trace metal pollution in hong kong: implications for the health of hong kong's indo-pacific hump-backed dolphins (sousa chinensis).the territorial waters of hong kong are highly contaminated with anthropogenic pollutants, including trace metals. hong kong's population of indo-pacific hump-backed dolphins (sousa chinensis) inhabits an area where a high volume of sewage waste discharge and the close proximity of contaminated mud pits mean a considerable potential for trace metal contamination. trace metal concentrations in the muscle tissue of fish caught from areas of high dolphin abundance are notable. however, in order to ...19989646525
post-mortem investigations on stranded dolphins and porpoises from hong kong waters.stranded cetaceans reported from the territorial waters of hong kong during the period may 1993 to march 1998 were examined to establish factors that may have contributed to their death. during the current study, 28 indo-pacific hump-backed dolphins (sousa chinensis), 32 finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides), and four bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) were necropsied. bacteria (15 species) were isolated from nine animals. of these bacteria, 47% were of possible fecal origin reflect ...200010813617
development of an air bubble curtain to reduce underwater noise of percussive piling.underwater bubbles can inhibit sound transmission through water due to density mismatch and concomitant reflection and absorption of sound waves. for the present study, a perforated rubber hose was used to produce a bubble curtain, or screen, around pile-driving activity in 6-8-m depth waters of western hong kong. the percussive hammer blow sounds of the pile driver were measured on 2 days at distances of 250, 500, and 1000 m; broadband pulse levels were reduced by 3-5 db by the bubble curtain. ...200011444016
parasites from indo-pacific hump-backed dolphins (sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides) stranded in hong kong.between 1993 and 1998, 28 indo-pacific hump-backed dolphins (sousa chinensis) and 32 finless porpoises (neophocaena phocoenoides) stranded in hong kong territorial waters were examined postmortem for parasites. the nematode halocercus pingi was discovered in the lungs of one hump-backed dolphin and in 10 finless porpoises, typically within abscesses or granulomata, and they were frequently accompanied by a catarrhal exudate and lesions characteristic of pneumonia. seven of the 10 finless porpois ...200111465264
underwater sounds near a fuel receiving facility in western hong kong: relevance to dolphins.western hong kong is home to two species of marine mammals: indo-pacific humpbacked dolphins (sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides). both are threatened in many parts of their range in southeast asia [for example, international biological research institute reports 9 (1997), 41; asian marine biology 14 (1997) 111]. in 1998, when the new hong kong international airport opened in western hong kong, small tankers (about 100 m long, cargo capacity about 6300 metric tons) ...200212206406
behavioral response of indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) to vessel traffic.a series of land-based surveys were conducted at two vantage points of known dolphin abundance in hong kong. the purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral response of indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) to vessel traffic. results indicated that dolphins dove for a longer duration in areas of heavy vessel traffic or when there was the presence of an oncoming vessel. dependent upon the type of vessel and the relative distance, dolphins might flee, continue their ongoing act ...200312927738
toxoplasmosis in indo-pacific humpbacked dolphins (sousa chinensis), from describe the clinical signs, gross pathology, serology, bacteriology, histopathology, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry findings associated with toxoplasmosis in four indo-pacific humpbacked dolphins (sousa chinensis) that stranded in queensland in 2000 and 2001.200315080475
a preliminary risk assessment of trace elements accumulated in fish to the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) in the northwestern waters of hong order to assess the potential risks associated with consumption of contaminated prey items to the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis), fish species (collichthys lucida, pseudosciaena crocea, johnius sp., thryssa sp., mugil sp. and trichiurus sp.) representing the main food items of the dolphin were collected from the northwestern waters of hong kong, including the sha chau and lung kwu chau marine park, which form the main habitat of the dolphin in hong kong. within these waters, ...200415234160
an assessment of the risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyls found in the stomach contents of stranded indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides) from hong kong waters.the risks to indo-pacific humpback dolphins and finless porpoises associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) were assessed. stomach contents from twelve stranded humpback dolphins and sixteen stranded finless porpoises were collected. concentrations of total and isomer-specific pcbs in the stomach contents were determined using dual-column gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detectors (gc-ecd). risks due to the pcbs were assessed in three scenarios, based on total pcbs (summa ...200616169043
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from hong kong waters: levels, profiles and distribution.polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and organochlorine compounds (ocs) were determined in the blubber, liver and kidney of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides) stranded in hong kong coastal waters during 1995-2001. among the organohalogen compounds analyzed, ddts were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 9.9 to 470 microg/g lipid wt. pbdes in hong kong cetaceans, which are reported for the first time, were ...200516291183
a preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) in the northwestern waters of hong kong.the indo-pacific humpback dolphin is considered threatened due to several factors including pollution in hong kong and the risks due to consumption of fish tainted with polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and organochlorine pesticides were assessed. six species of fish collichthys lucida, pseudosciaena crocea, johnius sp., thryssa sp., mugil sp. and trichiurus sp., which comprise the main prey species of humpback dolphins were collected for analyses. risks due to total pcbs, total teqs, pcb 118 and ...200616516360
investigation of trophic level and niche partitioning of 7 cetacean species by stable isotopes, and cadmium and arsenic tissue concentrations in the western pacific ocean.a total of 24 stranded or bycatch cetaceans, including balaenoptera omurai, lagenodelphis hosei, kogia sima, stenella attenuata, grampus griseus, neophocaena phocaenoides, and sousa chinensis, were collected from 2001 to 2011 in taiwan. using the muscular δ(13)c and δ(15)n data, three ecological groups were identified as the oceanic baleen whale, the neritic, and the coastal toothed whale groups, coinciding with their taxonomy, feeding habits and geographical distribution. a horizontal inshore t ...201525684592
