing with its bill horizontal can view its own feet binocularly. the region in which binocular overlap i ...19947953610
isolation of yucaipa-like viruses from cattle egrets (ardeola ibis) in israel. 19817331598
organochlorine pesticide residues in some indian wild birds.residues of bhc and ddt were estimated by gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of the internal body organs, depot fat, and blood plasma of a few species of indian wild birds, captured in and around the urban area of lucknow. total bhc and gamma-bhc (lindane) levels were high in breast muscle, liver, heart, and lung tissues of pigeon, crow, and vulture, compared with the respective tissues of chicken, cattle egret, and kite. more lindane and total bhc was found in tissues of vulture compared with ...19817279596
bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium in the louisiana heron (hydranassa tricolor) and the cattle egret (bubulcus ibis). 19817250006
environmentally acquired lead, cadmium, and manganese in the cattle egret, bubulcus ibis, and the laughing gull, larus atricilla.the concentrations of lead, cadmium, and manganese in the tissues of cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis) and laughing gulls (larus atricilla) gathered from the galveston bay region of texas were compared, to determine if different patterns of accumulation exist. their levels in these species were within the range reported for other bird species. lead levels in bone were comparable, but gulls had more lead in brain, kidney and liver tissues than the egrets, which suggested a higher rate of accumulation ...19807189395
inhibition of tissue aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase by 7,8-benzoflavone in birds.1. addition of 7,8-benzoflavone (7,8-bf) inhibited both hepatic and renal constitutive activity of aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase in vitro for a number of avian species. inhibition of hepatic benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase was 70-94% in wild pigeon; 46-88% in homing pigeon; 85-93% in house crow; 18-53% in common kite; 56-86% in cattle egret; and for the renal enzyme was 43-84, 52-88, 18-73 and 13-48% respectively. 2. 3-methylcholanthrene treatment of homing pigeons resulted in the ind ...19827136005
experimental transmission of capillaria philippinensis to birds.capillaria philippinensis larvae from fish and adult and larval forms of the parasite from gerbil intestines established parent infections when given a stomach tube to several species of birds from taiwan. adult males, oviparous and larviparous females and larval stages were found in nycticorax nycticorax, bubulcus ibis, ixobrychus sinensis, gallinula chloropus and amaurornis phoenicurus. c. philippinensis also developed in pigeons, rostratula benghalensis, a few anas spp. and chickens. some bir ...19836636279
isolation of a new arbovirus from the tick argas robertsi from a cattle egret (bubulcus ibis coromandus) colony in australia.a new arbovirus was isolated from ticks of the species a. robertsi collected on 3 january 1980 from trees in which b. ibis coromandus was breeding. the breeding site is located in a swamp at latitude 27 degrees s., longitude 152 degrees e. in south-east queensland. larvae, nymphs and adults of a. robertsi were observed to feed on egrets. the serum of 29 out of 37 egrets from the same colony contained neutralizing antibodies to the virus. no information is available on the pathogenicity of this v ...19846393929
two ectoparasites of the cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) in alabama. 19725078609
serogroups of thermophilic campylobacters from humans and from non-human sources, israel 1982-1985.the distribution of serogroups of thermophilic campylobacters isolated in israel from human patients (2421 isolates), chicken (942), turkeys (158), cattle (398), wild birds (234) and other sources, was studied. among the human isolates, 74 rog-serogroups were identified. the six most commonly isolated of these (1, 18; 11; 12; 8,23; 4 and 5,39) were found frequently in chickens. only four common serogroups in man were also common in cattle, three in turkeys and two in wild birds. two common serog ...19873678392
heavy metal and selenium concentrations in feathers of egrets from bali and sulawesi, indonesia.herons and egrets are ideal organisms to use asindicators of heavy metal exposure in an ecosystem because different speciesfeed at different levels of the food chain and live in both coastal andinland habitats. this paper reports on the concentration of heavy metals andselenium in the feathers of cattle egrets bubulcus ibis that wereexamined from nesting and roosting sites in bali and sulawesi, indonesia, andin feathers of little egrets egretta garzetta and intermediate egretse. intermedia from ...19979069200
[spreading of the tick amblyomma variegatum in the west indies: how can this serious menace be explained and what should be done?].the author presents a brief history of the introduction and extension of the african tick amblyomma variegatum in the caribbean. the tick is particularly dangerous for the livestock industry because of its role as a vector of heartwater and its association with severe dermatophilosis. it is already distributed in the lesser antilles from puerto rico to barbados and st. vincent. the chronology of its sudden unexplained expansion since the 1960s corresponds well with the multiplication of the catt ...19902103050
[the genotyping of the west nile virus in birds in the far eastern region of russia in 2002-2004].samples from 20 species of trapped and dead birds were collected in the far eastern region in 2002-2004 and were analyzed by the anti-wnv mab-modified immunoenzyme assay for antigen detection and rt-pcr for viral rna detection. five positive samples from cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) and two positive samples from cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) were found in both tests. the sequencing of the 322 bp fragments of protein e gene showed 99-99.67% homology with the strain wnv/leiv-vlgoo-27924 o ...200617094656
