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concurrent hepatozoon canis and toxoplasma gondii infections in a dog.a female 1-year-old dog died suddenly and was submitted for necropsy. numerous grey-tan-colored nodules were seen in the lungs, brain and lymph nodes. microscopically, the predominant lesion was necrosis associated with numerous toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. the parasites reacted positively with anti-t. gondii serum in an immunohistochemical test. schizonts of hepatozoon canis were seen in sections of lymph nodes and the spleen.19921496795
first case of hepatozoon canis infection of a dog in japan. 19911790224
diagnostic parasitology.diagnosis of parasitic infections in small animals is challenging, interesting, and fun, and involves the recognition of parasite stages based on size, morphology, color, and movement. size and morphology are the major diagnostic parameters, and a calibrated microscope is the essential tool in the diagnostic laboratory. the fecal flotation technique is used routinely for the diagnosis of most parasites that reside within the gastrointestinal tract. the specific gravity and type of solution used ...19892678716
hepatozoon canis in a dog with oral pyogranulomas and neurologic disease.a ten-month-old cocker spaniel presented for fever, difficulty walking, and oral lesions. muscle pain, bloody diarrhea, respiratory disease and central nervous system inflammation were found while the animal was hospitalized. merozoites of hepatozoon canis were discovered in association with pyogranulomas in a muscle biopsy. no other etiologic agent for the clinical signs was identified.19883131065
hepatozoonosis in foxes from portugal.hepatozoon, sp. is described for the first time in foxes (vulpes vulpes silacea) in portugal. of 301 foxes examined, 143 (48%) were infected. the gametocyte was the predominant stage of the life cycle and was found in every organ except the bone marrow, where schizonts were the most abundant stage. the morphological similarity of this parasite's gametocytes to hepatozoon canis is emphasized.19883373641
hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in texas.twelve coyotes (canis latrans), three bobcats (lynx rufus) and six ocelots (felis pardalis) from the gulf coast of texas were infected with hepatozoon sp. the geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir.19883411720
the incidence of canine haematozoa in peninsular malaysia.in 3 urban areas in selangor, peninsular malaysia between 1973 and 1981, blood from 4084 dogs was examined for haematozoa. the following frequencies were found: babesia gibsoni 17.7%; microfilariae of dirofilaria immitis 9.6%; hepatozoon canis 1.2%; b. canis 1.1%; ehrlichia canis 0.2%; trypanosoma evansi 0.1%. a detailed examination of b. gibsoni infections and microfilariasis due to d. immitis with regards to monthly distribution, breed frequency, sex and age, revealed that pedigree and non-ped ...19853922103
experimental transmission of the texas strain of hepatozoon canis.nine dogs were fed hepatozoon canis-exposed rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks; 6 showed clinical signs suggestive of canine hepatozoonosis, and the parasite was found in sections of muscle tissue from 2 of the dogs. schizont-like cysts were found in the skeletal muscle of both infected dogs as were gametocytes in the circulating leucocytes. periosteal new-bone lesions were seen in 1 dog. attempts to infect a raccoon, 3 cats, 6 laboratory mice, and tick- or canine-cells in vitro, failed.19846542719
[pathologic anatomy of hepatozoon canis infection]. 19827178884
detection of hepatozoon canis oocyst from ticks collected from the infected dogs.we collected 220 ticks from 58 dogs infected with hepatozoon canis from 1990 to 1992 in yamaguchi and fukuoka prefectures, the western provinces of japan. these ticks were identified as haemaphysalis campanulata, h. longicornis, h. flava, ixodes ovata, and i. nipponensis. by histopathological examination of these ticks, two oocysts which seemed to be those of h. canis were observed in the haemocoele of an adult female h. longicornis and a nymph h. flava tick. the oocyst, about 300 x 150 microns ...19957756400
hepatozoon canis infection in two dogs.infection of 60 to 90% of neutrophils with the protozoa, hepatozoon canis, was detected in 2 dogs. clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. both dogs had severe anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia as well as hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, and high activities of serum alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. both dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline. one dog recovered clinically, with disappearance of parasites from wbc. the other dog died ...19957790303
circulating antibodies to hepatozoon canis demonstrated by immunofluorescence. 19948011770
microbesnoitia leoni bwangamoi, 1989, from the african lion (panthera leo) redetermined as a junior synonym of hepatozoon canis (james, 1905) wenyon, 1926.hepatozoon canis-like schizonts were found in the hearts of 2 lionesses (panthera leo) from kenya. the parasite, initially described as a new genus and new species microbesnoitia leoni bwangamoi, 1989, is determined to be a junior synonym of hapatozoon canis (james, 1905) wenyon, 1926.19948158481
detection of neospora caninum in tissue sections using a murine monoclonal antibody.a murine monoclonal antibody (mab 6g7), isotype igg2a, produced against tachyzoites of neospora caninum (isolate nc-1) reacted specifically with tachyzoites of n. caninum in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. mab 6g7 did not react with tachyzoites of toxoplasma gondii, sporozoites of isospora suis, eimeria bovis, or e. tenella, or merozoites of e. bovis in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. mab 6g7 reacted positively with both tachyzoites and bradyzoites of n. caninum in an ...19938286458
vertical transmission of hepatozoon canis in dogs.we experienced vertical infections of puppies with hepatozoon canis from 1990 to 1992. in 23 of 29 (79.3%) puppies from a total of 6 deliveries, gamonts or meronts were detected from 16 to 60 days after birth. the mother dogs were delivered of the puppies under tick-free conditions treated with an acaricide. there was no chance of infection of the puppies with h. canis after birth. therefore, the vertical transmission of h. canis was supposed to be established in the family of dog.19938286548
