a new method to track seed dispersal and recruitment using 15n isotope enrichment.seed dispersal has a powerful influence on population dynamics, genetic structuring, evolutionary rates, and community ecology. yet, patterns of seed dispersal are difficult to measure due to methodological shortcomings in tracking dispersed seeds from sources of interest. here we introduce a new method to track seed dispersal: stable isotope enrichment. it consists of leaf-feeding plants with sprays of 15n-urea during the flowering stage such that seeds developed after applications are isotopic ...200920120818
performance of bemisia tabaci (genn.) biotype b (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) on weeds.bemisia tabaci (genn.) biotype b (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) is regarded as a pest with a large number of hosts, including crops and weeds. the performance of this whitefly on seven weeds was evaluated in order to identify the most suitable host. the following weeds that are very common in intense agricultural areas in the state of são paulo, brazil, were selected for this study: spurge (euphorbia heterophylla), beggarticks (bidens pilosa), red tasselflower (emilia sonchifolia), small-flower galins ...201427194066
the characterization of sapin2b, a plant trichome-localized proteinase inhibitor from solanum americanum.proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. in this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor sapin2b, which is constitutively expressed in solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor ii (pin2) family. the recombinant sapin2b (rsapin2b), which was expressed in escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin ...201223203117
susceptibility of several common subtropical weeds to meloidogyne arenaria, m. incognita, and m. javanica.experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, meloidogyne arenaria, m. incognita, and m. javanica, on several weeds common to florida agricultural land. weeds evaluated were amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), eleusine indica (goosegrass), portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and solanum americanum (american black nightshade). additionally, although it is recommended as a co ...201223482324
when is an invasive not an invasive? macrofossil evidence of doubtful native plant species in the galápagos islands.the galápagos islands are globally renowned for their ecological value and as a world symbol of scientific discovery; however the native biodiversity of this unique region is currently under threat. one of the primary concerns is the detrimental impact of approximately 750 nonnative plants introduced over the last 500 years of human presence in the archipelago. in addition to these known introduced species, there are an additional 62 vascular plants classified as "doubtful natives," where nativ ...201121661543
phytoseiidae (acari: mesostigmata) within citrus orchards in florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the family phytoseiidae (acari: mesostigmata) in central and south central florida. inner and outer canopy leaves, open flowers, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between september 1994 and january 1996. vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between september 1994 and january 1996 in five of these orchards. the two remaining orchards were on full herbicide progr ...201121499778
susceptibility of cariogenic streptococcus mutans to extracts of garcinia kola, hibiscus sabdariffa, and solanum americanum.the elimination of cariogenic bacteria from the oral cavity using antibacterial agents is one of the primary strategies for the prevention of dental caries. avariety of plants with potent activity are known to be used in indigenous communities for dental hygiene worldwide.200819469401
overexpression of a weed (solanum americanum) proteinase inhibitor in transgenic tobacco results in increased glandular trichome density and enhanced resistance to helicoverpa armigera and spodoptera this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, sapin2a, from the american black nightshade solanum americanum under the control of the camv 35s promoter using agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. sapin2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by northern blot and western blot analyses. functional integrity of sapin2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. bioassays for inse ...200919468345
chloroplast-like organelles were found in enucleate sieve elements of transgenic plants overexpressing a proteinase inhibitor.sapin2a, a plant proteinase inhibitor from nightshade (solanum americanum), was located to the enucleate sieve elements (ses) of phloem. the expressed sapin2a in transgenic lettuce showed inhibition of plant endogenous trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities, suggesting that sapin2a can regulate proteolysis in plant cells. to further investigate the physiological role of sapin2a, we produced transgenic nightshade and lettuce plants overexpressing sapin2a from the cauliflower mosaic virus (camv ...200717986772