predators of the tick amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) in guadeloupe, french west indies.some vertebrate species in guadeloupe are predators of free or parasitic stages of amblyomma variegatum (fabricius). among birds, 1.9% of the 421 identified animals found in the stomachs of grackles (quiscalus lugubris), 1.6% of the 364 animals found in the stomachs of free-ranging chickens, and 0.3% of the 4642 animals found in the stomach of cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis) were a. variegatum ticks. the most efficient predator of ticks was the tropical fire ant, solenopsis geminata, which was obs ...19911773677
seasonal and geographical variation of organochlorine residues in birds from northwest mexico.eight species of birds (129 individuals) were collected from three agricultural areas with long histories of pesticide use in northwestern mexico. plucked carcasses were analyzed for organochlorine (oc) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (pcbs). dde was found in all of the samples and at higher levels than other ocs. mean (geometric) dde concentrations varied from 0.04 (microgram/g) ppm in mourning doves (zenaida macroura) to 5.05 ppm in double-crested cormorants (phalacrocorax auritus). hexachl ...19911722080
organochlorine contaminants in cormorant, darter, egret, and ibis eggs from south africa.during the last 15 years, no research has been published on the levels of pesticides in bird eggs from south africa, despite the high levels found previously. we analysed eggs from african darter, cattle egret, reed cormorant, african sacred ibis, as well as single eggs from some other species, and found hcb, ddts, hchs, chlordanes and pcbs at detectable levels. the presence of mirex in all species was unexpected, since this compound was never registered in south africa. it also seemed as if ter ...200818001817
characteristic trend of persistent organochlorine contamination in wildlife from a tropical agricultural watershed, south india.the residue levels of persistent organochlorines, such as hch (bhc: 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers, ddt [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane] compounds, pcbs (polychlorobiphenyls) and hcb (hexachlorobenzene), were measured in wildlife. the wildlife were sampled from terrestrial and aquatic habitats in and around the agricultural watershed of parangipettai, south india. on the basis of overall concentrations sigma hch ranked first followed by sigma ddt, sigma pcb and hcb, ...19921637196
residue levels of organochlorines and mercury in cattle egret, bubulcus ibis, eggs from the faiyum oasis, egypt. 19921380352
two digenetic trematodes from the cattle egret, bubulcus ibis (l.), from puerto rico. 1977559065
seasonal study of the adrenal gland of some indian avian species.adrenal glands of eight indian species of birds, namely columba livia, passer domesticus, corvus splendens, acridotheres tristis, acridotheres ginginianus, milvus migrans, francolinus pondicerianus and bubulcus ibis were examined during the sexually active and inactive phases of their annual reproductive cycles. excepting a ginginianus and m. migrans, among members of either sex of the remaining six species the weight of the adrenal gland increases during the period of sexual activity. histologi ...1976135472
cattle egrets are less able to cope with light refraction than are other herons.the majority of heron species (aves, ardeidae) forage on aquatic prey in shallow water. prey detection, aiming and the beginning of the capture strikes are performed while the heron's eyes are above water. for most angles, as a result of air/water light refraction, the apparent image available to a heron is vertically displaced from the prey's real position. herons must therefore correct for refraction. we tested the hypothesis that species that forage in aquatic habitats should be more able to ...199910196060
behavioral, morphological and physiological correlates of diurnal and nocturnal vision in selected wading bird species.we examined in selected wading bird species if diurnal or nocturnal foraging and the use of visual or tactile feeding strategies could be correlated with retinal structure and function. the selected species were the yellow-crowned night heron (nycticorax violaceus), a crepuscular and nocturnal forager, the great blue heron (ardea herodias), a mainly crepuscular, but also diurnal and nocturnal feeder, the roseate spoonbill (ajaia ajaja), a mainly crepuscular feeder which forages more at night tha ...199910473901
population structure of argas arboreus (acari: argasidae) ticks associated with seasonally abandoned mixed heronries, dominated by cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis), in south africa.during winter populations of argas arboreus from heronries of the cattle egret, bubulcus ibis, in south africa are composed of adults, with some predominance of males, and ii-iv instar nymphs, in a state of diapause. the period of tick activity, including reproduction and development of eggs, larvae and n1 nymphs, is synchronized with the nesting and breeding season of their avian hosts. it begins during spring with the return of birds to the heronry, and ceases in autumn through induction of re ...200314971735
development of a computer model of the population dynamics of amblyomma variegatum and simulations of eradication strategies for use in the caribbean.control or eradication efforts should cover wide areas because of long-range migration potential of immature ticks attached to birds, such as cattle egrets. careful follow-up inspections are also imperative. simulation 1 shows how rapidly the population numbers may expand from small numbers, either introduced or missed. simulation 4 indicates extending the treatment cycle beyond the residual effectiveness of the acaricide to save labor or funds would be false economy. the result could be to main ...19968784528
allometric relationships between embryonic heart rate and fresh egg mass in birds.previously, we have measured daily changes (developmental patterns) in embryonic heart rate (fh) in altricial and semi-altricial (asa) birds (range of mean fresh egg mass approximately 1-20 g), semi-precocial seabirds (egg mass approximately 38-288 g) and precocial birds (egg mass approximately 6-1400 g). an allometric relationship between embryonic fh at 80 % of incubation duration (id) and fresh egg mass (m) has been derived for six species of precocial bird (fh at 80 % id=429m(-0.118)). in th ...200111104720