seasonal periodical appearance of hepatozoon canis gamont in the peripheral blood.we investigated the appearance of gamonts in peripheral leukocytes of 13 hepatozoon canis infected dogs from june 1990 to december 1992. in almost all the dogs, the numbers of gamonts increased from spring to autumn, and decreased from autumn to winter. particularly in the dogs used for hare hunting, a large number of gamonts was detected from spring to autumn. this finding reveals that the gamont increases in number in the dog which ingested the infected ticks during the hunting season.19938286552
ultrastructure of hepatozoon canis in the dog.the ultrastructure of several stages of hepatozoon canis found in dogs with clinically diagnosed infections was determined using transmission electron microscopy. stages were found in skeletal muscle tissue that corresponded to the 'onion skin' cyst stage, as described at the light microscopic level, and were composed of an electron-transparent material that appeared to radiate from a central core. larger cysts, walled off by fibroblasts, contained a transformed host cell located centrally withi ...19938291199
hepatozoonosis in dogs: 22 cases (1989-1994).to document hepatozoonosis in dogs from alabama and georgia and to report associated clinical signs, method of diagnosis, response to treatment, and course of disease.19979096720
ultrastructural findings in natural canine hepatozoonosis.the ultrastructure of several stages of hepatozoon canis found in dogs with clinically and histologically diagnosed infections was determined using transmission electron microscopy. merozoites, macro- and microschizonts and gamonts were found in spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs. macro- and micromeronts were characterized by their size and by the presence of intracytoplasmic amylopectin granules. gamonts, which provide the basis for clinical diagnosis of the disease, were observed within mononucl ...19979151537
hepatozoon canis infection of wild carnivores in brazil.hepatozoon canis was diagnosed in a crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous) found on a highway in the region of botucatu, são paulo, brazil, after being hit by a car. the fox had bilateral fractures of the olecranon, which was corrected by osteosynthesis. hematologic findings included a neutrophilia, eosinophilia, monocytosis and mild anemia. in the leishman-stained blood film, gametocytes of hepatozoon canis in neutrophils were identified measuring 9.1 +/- 0.54 x 5.3 +/- 0.46 microns.19979211653
[hepatozoon canis infection of dogs in germany: case report and epidemiology].this paper reports on a case of hepatozoonosis of a dog imported from italy to germany being additionally infected with ehrlichia canis and babesia canis. furthermore, a survey of the epidemiology of the hepatozoon canis infection is presented.19979289886
[imported arthropod-borne parasites and parasitic arthropods in dogs. species spectrum and epidemiologic analysis of the cases diagnosed in 1995/96].between january 1995 and december 1996 nonendemic or only regionally occurring arthropodborne parasites including ehrlichiae and parasitic arthropods in germany were detected in 484 dogs, whereby at least 15 species were involved. listed in decreasing order, leishmania infections occurred most frequently, followed by infections/infestations with babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, rhipicephalus sanguineus, dirofilaria immitis and dermacentor reticulatus. the other species, namely babesia gibsoni, tr ...19989531673
antibody response to hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs.canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan hepatozoon canis. five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with h. canis, and all became infected with h. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. antibodies reactive with h. canis gametocytes were detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifa), with igm detected in ...19989561714
survey of tick-borne diseases in dogs infested with rhipicephalus sanguineus at a kennel in okayama prefecture, japan.serological tests were performed to investigate extent of tick-borne diseases in dogs infested with rhipicephalus sanguineus at a kennel in okayama prefecture. three of 22 dogs (13.6%) were positive for ehrlichia canis. two of 19 dogs (10.5%) were positive for rickettsia japonica. three of 22 dogs (13.6%) were positive for babesia gibsoni. none of these animals were positive for coxiella burnetii or hepatozoon canis. a microfilaria was detected in a drop smear of hemolymph from an engorged femal ...19989673953
serosurvey of ehrlichia canis and hepatozoon canis infection in dogs in yamaguchi prefecture, japan.antibodies to ehrlichia canis and hepatozoon canis in dogs at the animal hospital in yamaguchi university were surveyed and potential risk factors for both pathogens were evaluated. among 430 dogs examined, 20 (4.7%) and 18 (4.2%) dogs showed positive findings for e. canis and h. canis, respectively. neither, sex nor age was associated with the seropositivity of either pathogen, but the positive rate in dogs kept outside was slightly higher than that in dogs kept inside for both pathogens. a hig ...199910563295
genetic and antigenic evidence supports the separation of hepatozoon canis and hepatozoon americanum at the species level.recognition of hepatozoon canis and hepatozoon americanum as distinct species was supported by the results of western immunoblotting of canine anti-h. canis and anti-h. americanum sera against h. canis gamonts. sequence analysis of 368 bases near the 3' end of the 18s rrna gene from each species revealed a pairwise difference of 13.59%.200010699047
antigenic analysis of gamonts of hepatozoon canis purified from leukocytes.hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne apicomplexan parasite of dogs that infects neutrophils and parenchymal tissues. to study the antigenic characteristics of this parasite, a technique was devised for the purification of gamonts from peripheral blood neutrophils. white blood cells were separated on ficoll-hypaque density gradients and the gamonts were released from the host neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation. the blood used for purification originated from dogs with natural or experimental infectio ...200010780547