purification and characterization of native and recombinant sapin2a, a plant sieve element-localized proteinase inhibitor.sapin2a encodes a proteinase inhibitor in nightshade (solanum americanum), which is specifically localized to the enucleate sieve elements. it has been proposed to play an important role in phloem development by regulating proteolysis in sieve elements. in this study, we purified and characterized native sapin2a from nightshade stems and recombinant sapin2a expressed in escherichia coli. purified native sapin2a was found as a charge isomer family of homodimers, and was weakly glycosylated. nativ ...200717870592
the nightshade proteinase inhibitor iib gene is constitutively expressed in glandular trichomes.the best known property of plant proteinase inhibitor ii (pin2) genes is their wound-inducible expression in leaves and constitutive expression in flowers. here we show by promoter analysis in transgenic plants and in situ reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) analysis that sapin2b, a member of the pin2 gene family of nightshade (solanum americanum), is also constitutively expressed in glandular trichomes. sapin2b promoter and its deletions were cloned and fused upstream of beta-glucuronidase (gus) ...200616926166
pro- and antioxidant effects and cytoprotective potentials of nine edible vegetables in southwest nigeria.antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of boiled, cold, and methanolic extracts of nine edible vegetables in southwest nigeria were evaluated in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay and hemagglutination assay in bovine erythrocytes, respectively. crassocephalum rubens showed the highest antioxidant activity (56.5%), solanum americanum and vernonia amygdalina exhibited moderate antioxidant activity (26.0-37.5% and 14.8-36.2%, respectively), solanum macrocarpon, telfaria occiden ...200516379569
inhibition of endogenous trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities in transgenic lettuce expressing heterogeneous proteinase inhibitor sapin2a.sapin2a, a proteinase inhibitor ii from american black nightshade (solanum americanum mill.) is highly expressed in the phloem and could be involved in regulating proteolysis in the sieve elements. to further investigate the physiological role of sapin2a, we have produced transgenic lettuce (lactuca sativa l.) expressing sapin2a from the camv35s promoter by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. stable integration of the sapin2a cdna and its inheritance in transgenic lines were confirmed by sout ...200414574575
toxicological effects of alpha-solamargine in experimental animals.alpha-solamargine isolated from the fresh fruits of solanum americanum miller was studied for its toxicity. lethality studies in rats showed a dose-mortality relationship with a ld(50) of 42 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. the chronic and subchronic toxicity investigations indicated that the size of the glycoalkaloid dose was more important than the total glycoalkaloid intake. no appreciable toxic effects were observed at doses below 35 mg/kg body weight as indicated by blood parameters, en ...200312672156
molluscicidal activity of plants from puerto rico.overall, 173 tropical plants from 72 different families, collected from the north-western and western regions of puerto rico, were screened for their molluscicidal properties against biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of schistosoma mansoni. six plant extracts were effective at 50 ppm. the two most effective extracts were those from the leaves of didymopanax morototoni (araliaceae) and mammea americana (guttiferae), which, at 50 ppm, killed all snails after 24 h of exposure and a day f ...200212080983
plants used in guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. i. screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and american trypanosomes of 13 native plants.extracts were prepared from 13 native plants used for the treatment of protozoal infections. activity against bacteria and fungi was demonstrated by dilution procedures; trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigotes and in vivo against trypomastigotes. in active extracts, toxicity was evaluated by artemia salina nauplii, oral acute toxicity (1-5 g/kg) and oral and intraperitoneal subacute toxicity in mice (500 mg/kg). from the plants screened, six showed activ ...19989849628
plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of bahia, brazil.this paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis (l(v)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of bahia state, brazil. an enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this leishmania species. the principal plants used are caju-branco (anacardium occidentale, anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (clidemia hirta,melast ...19968701041
plants used in guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (epidermophyton floccosum, microsporum canis, microsporum gypseum, trichophyton mentagrophytes and trichophyton ...19912056755
use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in puerto rico.the use of medicinal plants by the patients at the outpatient clinics of five health-care centers in puerto rico was evaluated. medication histories were obtained for 802 patients ranging in age from two months to 91 years. the most frequent medical diagnosis was cardiovascular disease (54% of the patients). respiratory and digestive disorders were the least frequent conditions, identified in only 9% and 6% of the cases, respectively. medicinal plants were used by 57% of the population. patients ...19846496496
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