argasid ticks as possible vectors of west nile virus in israel.mites and soft ticks collected directly from wild and domestic birds and their nests were tested for the presence of west nile virus (wnv). the cattle egret argas, argas arboreus, was collected from the nests of seven cattle egret colonies. out of 1,000 a. arboreus pools examined, 16 were positive for wnv based on rt-pcr technique. the positive pools were from four nesting colonies of birds. out of 37 cattle egret squabs examined, 37.8% had serum-neutralizing antibodies to wnv. wnv rna was also ...200515815151
heavy metal and selenium levels in young cattle egrets from nesting colonies in the northeastern united states, puerto rico, and egypt.colonially-nesting species of herons and egrets breed mainly in coastal areas, along rivers or near other large bodies of water. such areas are also preferred for human development, exposing nesting birds to various pollutants. from 1989-1991, the concentrations of heavy metals and selenium were studied in the feathers of fledgling cattle egrets bubulcus ibis, a terrestrially-feeding insectivore, from new york and delaware in the northeastern united states, from puerto rico, and from egypt. ther ...19921444587
head stabilization in herons.we examined head stabilization in relation to body mass and length of legs in four heron species (little egrets, egretta garzetta; night herons, nycticorax nycticorax; squacco herons, ardeola ralloides; and cattle egrets, bubulcus ibis: aves: ardeidae). head stabilization, under controlled, sinusoidal, perch perturbations was mostly elicited at frequencies lower than 1 hz. maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained were positively correlated with leg length and maximal perturbation frequencies su ...200111548989
residues of organochlorinated pesticides in eggs of water birds from tai lake in china.the levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of water birds from the colony on tai lake in china were studied. the eggs were collected in 2000 and belonged to the following species: 65 samples of black-crowned night heron (nycticorax nycticorax), 36 samples of little egret (egretta garzetta), 26 samples of cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) from 13 clutches and 43 samples of chinese pond heron (ardeola bacchus) from 17 clutches. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) and its derivates (dde and ddd), ...200415499782
a fatal pegosomum sp. (trematoda: echinostomatidae) infection in a wild cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) from japan.an adult cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) caught in kobe of hyogo prefecture, japan, in december 1995 died of a severe infection associated with the trematode parasite pegosomum sp. at necropsy, 22 trematode parasites were found in the lumen of the bile duct, and the duct wall was markedly thickened. histopathologically, severe cholangitis and cholecystitis were observed in close association with the parasites in the bile duct. severe pegosomum sp. infection may be one of the factors contributing to ...19989638632
virulence of h5n1 influenza virus in cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis).in vietnam, cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis) are common in a variety of habitats, such as freshwater marshes, beaches, and paddy fields. they are also found associated with cattle (bos spp.) and occasionally with pigs (sus scrofa), goats (capra hircus), and horses (equus caballus) and are kept for insect control in households. in this study, six cattle egrets were experimentally infected intranasally with highly pathogenic avian influenza (ai) a/duck/vietnam/40d/04 (h5n1) to investigate a possible ...201121441184
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in feathers of colonial water-bird species from pakistan.feathers of two colonial water-birds species (bubulcus ibis, egretta garzetta) from four heronries in the punjab province, pakistan were analysed for 28 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) congeners. median concentrations of ∑pbdes were 2.41 and 1.91 ng/g in little and cattle egrets. pbde-47, -100, -138, -153 were abundant and detected in >70% of feather samples in both species. species-specific differences based on dietary preferences indicated higher concentration of pbde-47, -66, -75, -100 ...201121571414
nyamanini and midway viruses define a novel taxon of rna viruses in the order mononegavirales.here, we report the sequencing and classification of nyamanini virus (nymv) and midway virus (midwv), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. we used a random shotgun sequencing strategy to define the genomes of nym ...200919279111
assessment of environmental contamination using feathers of bubulcus ibis l., as a biomonitor of heavy metal pollution, pakistan.concentrations of metals such as ca, cd, co, cr, cu, fe, k, li, mg, mn, ni, pb, and zn were analyzed in the feathers of cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) from three breeding colonies in the punjab province, pakistan. the mean concentrations of ca, cd, fe, pb and mn were significantly different between the three study sites (river chenab, river ravi and rawal lake reservoir). the mean concentrations of ca, cd, fe and mn were significantly greater at the river chenab heronry and cr, co, zn, and pb conc ...200919418220
[postnatal growth patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (ciconiiformes: ardeidae)].avian postnatal growth has received considerable attention and its ecological implications have been deeply analyzed. in this current paper, i describe the patterns of culmen and tarsus growth, as well as of weight gain patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (aves: ardeidae) found in the birama swamp in eastern cuba. between 1998 and 2006,714 nestlings of the following species were measured every two days: butorides virescens, bubulcus ibis, egretta thula, e. tricolor, e. caerulea, e. ru ...201121721238