hepatozoon canis infection associated with dog ticks of rural areas of rio de janeiro state, brazil.hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne protozoan that infects dogs and has been reported throughout the world. manifestation of h. canis infection varies from being sub-clinical in apparently healthy dogs to severe illness. the main vector of the infection is the dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus although other species may also transmit this agent. h. canis has been reported previously in brazil, but mostly as an occasional finding during laboratory exams and always associated with other diseases. th ...200111113545
american canine hepatozoonosis. an emerging disease in the new world.hepatozoon canis was first described from dogs in 1905 in india and rhipicephalus sanguineus was identified as the vector. dogs on the texas gulf coast were recognized in 1978 to have hepatozoonosis, and it was thought that h. canis had entered the new world. later, it was realized that american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) is more debilitating than its old world counterpart, often resulting in death. when the malady and parasite were characterized, a new species, h. americanum, was described, in ...200011193705
molecular studies on babesia, theileria and hepatozoon in southern europe. part i. epizootiological aspects.molecular epizootiology of piroplasmids (babesia spp., theileria spp.) and hepatozoon canis was studied in mammals from southern europe (mainly from spain, but also from portugal and france). partial amplification and sequencing of the 18s rrna gene was used for molecular diagnosis. in some particular cases (b. ovis and b. bovis) the complete 18s rrna gene was sequenced. blood samples were taken from domestic animals showing clinical symptoms: 10 dogs, 10 horses, 10 cows, 9 sheep and 1 goat. in ...200312719133
monozoic cysts of hepatozoon canis.small monozoic cysts found in the spleen of dogs infected with hepatozoon canis are described from naturally and experimentally infected dogs. these forms of h. canis resemble cysts formed by other hepatozoon species that infect frogs, lizards, and grey squirrels as intermediate hosts. the h. canis cyst stage differs in size and morphology from the large cysts of h. americanum, the second hepatozoon species known to infect dogs.200312760658
molecular studies on babesia, theileria and hepatozoon in southern europe. part ii. phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary history.following a study on molecular epizootiology of hepatozoon canis and piroplasmids (babesia spp. and theileria spp.) in southern europe, newly obtained sequences of 18s rrna gene were used for phylogenetic analysis. partial sequences were analysed in isolates showing high degree of homology (>99%) with previous genbank entries: h. canis, b. canis vogeli, b. equi (two isolates, spain1 and spain2), t. annulata and theileria sp. the complete gene sequences were used for b. ovis and b. bovis, that sh ...200312788253
[a case of mixed infestation with hepatozoon canis(james 1905) and leishmania "canis" in a dog from s'ete (h'erault)]. 196414220583
mixed ehrlichia canis, hepatozoon canis, and presumptive anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a dog.a 5-month-old, female, mongrel dog was admitted to the clinic of companion animal medicine, aristotle university of thessaloniki, greece, with depression, anorexia, fever, peripheral lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, oculonasal discharge, nonregenerative anemia, and mild thrombocytopenia. cytology of giemsa-stained buffy coat, bone marrow, and lymph node aspiration smears revealed numerous morulae in mononuclear leukocytes and in neutrophils, and hepatozoon canis gamonts in neutrophils. the dog was ...200415570564
clinical hepatozoon canis infection in a dog in turkey.a five-year-old female dog was presented with a four-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and skin and gait abnormalities. physical examination revealed weakness, depression, incoordination of the posterior limbs, emaciation, skin and hair coat alterations, peripheral lymphadenopathy, pale mucous membranes and fever. laboratory analysis of samples revealed abnormalities which included anaemia, neutrophilic leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia, low serum glucose and albumin concentrations, and inc ...200415600273
myocarditis and myositis due to infection with hepatozoon species in pine martens (martes martes) in scotland.postmortem examinations of four pine martens which had died as a result of road accidents in scotland revealed focal, granulomatous lesions in the heart and skeletal muscles of three of them. an immunoperoxidase staining technique showed that the lesions were due to infection with hepatozoon species. a pcr-based assay was used to confirm the presence of hepatozoon dna in the infected tissues. the nucleotide base sequence of the pcr products suggested that the infecting organism was probably a ne ...200515828725
distinction between hepatozoon canis and hepatozoon americanum. 200515881994
dogs with hepatozoon canis respond to the oxidative stress by increased production of glutathione and nitric oxide.canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan hepatozoon spp. it has been reported in the united states, southern europe, the middle east, africa and the far east. in turkey, canine hepatozoonosis was reported for the first time in 1933. in the present study, serum glutathione (gsh), malondialdehyde (mda), nitric oxide (no) and ceruloplasmin levels were analysed in 14 dogs infected with hepatozoon canis as well as in 10 healthy dogs. blood smears were prepared from periph ...200515936891
a parasitological, molecular and serological survey of hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the aegean coast of turkey.canine hepatozoonosis is caused by the tick-borne protozoon hepatozoon spp. the prevalence of the infection in the aegean coast of turkey was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using blood samples from 349 dogs collected from central aydin, kusadasi, selcuk, central manisa, bodrum and marmaris within the aegean coast of turkey. the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for the detection of hepatozoon canis antibodies was also used to d ...200616229952
detection of babesia canis rossi, b. canis vogeli, and hepatozoon canis in dogs in a village of eastern sudan by using a screening pcr and sequencing methodologies.babesia and hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern sudan were analyzed by using a single pcr and sequencing. among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with b. canis vogeli. thirty-three dogs were positive for hepatozoon. hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis.200516275954
transmission of hepatozoon canis to dogs by naturally-fed or percutaneously-injected rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.hepatozoon canis is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite of dogs, prevalent in asia, africa, and southern europe. experimental transmission of h. canis to dogs was performed with laboratory-reared rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs that fed on a naturally infected dog or were percutaneously injected with canine blood containing h. canis gamonts. dogs were inoculated by oral ingestion of adult ticks containing h. canis oocysts. transstadial transmission of h. canis was recorded, whereas transovarial t ...200111426725
a new hepatozoon species from dogs: description of the causative agent of canine hepatozoonosis in north america.a new species of adeleina, hepatozoon americanum, is described from the skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, visceral organs, and blood of dogs (canis familiaris) in the southern united states. the organism was previously identified as hepatozoon canis (james, 1905) wenyon, 1926; however, differences in clinical signs, histopathological and serological findings, gamont size, and ultrastructure define the new species of hepatozoon. attempts to transmit the protozoan from infected dogs to nymphal rhip ...19979406796
detection of hepatozoon canis in stray dogs and cats in bangkok, thailand.a rapidly increasing stray animal population in bangkok has caused concern regarding transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. the purpose of this study was to determine if stray animals in bangkok are a potential reservoir of hepatozoon, a genus of tick-borne parasites that has received little attention in thailand. blood samples were collected from stray companion animals near monasteries in 42 bangkok metropolitan districts. both dogs and cats were sampled from 26 districts, dogs al ...200617135555
hepatozoon canis: the prevalence of antibodies and gametocytes in dogs in israel.a survey for the prevalence of antibodies to hepatozoon canis and for intraneutrophilic h. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood neutrophils of dogs in israel showed that 33.1% were seropositive, while only 1% of the dogs sampled had detectable parasites in their blood smears. exposure to h. canis is widespread but it appears that most infected dogs undergo a subclinical infection and only a small proportion develop clinical disease.19968693700
coinfection with multiple tick-borne and intestinal parasites in a 6-week-old dog.coinfection with ehrlichia canis, babesia canis, hepatozoon canis, isospora spp., giardia spp., and dipylidium caninum were detected in a 6-week-old dog. the effect of multi-pathogen infection was a fatal combination of gastrointestinal and hematologic abnormalities, including diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, distended painful abdomen, intussusception, severe thrombocytopenia, anemia, and hypoproteinemia.200717616060
hepatozoon canis infection in slovakia: imported or autochthonous?tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the michalovce district (slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by pcr method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18s rrna spanning the v4 region of babesia and theileria. an unexpected determination of 450 bp dna fragment of hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. partial sequences of the 18s rrna gene from the h. can ...200717627439
neutrophil myeloperoxidase deficiency associated with canine hepatozoonosis.hepatozoonosis is a very important disease in dogs in nigeria. hepatozoonosis was reported in nigeria in 18 dogs. the clinical signs included fever, anorexia, loss of weight, lameness, oculonasal discharge and conjunctivitis. hematologic findings included leukocytosis due to neutrophilia and eosinophilia. parasitemia varied from 1 to 9% of the circulating neutrophils in the peripheral blood smears of the dogs examined. hepatozoon canis gametocytes were identified in circulating neutrophils of do ...19892561399
prevalence of ehrlichia canis, anaplasma platys, babesia canis vogeli, hepatozoon canis, bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and rickettsia spp. in dogs from grenada.to identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). in 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for e. canis, respectively. in 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and pcr. dna of e. canis, anaplasma platys, babesia canis vogeli, hepatozoon canis, and bartonella ...200818160223
hepatozoon canis infection in dogs: clinical, radiographic, and hematologic findings.hepatozoon canis gametocytes were identified in circulating neutrophils of 3 dogs from different parts of texas. clinical signs included intermittent fever, stiffness, and inappetence. the dogs had marked neutrophilic leukocytosis (35,000--51,000/mm3). parasitemia varied from less than 1% to 60% of the circulating neutrophils. two of the dogs had periosteal new born reaction on the vertebrae, ilia, ribs, and bones of the limbs proximal to the carpus and tarsus. there was no evidence that specifi ...1978721677
diversity of hepatozoon species in naturally infected dogs in the southern united states.hepatozoon americanum is a protozoan that causes american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) in the southern united states; hepatozoon canis, the causative agent of canine hepatozoonosis in africa, asia, europe, and south america, has not previously been definitively identified in dogs in the united states. to characterize the diversity of hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs from oklahoma, blood samples collected from dogs residing in an endemic area of the state, clinical cases presented to veterinarians ...200818485602