babesiosis and heartwater: threats without boundaries.suppose one of your clients from southern florida starts talking about cattle egrets while you are vaccinating her cat. it seems she found a nearly dead egret near the cattle pen a few days ago, picked it up, and noticed a number of what looked like small ticks on the legs. or, suppose you are called out to a small dairy in central texas to look at some cows that are feverish and anemic. the first animal you examine has a few brown ticks attached just under the tail. finally, perhaps you are loo ...200212442575
new primers for sex identification in the chinese egret and other ardeid species.using the universal p2/p8 primers, we were able to obtain the gene segments of chromo-helicase-dna binding protein (chd)-z and chd-w from ten species of ardeid birds including chinese egret (egretta eulophotes), little egret (e. garzetta), eastern reef egret (e. sacra), great egret (ardea alba), grey heron (a. cinerea), chinese pond-heron (ardeola bacchus), cattle egret (bubulcus ibis), black-crowned night-heron (nycticorax nycticorax), cinnamon bittern (ixobrychus cinnamomeus) and yellow bitter ...201121429119
naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis) from central texas.naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis) from central texas (bryan and san antonio, texas, usa). nestlings from a third colony (waco, texas, usa) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. these birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoc ...200516107676
nesting ardeid colonies are not a focus of elevated west nile virus activity in southern california.a large nesting colony of ardeid birds at the finney-ramer wildlife refuge in imperial county, california, did not appear to be a focus of west nile virus (wnv) amplification during the summer of 2004. blood samples taken during june and july from 155 nestlings of four species of ardeid birds (cattle egrets, black-crowned night herons, great egrets, and snowy egrets) and five nestling double-crested cormorants yielded a single wnv isolation from a 3-week-old cattle egret. antibody was detected b ...200516187895
[enrichment characteristics of heavy metals in heron eggs].in this study, the eggs and tissues of black-crowned night heron, little egret, chinese pond heron and cattle egret were sampled from the dashu, yuantong and taizi mountains in hefei areas of anhui province in april to june 2004, and the residual amounts of cd, pb and cr in the samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. the results showed that the test heavy metals could be detected at high levels in the eggshell, egg contents, and tissues of most samples. eggshell and bone ...200516422517
avian tuberculosis in naturally infected captive water birds of the ardeideae and threskiornithidae families studied by serotyping, is901 rflp typing, and virulence for poultry.avian tuberculosis was detected in one flock of 38 water birds of the families ardeideae (n = 20) and threskiornithidae (n = 18). mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (maa, serotype 1, genotype is901+ and is1245+) was more often (p = 0.01) detected in tissue and/or faecal samples in 18 (90.0%) birds form the ardeideae family: little egret (egretta garzetta), buff-backed heron (bubulcus ibis), great white egret (egretta alba), and bittern (botaurus stellaris) in comparison to two (11.1%) birds from t ...200717056210
the component helminth community in six sympatric species of ardeidae.we studied the helminth communities in 6 sympatric species of ardeidae (ixobrychus minutus (linnaeus, 1766), nycticorax nycticorax (linnaeus, 1758), bubulcus ibis (linnaeus, 1758), egretta garzetta (linnaeus, 1766), ardea cinerea (linnaeus, 1758), and ardea purpurea (linnaeus, 1766)) from "la albufera de valencia," spain. the survey revealed 13 species of helminth parasites: 5 digeneans, 2 cestodes, and 6 nematodes. the component helminth communities of the ardeidae examined are depauperate and ...200517089743
diagnosis of heavy metal contamination in agro-ecology of gujranwala, pakistan using cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) as bioindicator.the present study investigated the status of heavy metals: lead (pb), cadmium (cd), chromium (cr), cobolt (co), silver (ag) and nickle (ni) residues in egg, regurgitate and sediment samples collected from two colonies of cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) during the breeding seasons between april and august in 2004 and 2005. the mean concentration of heavy metals in eggs and regurgitates was found higher compared to the maximum residue limit (mrl) standards prescribed by environmental protection agenc ...200717115270
the life cycle of haplorchis pumilio (trematoda: heterophyidae) from the indian region.the life cycle of the heterophyid fluke, haplorchis pumilio is elucidated for the first time from the indian region. various stages in the life cycle were established based on observations made on natural infections found in snails and fish in a freshwater stream at visakhapatnam, india and experimental infections carried out in the laboratory. the thiarid snail, thiara tuberculata served as the first intermediate host and a wide range of freshwater fish as second intermediate hosts. natural inf ...200617125540
polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hbcd in bird eggs of south africa.in this paper, the first data on brominated flame retardants (bfrs), in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) in eggs of bird species from south africa are described (n=43). concentrations of pbdes were detected in all the studied species and in all the geographic areas. highest concentrations of pbdes were measured in bird eggs from the vaal river, which is situated downstream of the most industrialized area in south africa. sum-pbde concentrations ...200818466951
evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype c infection of wild birds in georgia, south carolina, arkansas and ohio, usa.metapneumoviruses (mpvs) were first reported in avian species (ampvs) in the late 1970s and in humans in 2001. although ampvs have been reported in europe and asia for over 20 years, the virus first appeared in the united states in 1996, leaving many to question the origin of the virus and why it proved to be a different subtype from those found elsewhere. to examine the potential role of migratory waterfowl and other wild birds in ampv spread, our study focused on determining whether population ...200818568663