phylogenetic relationships of hepatozoon (apicomplexa: adeleorina) based on molecular, morphologic, and life-cycle characters.to evaluate higher-level affinities of hepatozoon species within apicomplexa, we sequenced the 18s rrna gene from 2 parasites (hepatozoon americanum and hepatozoon canis) of dogs and 1 (hepatozoon catesbianae) of bullfrogs. sequences from other apicomplexans among the sarcocystiidae, eimeriidae, theileriidae, plasmodiidae, cryptosporiidae, and babesiidae, a perkinsus species and 2 dinoflagellates were obtained from genbank. phylogenetic analysis indicated that plasmodium, cryptosporidium, and he ...200010780559
[vector-borne parasites of dogs on the islands of cabo verde].during an animal welfare campaign on the islands of cape verde (in the capital praia on the island of santiago) a total of 57 dogs were examined for ectoparasites and blood parasites. 84% of the animals were infested with arthropods, mostly ticks. haemotropic parasites were examined via blood smear, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and/or serology. 23 dogs had single infections, five multiple infections with haemoparasites. in eight dogs ehrlichia canis and in one amaplasma phagocytophilum were d ...200819066773
[arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially leishmania, in the kosovo and albania].currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in albania and the kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan leishmania infantum. presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (kosovo: ferizaj, gjakovo, pec, malisevo; albania: tirana, durres, elbasan, shkodra, vlore). in order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from albania - tirana, kamza and durres; 121 from the ko ...200819066774
canine hepatozoonosis in brazil: description of eight naturally occurring cases.eight cases of canine hepatozoonosis were diagnosed at the veterinary hospital (faculdade de medicina veterinária e zootecnia, universidade estadual paulista, campus de botucatu), between october 1993 and april 1994. clinical signs included anorexia, pale mucous membranes, weight loss, pain, diarrhoea, vomit, gait abnormalities, fever, polyuria and polydipsia. haematologic findings revealed anaemia in seven cases, leucocytosis with neutrophilia in three cases, lymphopenia in three cases and mono ...19989561717
cytochemical identification of canine circulating leucocytes parasitized by the gametocyte of hepatozoon canis. 19911836390
[hepatozoon canis: an important parasitic infection in dogs].this paper reports on a case of hepatozoonosis of a dog imported from italy to germany. a survey of the biology and ecology of the causative agent as well as the pathogenesis, clinics, diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis of hepatozoon canis infection is presented.19948209369
american canine hepatozoonosis.hepatozoon americanum infection is an emerging tickborne disease in the southern united states. this organism causes a very different and much more severe disease than does hepatozoon canis, the etiologic agent of canine hepatozoonosis in the rest of the world. h americanum is transmitted through ingestion of the definitive host, amblyomma maculatum (the gulf coast tick). clinical signs of american canine hepatozoonosis tend to wax and wane over time and may include lameness, weakness, pain, mus ...200312910749
development of multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of ehrlichia canis, babesia spp and hepatozoon canis in canine blood.a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) has been developed for simultaneous detection of canine blood parasites, ehrlichia canis, babesia spp and hepatozoon canis, from blood samples in a single reaction. the multiplex pcr primers were specific to e. canis virb9, babesia spp 16s rrna and h. canis 16s rrna genes. specificity of the amplicons was confirmed by dna sequencing. the assay was evaluated using normal canine and infected blood samples, which were detected by microscopic examination. ...200919323031
detection of the dna of borrelia afzelii, anaplasma phagocytophilum and babesia canis in blood samples from dogs in warsaw.each month, from march 2003 to february 2004, 34 blood samples from dogs were randomly selected from the blood samples delivered to two veterinary laboratories in warsaw and tested for the dna of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia canis and hepatozoon canis. borrelia dna was detected in seven of the 408 dogs, a phagocytophilum dna was found in two, and b canis dna was found in 48 (11.8 per cent). the dna of h canis was not found in any of the blood samples. seque ...200919363228
new developments in canine hepatozoonosis in north america: a review.abstract : canine hepatozoonosis is caused by hepatozoon canis and hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. until recently, h. canis infections had not been clearly documented in north america, and autochthonous infection with h. america ...200919426444
hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the state of espírito santo, southeastern brazil.from may 2007 to march 2008, blood samples were collected from 92 healthy dogs living in 21 households (17 farms in rural area, and 4 homes in urban area) in 6 counties of the state of espírito santo, southeastern brazil. in addition, ticks were collected from these dogs. a mean of 4.4+/-3.0 dogs (range: 1-12) were sampled per household; 78 and 14 dogs were from rural and urban areas, respectively. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) designed to amplify fragments of the 18s rdna gene of babesia spp ...200919482427
anti-hepatozoon canis serum antibodies and gamonts in naturally-occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.the prevalence of igg antibodies to hepatozoon canis and the presence of gamonts in the blood and hemolymphatic tissues were studied in dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (cme) caused by ehrlichia canis. both pathogens are transmitted by the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus. forty-five out of 69 (65.2%) dogs with cme were seropositive to h. canis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). intra-neutrophilic gamonts of h. canis were found in 2 out of 69 dogs (2.9%) comprising 4.5% of the ...200515845277
tissue stages of hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs from sao paulo state, brazil.a total of 222 dogs were examined by blood smear examination and hepatozoon canis infection was detected in 13 dogs (5.9%). five h. canis-infected dogs were necropsied to observe tissue stages in the organs. fragments of spleen, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, lymph nodes, bone marrow and skeletal muscles were used to made touch-impression smears. no macroscopic lesions were found in the organs. two dogs had gamonts within polymorphonuclear cells and schizonts in various stages of development with ...200415338284
ticks and haemoparasites of dogs from praia, cape verde.in february 2008 an epidemiological field study on arthropod-borne infections in dogs was carried out in praia, the capital city of cape verde. for this purpose 130 dogs were included in the study. of these, 94.6% were infested with ticks. altogether, 1293 ticks of the genus rhipicephalus (in all evaluated cases r. sanguineus) were collected. examination for haemotropic parasites was performed via polymerase chain reaction (pcr). lymph node fine-needle aspirates were screened by pcr for leishman ...200919729247
prevalence and seasonality of tick-borne pathogens in questing ixodes ricinus ticks from luxembourg.in europe, ixodid ticks are important arthropod vectors of human and animal pathogens, but comprehensive studies of the prevalence of all relevant pathogens in central europe are scarce. as a result of ecological changes, the incidences of tick-borne infections are expected to increase. in this study, 1,394 nymphal and adult ixodes ricinus ticks sampled monthly during the active season from 33 ecologically distinct collection sites throughout luxembourg were screened for all human tick-borne pat ...201020228110
canine babesiosis in northern portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections.abstract:201020377861
imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in germany.abstract:201020377872
comparison of various staining procedures in the identification of hepatozoon canis gamonts.the staining characteristics of gamonts of hepatozoon canis in peripheral blood smears were evaluated. three stains, diff-quik stain, giemsa stain and a modification of the naphthol-asd-chloroacetate esterase stain, were compared. the staining characteristics of the infected cell and the parasite were different in each stain used. the modified naphthol-asd-chloroacetate esterase stain showed the most difference between the infected and noninfected cells, as well as a difference in staining chara ...198815162330
hepatozoon canis infection in a litter of dalmatian dogs.infection with hepatozoon canis is described in a litter of seven dalmatians. four littermates were presented with concurrent hepatozoonosis and parvoviral enteritis and the remaining three puppies were parasitemic with h. canis with no other concurrent disease. parasitemia ranged between 3% and 67% of the blood neutrophils. the mean number of parasitized neutrophils per microliter among littermates with concurrent hepatozoonosis and parvoviral enteritis was 1139 (+/-447 sd) on the day of admiss ...19979195724
prevention of endemic canine vector-borne diseases using imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% in young dogs: a longitudinal field study.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) are highly prevalent and increasing in distribution worldwide. a longitudinal study was conducted in southern italy to determine the incidence of and protection against cvbd-causing pathogens in dogs treated with a combination of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% (imper). one hundred eleven autochthonous young dogs were divided into group a (n=63) and group b (n=48), both groups containing dogs positive and negative for one or more cvbd-causing pathogens. a ...201020591573
incidence of brown dog ticks, rhipicephalus sanguineus, at a kennel in okayama prefecture.twenty two adult dogs suffered from tick infestation at a kennel in okayama prefecture in the summer of 1994. four of them had been introduced from u.s.a. some dogs showed pyoderma, anemia, neutrophilia or eosinophilia. neither babesia gibsoni nor hepatozoon canis was detected on the smear samples of peripheral blood. the ticks detected were morphologically identified as rhipicephalus sanguineus. this case was a rare incidence of the tick in the other areas of japan than okinawa.19957548423
new advances in molecular epizootiology of canine hematic protozoa from venezuela, thailand and spain.the prevalence of hematozoan infections (hepatozoon canis and babesia sp., particularly babesia canis vogeli) in canids from venezuela, thailand and spain was studied by amplification and sequencing of the 18s rrna gene. h. canis infections caused simultaneously by two different isolates were confirmed by rflp analysis in samples from all the geographic regions studied. in venezuela, blood samples from 134 dogs were surveyed. babesia infections were found in 2.24% of the dogs. comparison of sequ ...200717088022
a case of hepatozoon canis. 194621028704
evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in young dogs naturally infected by vector-borne pathogens.longitudinal studies evaluating the evolution of clinical, haematological, biochemical findings in young dogs exposed for the first time to multiple vector-borne pathogens have not been reported. with the objective of assessing the evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings, these parameters were serially monitored in naturally infected dogs throughout a 1-year follow-up period. young dogs, infected by vector-borne pathogens based on cytology or polymerase chain reaction, wer ...201021106311
oocysts of hepatozoon canis in rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus collected from a naturally infected dog.canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus hepatozoon. several tick species have been implicated as potential vectors. therefore, extensive studies are needed to determine the 'natural' endemic cycle of this parasite. this paper presents the first report of the presence of hepatozoon canis oocysts in rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus collected from an infected dog.201121324597
failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. the objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of h. canis infection (hci). twelve dogs were determined to have naturally hci based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. the animals were allocated randomly to one ...201121472405
diagnosis of hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and pcr.abstract:201121489247