population characteristics and the nature of egg shells of two phthirapteran species parasitizing indian cattle egrets.the prevalence, intensities of infestation, range of infestation and population composition of two phthirapteran species, ardeicola expallidus blagoveshtchensky (phthiraptera: philopteridae) and ciconiphilus decimfasciatus boisduval and lacordaire (menoponidae) on seventy cattle egrets were recorded during august 2004 to march 2005, in india. the frequency distribution patterns of both the species were skewed but did not correspond to the negative binomial model. the oviposition sites, egg layin ...201021067416
prevalence of west nile virus neutralizing antibodies in wild birds from the camargue area, southern france.the camargue area of southern france experienced the re-emergence of west nile virus (wnv) in the late summer of 2000 and 2004. immediately preceding the 2004 outbreak, samples were collected from 432 birds of 32 different species captured in mist nets and from 201 cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) nestlings sampled in their nests between 1 april and 12 june 2004. west nile virus neutralizing titers of >/=40 were detected in 4.8% (95% confidence limit, 2.9-7.5%) of the adult birds and in 1.6% (0.3-4. ...200818689669
serological survey for the prevalence of antibodies to egg drop syndrome 1976 virus in domesticated and wild birds in israel.a serological survey of chicken, turkey, goose and duck flocks for the presence of antibodies to egg drop syndrome virus 1976 (eds 76) has been carried out in israel. in most of the chicken flocks sampled egg production was not normal, but no antibodies against this virus were detected. likewise, turkey breeding flocks were similarly negative. all pekin duck flocks tested showed some serological activity. muscovy ducks that were reared in direct or indirect contact with pekin ducks had haemagglu ...198018770279
organochlorine residual concentrations in cattle egret from the punjab province, pakistan.in this study, residual concentration of organochlorine pesticides (ocps) in the sediments, prey, and eggs of bubulcus ibis were measured from three breeding heronries from the punjab province of pakistan. pattern of contamination in eggs followed the order: ddts>hchs>heptachlor>aldrin. overall, pesticide residual concentrations were greater in eggs of cattle egrets collected from heronry on the river ravi. among hchs, γ-hch was more prevalent in eggs, whereas ddts followed the order: ddd>dde>p, ...201120213056
avifauna in the panipat region, haryana (india).avifaunal study was carried out in the panipat region, haryana (india) at 56 locations. 91 birds species were observed during the study, of which, 39 species were aquatic. house sparrow was found to be dominant followed by bank myna, house crow and indian myna. among the aquatic birds, cattle egret was dominant followed by common pochard, pintail and blackwinged stilt. encounter rates of the birds were related to the dominant indices of each species. species diversity index was found to be 10.25 ...201021114110
cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) and little egret (egretta garzetta) as monitors of mercury contamination in shadegan wetlands of south-western iran.mercury concentrations in feather, liver, kidney, and muscle tissue of little egret (n = 8) and cattle egret (n = 3) from shadegan wetlands in south-western iran were examined. liver of little egret had significantly higher mercury compared to cattle egret (p < 0.05). in addition, mercury values were consistently larger in little egret when compared to cattle egret, but mercury levels found in feather, kidney, and muscle did not differ statistically between the two bird species (p > 0.05). the s ...201019475490
the caribbean amblyomma program: some ecologic factors affecting its success.the caribbean amblyomma program has been operational for 8 years. however, owing to funding availability, some islands did not commence eradication activities until late 1997. during the past 2 years, 6 of the 9 islands (st. kitts, st. lucia, anguilla, montserrat, barbados, and dominica) under the program have attained the status of provisional freedom from the tropical bont tick (tbt). there are several administrative and technical reasons why the attainment of the program goals took longer tha ...200415604510
a review of the mite subfamily harpirhynchinae (acariformes: harpirhynchidae)--parasites of new world birds (aves: neognathae).mites of the subfamily harpirhynchinae (acariformes: cheyletoidea: harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (aves: neognathae) in the new world are revised. in all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: harpyrhynchoides gallowayi bochkov, oconnor and klompen sp. nov. from columba livia (columbiformes: columbidae) from canada (manitoba), h. zenaida bochkov, oconnor and klompen sp. nov. from zenaida macroura (col ...201526624161
persistent organochlorine residues in livers of six species of ciconiiformes (aves) from spain.liver samples of 42 birds belonging to 6 species of ciconiiformes (grey heron (n = 17), little egret (n = 12), cattle egret (n = 1), glossy ibis (n = 1), little bittern (n = 1), and white stork (n = 10)), collected from two different zones of spain (ebro delta and madrid) in 1992-1997, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and pcbs. sigmapcbs (sum of concentrations of individual congeners), p,p'-dde, hcb, gamma-hch, and heptachlor epoxide were the most prevalent residues detected in all sa ...200616785174
influence of diet in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in herons breeding in remote riverine environments.the composition of organochlorine compounds (ocs), pentachlorobenzene (pecb), hexachlorobenzene (hcb), hexachlorocyclohexanes (hchs), ddts and polychlorobiphenyls (pcbs), has been analyzed in eggs from cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) and little egret (egretta garzetta), two species of herons (family ardeidae), nesting at the same remote riverine environment (aiguabarreig, ebro river). these two species were selected to evaluate the importance of diet in the accumulation of ocs. cattle egret essenti ...201626694793
epidemiological aspects of lice (menacanthus species) infections in laying hen flocks from the state of minas gerais, brazil.the epidemiology of chicken lice species such as menacanthus stramineus, m. cornutus and m. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the state of minas gerais, brazil. a total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. m. cornutus, m. stramineus and m. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. the frequencies of occurrence of m. cornutus, m. stra ...201626642864
bridge hosts for avian influenza viruses at the wildlife/domestic interface: an eco-epidemiological framework implemented in southern africa.wild terrestrial birds can act as potential local spreaders or bridge hosts for avian influenza viruses (aivs) between waterfowl (the maintenance hosts of aivs) and domestic avian populations in which aivs may cause disease. few studies have investigated this hypothesis, although it is an important knowledge gap in our understanding of aiv spread within socio-ecosystems. we designed a simple and reproducible approach in an agro-ecosystem in zimbabwe based on: (1) bird counts at key target sites ...201425457135
whartonacarus floridensis sp. nov. (acari: trombiculidae), with a taxonomic review and the first record of whartonacarus chiggers in the continental united states.among several unusual species collected during surveillance of ectoparasites on wildlife hosts in the southeastern united states and caribbean region, the larvae of a new species of whartonacarus were encountered in 2003 on a cattle egret, bubulcus ibis (l.), in the florida keys. this is the first record for a member of whartonacarus in the continental united states. the mite is described and named as whartonacarus floridensis mertins, and the possible significance of this discovery with respect ...200919960669
the complete mitochondrial genomes of sixteen ardeid birds revealing the evolutionary process of the gene rearrangements.the animal mitochondrial genome is generally considered to be under selection for both compactness and gene order conservation. as more mitochondrial genomes are sequenced, mitochondrial duplications and gene rearrangements have been frequently identified among diverse animal groups. although several mechanisms of gene rearrangement have been proposed thus far, more observational evidence from major taxa is needed to validate specific mechanisms. in the current study, the complete mitochondrial ...201425001581
analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the ebro basin (n.e. spain).the frequency of micronuclei (mn) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (ardea purpurea, egretta garzetta and bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the river ebro (ne spain) and at its delta during spring 2006. flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) mn counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples from the reference area. samples from the delta showed intermediate values. age, morphometric parameters (weig ...200818063255
waterbirds (other than laridae) nesting in the middle section of laguna cuyutlán, colima, méxico.laguna de cuyutlán, in the state of colima, mexico, is the only large coastal wetland in a span of roughly 1150 km. despite this, the study of its birds has been largely neglected. between 2003 and 2006 we assessed the waterbirds nesting in the middle portion of laguna cuyutlán, a large tropical coastal lagoon, through field visits. we documented the nesting of 15 species of non-laridae waterbirds: neotropic cormorant (phalacrocorax brasilianus), tricolored egret (egretta tricolor), snowy egret ...200818624252
characterization and evolution of mhc class ii b genes in ardeid birds.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is a multi-gene family that is very suitable to investigate a wide range of open questions in evolutionary ecology. in this study, we characterized two expressed mhc class ii b genes (dab1 and dab2) in the grey heron (aves: ardea cinerea). we further developed the primer pairs to amplify and sequence two mhc class ii b loci in ten ardeid birds. phylogenetic analysis revealed that different parts of the genes showed different evolutionary patterns. the exon ...201121590337
metal contamination in select species of birds in nilgiris district, tamil nadu, india.variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the cormorant (phalacrocorax carbo), cattle egret (bubulcus ibis), little egret (egretta garzetta), pond heron (ardeola grayii), common myna (acridotheres tristis) and jungle babbler (turdoides striatus) in nilgiris district, tamil nadu, india. the accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. on an average, little egret accumulated high concentrations of copper (53.31 ± 23.19 ppm) followed by cattle egret (16.27 ...201121656294
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from the fernando de noronha, brazil.abstract fernando de noronha is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the atlantic ocean, state of pernambuco, brazil, and has a varied biodiversity, including alien species or sinantropic animals. the objective here was to determine seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from fernando de noronha archipelago, brazil. between july 2007 to may 2010, blood samples were collected from 764 animals (533 domestic and 231 wild animals). sera were tested by the indirect f ...201122150091
contaminant levels in colonial waterbirds from green bay and lake michigan, 1975-80.residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), polybrominated biphenyls (pbbs), polychlorinated styrenes (pcss), and mercury were measured in the eggs of 10 species of colonial waterbirds nesting in areas around green bay or lake michigan from 1975 to 1980. residues also were measured in the carcasses and brains of black-crowned night-herons (nycticorax nycticorax). the highest residues were of pcbs, dde, mercury, and dieldrin; for some species, levels of these chemical ...198524258029