diagnosis of hepatozoon spp. in amblyomma ovale and its experimental transmission in domestic dogs in brazil.transmission of hepatozoon spp. to dogs was investigated using four species of ixodid ticks: rhipicephalus sanguineus, amblyomma aureolatum, amblyomma ovale and amblyomma cajennense. we collected completely or partially engorged adult ticks of these species from dogs that were naturally infested and positive for hepatozoon spp. we selected some of these ixodids and inoculated them orally in four negative dogs. the other ticks were dissected and examined for oocysts. of all dogs inoculated orally ...200516081219
a survey of canine tick-borne diseases in india.abstract: background: there are few published reports on canine babesia, ehrlichia, anaplasma, hepatozoon and haemotropic mycoplasma infections in india and most describe clinical disease in individual dogs, diagnosed by morphological observation of the microorganisms in stained blood smears. this study investigated the occurrence and distribution of canine tick-borne disease (tbd) pathogens using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in four cities in india. results: ...201121771313
a case report: a dog with acute onset of hepatozoon canis infection.we present a clinical overview of a dog with acute onset of hepatozoon canis infection. a stray female beagle dog of unknown age was referred to kagoshima university showing anemia. blood tests revealed the presence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, polyclonal gammopathy, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase activities. in addition, capsule-like organisms were detected in the cytoplasm of approximately 50% of neutrophils in blood smears. h. canis in ...200919578300
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to hepatozoon canis.canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne protozoal disease caused in the old world and south america by hepatozoon canis. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using purified h. canis gamont antigen was applied for the detection of antibodies reactive with h. canis. evaluation of the elisa with sera from naturally infected parasitemic dogs indicated that it was sensitive (86%), specific (97%), and comparable to the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for the detection of h. canis antib ...200415177718
molecular detection of hepatozoon canis and babesia canis vogeli in domestic dogs from cuiabá, brazil.the objective of this study was to report for the first time infection by hepatozoon spp. and babesia spp. in 10 dogs from the city of cuiabá, state of mato grosso, central-western brazil. a pair of primers that amplifies a 574 bp fragment of the 18s rrna of hepatozoon spp., and a pair of primers that amplifies a 551 bp fragment of the gene 18s rrna for babesia spp. were used. six dogs were positive for babesia spp., and 9 were positive for hepatozoon spp. co‑infection of babesia spp. and hepato ...201121961759
molecular characterization of hepatozoon spp. infection in endangered indian wild felids and canids.hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. the objective of this study was to perform the molecular detection and characterization of hepatozoon spp. in asiatic lion, indian tiger, indian leopard, indian wild dog, indian domestic dog and cat based on partial 18s rrna gene sequences from hepatozoon spp. in the naturally infected animals. hepatozoon spp. could be detected in blood samples of 5 out of 9 asiatic lions, 2 out of 5 indian tigers, 2 out of ...201122154254
a serosurvey of hepatozoon canis and ehrlichia canis antibodies in wild red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from israel.a seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with ehrlichia canis and hepatozoon canis antigens in free-ranging red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in israel. of 84 fox sera assayed, 36% were seropositive for e. canis by the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test and 24% were positive for h. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosrbent assay (elisa). canine ehrlichiosis and hepatozoonosis appear to be endemic in the wild red fox populations in israel, and ...200415036573
analysis of the 18s rrna gene sequence of a hepatozoon detected in two japanese dogs.partial sequences of the 18s rrna gene (625 bp) from a hepatozoon detected in two canine hepatozoonosis cases, one clinical and one subclinical, in japan were analyzed. both sequences were identical to each other and they were closely related to the hepatozoon canis strain found in israel with 99% (617/625) nucleotide identity. both hepatozoon americanum and hepatozoon catasbianae were distantly related to the japanese hepatozoon with 94% (586/625) and 91% (566/625) identities, respectively. in ...200212062514
canine inflammatory myopathy associated with leishmania infantum infection.inflammatory myopathy associated with several infectious diseases occurs in dogs including those caused by toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, ehrlichia canis and hepatozoon canis. however, muscle disease due to leishmania infection has been poorly documented. the aim of this study was to examine the distribution and types of cellular infiltrates and expression of mhc class i and ii in muscle biopsies obtained from 15 male beagle dogs from a breeder group with an established diagnosis of leishm ...200919084398
para-clinico-pathological observations of insidious incidence of canine hepatozoonosis from a mongrel dog: a case report.a rare case of canine hepatozoonosis in a mongrel dog with para-clinico-pathological observations has been reported. the study included detailed haemato-biochemical changes at two stages, i.e. before treatment and after treatment with adopted therapy. before therapy, blood picture revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia and neutrophilic leucocytosis with variable counts of platelets. thirty-seven percent of neutrophils were found infected with gametocytes of hepatozoon canis. following treatment ...201223543040