heavy metals in eggshells of cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) and little egret (egretta garzetta) from the punjab province, pakistan.concentrations of nine trace metals were determined to assess site-specific and species-specific differences using fast sequential atomic absorption spectrophotometer (varian faas-240) in eggshells of bubulcus ibis and egretta garzetta from seven heronries in the punjab province, pakistan. pattern of metal concentration followed the order: fe > zn > pb > mn > cd > cr > li > cu > ni. greater mean concentrations of mn(1.17 μg/g), ni(0.11 μg/g), pb(1.49 μg/g), cd(0.88 μg/g), cr(0.7 μg/g), cu(0.20 μ ...201323260238
the influence of foraging benefits on association of cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis) with cattle.the degree of association between cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis) and cattle was studied during one summer on saint catherines island, georgia, usa. previous work by grubb (1976) and others indicated that cattle egrets foraging with cattle require fewer steps and less time to catch prey than egrets foraging without cattle and single egrets catch prey at a higher rate than egrets foraging in groups of two or more with cattle. accordingly, we predicted that when given a choice egrets should forage w ...198228310502
Community composition of aquatic birds in lakes of Bangalore, India.Observations were made on the occurrence, abundance, richness, and diversity of waterbirds in 15 major lakes in Bangalore city during 2008 - 2009. During the study period 35 species of aquatic birds were recorded. The number of aquatic bird species recorded at various lakes ranged from 23 to 35. The percent abundance of waterbirds recorded in the study lakes ranged from 2.46 to 21.49 and itwas significantly different (p < 0.05). The diversity and species evenness of waterbirds in the lakes range ...201121888236
mercury bioaccumulation in organisms from three puerto rican estuaries.we analyzed mercury levels in shrimp (palaemonetes sp.), blue crabs (callinectes sp.), fish (tarpon megalops atlantica and tilapia tilapia mossambica), lizards (ameiva exsul), cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) and moorhen (gallinula chloropus) in three estuaries in puerto rico in 1988. there were no quantifiable concentrations greater than the method detection limit of mercury in shrimp, crabs and lizards from any site. mercury levels were also below detection limits in tilapia, except for specimens ...199224226951
tail regeneration after autotomy revives survival: a case from a long-term monitored lizard population under avian predation.caudal autotomy in lizards has intrigued scientists for more than 100 years. because of the relative lack of literature under natural conditions, the complicated association among field autotomy rate, real predation pressure, the long-term cost of tail loss, and the benefit of regeneration remains equivocal. in this study, we conducted a 7-year capture-mark-recapture (cmr) programme with a wild population of a sexually dichromatic lizard, takydromus viridipunctatus we used autotomy indexes and a ...201728100821
pathomorphology of liver & bile duct of the heron, bubulcus ibis linn., infected with the trematode, pegosomum egretti srivastava, 1957. 19751205523
the potential use of wolbachia-based mosquito biocontrol strategies for japanese encephalitis.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted by the infectious bite of culex mosquitoes. the virus causes the development of the disease japanese encephalitis (je) in a small proportion of those infected, predominantly affecting children in eastern and southern asia. annual je incidence estimates range from 50,000-175,000, with 25%-30% of cases resulting in mortality. it is estimated that 3 billion people live in countries in which jev is endemic. the virus exists in an e ...201526086337
investigation of avian influenza infection in wild birds in ismailia and damietta cities, egypt.this study was carried out to monitor avian influenza (ai) infection in wild birds in egypt.201728717324
two echinostome species, pegosomum bubulcum and nephrostomum ramosum (digenea: echinostomatidae), from an eastern cattle egret, bubulcus ibis coromandus, in republic of korea.we describe 2 echinostome species recovered from an eastern cattle egret, bubulcus ibis coromandus, from cheongju-si (city), chungcheongbuk-do (province), korea. total 72 pegosomum bubulcum specimens were recovered from the bile duct. they were 7,566×2,938 μm in average size and had 27 collar spines with vitelline extension from anterior 1/3 level of the esophagus to mid-level of the posterior testis as characteristic features. total 9 specimens of nephrostomum ramosum were recovered in the smal ...201627658601
salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) chicks from central texas: prevalence, serotypes, pathogenicity, and epizootic potential.cattle egrets have a worldwide distribution, feed in proximity to cattle and other domestic animals, and often nest in large colonies in urban woodlots. over a 3-yr period, nestlings from five cattle egret colonies from central texas, usa, were surveyed for salmonellosis. prevalence of infection ranged from 29% to 95%. seventeen salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes were isolated, of which the 4,5,12:i-monophasic serotype predominated in cultures of both the digestive tract and pooled sp ...201020688631
host preference of the arbovirus vector culex erraticus (diptera: culicidae) at sonso lake, cauca valley department, colombia.culex erraticus (dyar & knab) is a competent vector of eastern equine encephalitis virus and subtype ic venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and both st. louis encephalitis virus and west nile virus have been isolated from field-collected specimens. previous bloodmeal analysis studies have shown this species to be a generalist, feeding on a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. this behavior can bridge arboviral transmission across different vertebrate groups. our study examined ...201223025191
isolation of escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella from migratory brown-headed cowbirds (molothrus ater), common grackles (quiscalus quiscula), and cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis).zoonotic enteric pathogenic bacteria can live in the intestinal tract of birds and can be transmitted to food animals or humans via fecal contact. in the present study, cecal samples were collected from 376 migratory birds from species often associated with cattle during the fall migration in the central flyway of the united states. brown-headed cowbirds (n=309, molothrus ater), common grackles (n=51, quiscalus quiscula), and cattle egrets (n=12, bubulcus ibis) contained foodborne pathogenic bac ...201425078494
light and scanning electron microscopic features of the tongue in cattle egret.adult individuals of both sexes were sacrificed by decapitation and their tongues were teared out in order to be investigated. cattle egret's tongue is distinguished into the apex, body, and root regions. a shallow median sulcus is apparently noticed on the dorsal surface of the tongue's body only. histologically, the tongue mucosa is covered with a thick parakeratinized epithelium. the dorsal epithelia of the apex and body are densely packed with exfoliated superficial cells. however, the dorsa ...201627095031
[egg size variation in egrets and herons (aves: ardeidae) nesting in birama's swamp, cuba].intraclutch egg size variation in birds depends on many ecological factors and on the evolutive history of each species. in wading birds, a trend to smaller eggs with laying order has been described, but comparative reports are scarce. in this study, egg size variation patterns were described for nine egrets and heron species nesting in birama' swamp, cuba. the patterns were described using external dimensions of 3142 eggs from 1875 nests of butorides virescens, bubulcus ibis, ardea alba, nyctic ...201526299128
microhabitat use by three species of egret (pelecaniformes, ardeidae) in southern brazil.in the present study, we examined the role of different habitat components and their relationship with microhabitat use by three species of egret: cocoi heron (ardea cocoi), great egret (ardea alba), and cattle egret (bubulcus ibis), in wetlands of southern brazil. ardea alba and a. cocoi were not habitat-specific (e.g. vegetation cover and flooding level). conversely, b. ibis was associated with drier microhabitats. relative air humidity and air temperature were the main variables which correla ...201324789395
estimating the contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus to waterbodies by colonial nesting waterbirds.fecal deposition by colonial nesting waterbirds is a potential source of nutrient enrichment and pollution of nearby waterways. excess concentrations of nitrogen (n) and phosphorus (p) can cause water quality concerns or impairment. we estimated concentrations of n and p deposited to waterbodies by birds nesting in four colonies in east-central texas during 2011-2013, and developed an age-structured compartment model to estimate the amount of fecal n and p material deposited by birds during the ...201727519321
response to: bouwman, h. et al. hallogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of pollutant profiles, and impacts and risks from higher levels environ. res. (2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2013.06.003.bouwman and coauthors present data and analyses of ddt and other halogenated pollutants in environmental samples and based on their data and analyses thereof, argue against the use of ddt for malaria control. regrettably, the analyses, presentations, and interpretations of data presented by bouwman and coauthors are biased and erroneous.201424784543
halogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of pollutant profiles, and impacts and risks from high levels.we investigated the presence, levels, relationships, and risks of hchs, ddts, chlordanes, mirex, pcbs, and brominated flame retardants (bfrs) in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs from an area in south africa where ddt is used for malaria control. we found one of the highest σddt levels reported this century; 13,000 ng/g wm (wet mass) in grey heron eggs which exceeds critical levels for reproductive success (3000 ng/g wm) calculated for brown pelicans, with a no-effect level estimated at 500 ng/g ...201323850145
histopathological findings of the kidney trematoda paratanaisia spp. (digenea: eucotylidae) in cattle egret (bubulcus ibis).paratanaisia spp. was recorded from the right kidney of a cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) in kafr elsheikh governorate, nile delta, egypt. the bird showed marked emaciation and dissipation. necropsy findings revealed marked enlargement and brownish discoloration of the kidney. microscopic examination demonstrated marked dilatation of renal tubules with hyperplasia of lining epithelium due to presence of a trematode consistent with paratanaisia spp. eggs of this parasite were also noticed deeply wit ...201323856732
relationship between heavy metals concentrations in egret species, their environment and food chain differences from two headworks of pakistan.concentration of ten metals (cd, cr, co, cu, fe, li, mn, ni, pb and zn) were analyzed in the egg contents, prey and soil samples of little egret (egretta garzetta) and cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) from two headworks to determine habitat and species-specific differences; to assess the importance of prey and habitat contamination as an exposure source for heavy metals. concentration of cu, mn, cr and pb in egg contents, fe, co, cu, mn, zn in prey and fe, co, cu, ni, li in surface soils were signif ...201323816451
assessment of trace elements and stable isotopes of three ardeid species at birama swamp, cuba.the birama swamp is the second largest wetland in the caribbean region and it is inhabited by large populations of waterbirds. here we report, for the first time, the foraging ecology and pollutant levels of three ardeidae species: cattle egret (bubulcus ibis), snowy egret (egretta thula), and tricolored heron (e. tricolor) breeding in this wetland using stable-isotope (δ (15)n and δ (13)c) and trace elements [mercury (hg), lead (pb), and selenium (se)] analysis of chick feathers. our results sh ...201323535940
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