pcr survey of vectorborne pathogens in dogs living in and around barcelona, an area endemic for leishmaniasis.blood samples from 153 dogs living in and around barcelona were assayed for leishmania infantum and ehrlichia, anaplasma, rickettsia, bartonella, hepatozoon, babesia and theileria species by pcr amplification of dna, and the amplicons obtained were sequenced. the prevalence of the infectious agents was l infantum (29.4 per cent), ehrlichia and anaplasma species (4.0 per cent), hepatozoon canis (3.3 per cent), babesia canis vogeli (2.0 per cent), babesia gibsoni (2.0 per cent), babesia canis cani ...200919168881
first case of anaplasma platys infection in a dog from croatia.it is known that anaplasma (a.) platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is endemic in countries of the mediterranean basin. however, few reports are available from the balkans. this case report describes a dog, which was imported from croatia to germany in may 2010. one month later the dog was presented to a local veterinarian in germany due to intermittent/recurrent diarrhoea. diagnostic tests were performed to identify infections caused by anaplasma spp., ehrl ...201222401583
feline vector-borne pathogens in the north and centre of portugal.in recent years, several clinical cases and epidemiological studies of feline vector-borne diseases (fvbd) have been reported worldwide. nonetheless, information on fvbd agents and their prevalence in portugal is scarce.201323587366
wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in austria.austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. hepatozoon canis. together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and par ...201425830102
bacterial and protozoal agents of canine vector-borne diseases in the blood of domestic and stray dogs from southern portugal.the so-called canine vector-borne diseases (cvbd) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods. in addition to their veterinary importance, many of these canine vector-borne pathogens can also affect the human population due to their zoonotic potential, a situation that requires a one health approach. as the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in cats from southern portugal has been recently evaluated, the aim of the present study was to assess if the same agents were prese ...201525886525
canine vector-borne infections in mauritius.canine vector-borne diseases have a worldwide distribution, but to the best of our knowledge, no research has been carried out to evaluate their presence on the indian ocean island of mauritius. an investigation into canine vector-borne infections was conducted in dogs (n = 78) resident at an animal shelter in port louis, mauritius using a combination of traditional microscopy and serological methods.201525889893
diagnosis and incidence risk of clinical canine monocytic ehrlichiosis under field conditions in southern europe.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (cme), due to the bacterium ehrlichia canis and transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, is a major tick-borne disease in southern europe. in this area, infections with other vector-borne pathogens (vbp) are also described and result in similar clinical expression. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence risk of clinical cme in those endemic areas and to assess the potential involvement of other vbp in the occurrence of clinical ...201525561342
immunopathological features of canine myocarditis associated with leishmania infantum infection.myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa neospora caninum, trypanosoma cruzi, babesia canis, and hepatozoon canis. however, although cardiac disease due to leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. the aim of this study was to examine the types of cellular infiltrates and expression of mhc classes i and ii in myocardial samples obtained at necropsy f ...201627413751
retrospective case-control study of hepatozoonosis in dogs in israel.signalment, clinical signs, and physical examination and clinicopathologic findings in dogs diagnosed with hepatozoon canis parasitemia (n = 100) were compared with those in hepatozoon-negative dogs (n = 180). a subset (n = 15) of hepatozoon-positive dogs with unusually high (> 800 h canis gametocytes/microl of whole blood) parasitemia was compared with dogs that had low parasitemia (n = 85) and with hepatozoon-negative dogs (n = 180). hepatozoon-positive dogs significantly differed from hepatoz ...19979470163
first molecular evidence of hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from hungary.recently, hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of hungary, which is considered to be free of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with croatia. the aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of h. canis in hungary.201424985073
life cycle of hepatozoon canis (apicomplexa: adeleorina: hepatozoidae) in the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus and domestic dog (canis familiaris).the life cycle of the apicomplexan protozoon hepatozoon canis in its natural hosts rhipicephalus sanguineus (tick) and canis familiaris (domestic dog) was studied in an experimental infection. tick nymphs were fed on a naturally infected dog, or they were infected by percutaneous injection of blood. dogs were inoculated by ingestion of adult ticks containing mature oocysts. gamonts were in syzygy 24 hr after percutaneous injection of ticks. early oocysts were detected 96 hr after nymph repletion ...200717539411
a molecular survey of vector-borne pathogens in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from bosnia and herzegovina.red foxes (vulpes vulpes) have recently been recognized as potential reservoirs of several vector-borne pathogens and a source of infection for domestic dogs and humans, mostly due to their close vicinity to urban areas and frequent exposure to different arthropod vectors. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence and distribution of babesia spp., hepatozoon canis, anaplasma spp., bartonella spp., 'candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis', ehrlichia canis, rickettsia spp. and blood filaro ...201525889961
fox on the run--molecular surveillance of fox blood and tissue for the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens in austria.the red fox (vulpes vulpes) is a widespread species, harbouring many pathogens relevant for humans and pets. indeed, anaplasma spp., ehrlichia canis and rickettsia spp. among the bacteria and hepatozoon canis as well as babesia sp. among the parasites have been the focus of several studies.201425413694
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