changes of accumulation profiles from pbdes to brominated and chlorinated alternatives in marine mammals from the south china sea.the present study investigated the composition profiles and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and five pbde alternatives in the blubber of two species of marine mammals, indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides) from the south china sea. despite the fact that pbdes were the most predominant brominated flame retardants in the samples analyzed, decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe), 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (btbpe), bi ...201424530800
the echolocation transmission beam of free-ranging indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis).while the transmission beam of odontocetes has been described in a number of studies, the majority of them that have measured the transmission beam in two dimensions were focused on captive animals. within the current study, a dedicated cross hydrophone array with nine elements was used to investigate the echolocation transmission beam of free-ranging indo-pacific humpback dolphins. a total of 265 on-axis clicks were analyzed, from which the apparent peak to peak source levels ranged between 168 ...201728863578
conservation of the eastern taiwan strait chinese white dolphin (sousa chinensis): fishers' perspectives and management implications.the abundance of the eastern taiwan strait (ets) population of the chinese white dolphin (sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. it is categorized as critically endangered in the iucn red list of threatened species. thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. currently, the taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a major wildlife habitat (mwh), a type of marine protected area (mpa) for conservation of wildli ...201627526102
characterization of anterior segment ophthalmologic lesions identified in free-ranging dolphins and those under human care.cetaceans in the wild and under human care develop a variety of ocular lesions. although they have echolocation, cetacean species have good sight, making ocular health an important part of overall health care. the cornea is the primary site of abnormalities in both populations. typical lesions of cetaceans under human care are characterized in this retrospective review of cases. one hundred eighty animals (n = 360 eyes) were chosen from the author's ophthalmologic examination reports from differ ...201627010265
temporal trends of hexabromocyclododecanes (hbcds) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and detection of two novel flame retardants in marine mammals from hong kong, south china.concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes (hbcds), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), and three novel flame retardants, namely2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (tbb), bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (tbph), and hexachlorocyclopentadienyldibromocyclooctane (hcdbco), were determined in blubber samples of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides). the levels of hbcds and pbdes in cetacean samples ranged from 4.1 to 519 and 10 ...200919806725
total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides) from south china.the concentrations of 10 pfcs (perfluorinated compounds: pfos, pfhxs, pfosa, n-etfosa, pfdoda, pfunda, pfda, pfna, pfoa, and pfhpa) were measured in liver samples of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) (n=10) and finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides) (n=10) stranded in hong kong between 2003 and 2007. pfos was the dominant pfc in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. a newly developed combustion ion chromatograp ...200918805607
risk assessment of trace elements in the stomach contents of indo-pacific humpback dolphins and finless porpoises in hong kong waters.the potential health risks due to inorganic substances, mainly metals, was evaluated for the two resident marine mammals in hong kong, the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) and the finless porpoise (neophocaena phocaenoides). the stomachs from the carcasses of twelve stranded dolphins and fifteen stranded porpoises were collected and the contents examined. concentrations of thirteen trace elements (ag, as, cd, co, cr, cs, cu, hg, mn, ni, se, v and zn) were determined by inductively ...200716979696
apparent source levels and active communication space of whistles of free-ranging indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in the pearl river estuary and beibu gulf, china.background. knowledge of species-specific vocalization characteristics and their associated active communication space, the effective range over which a communication signal can be detected by a conspecific, is critical for understanding the impacts of underwater acoustic pollution, as well as other threats. methods. we used a two-dimensional cross-shaped hydrophone array system to record the whistles of free-ranging indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in shallow-water environments ...201626893973
increased human occupation and agricultural development accelerates the population contraction of an estuarine delphinid.over the past few thousand years, human development and population expansion in southern china have led to local extirpation and population contraction of many terrestrial animals. at what extent this early human-induced environmental change has also affected coastal marine species remains poorly known. we investigated the demographic history of the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) in the pearl river delta (prd); an obligatory inshore species known for its susceptibility to anthro ...201627759106
the trophic significance of the indo-pacific humpback dolphin, sousa chinensis, in western taiwan.indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. for instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the xin-huwei river estuary (ex) of western taiwan than in the nearby zhuoshui river estuary (ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. to explor ...201627780252
indo-pacific humpback dolphin occurrence north of lantau island, hong kong, based on year-round passive acoustic monitoring.long-term passive acoustic monitoring (pam) was conducted to study indo-pacific humpback dolphins, sousa chinensis, as part of environmental impact assessments for several major coastal development projects in hong kong waters north of lantau island. ecological acoustic recorders obtained 2711 days of recording at 13 sites from december 2012 to december 2014. humpback dolphin sounds were manually detected on more than half of days with recordings at 12 sites, 8 of which were within proposed recl ...201627794297
unsustainable human-induced injuries to the critically endangered taiwanese humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis taiwanensis).the critically endangered taiwanese humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis taiwanensis) is endemic to inshore and estuarine waters of central western taiwan. it numbers fewer than 75 individuals, is declining and faces a myriad of human threats. data from a long-term photo-identification program on these dolphins allowed major injuries to be examined quantitatively. a large proportion (57.7%) of individuals had suffered major human-induced injuries that likely compromised their health, survivorship o ...201728065551
spatiotemporal trends of heavy metals in indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) from the western pearl river estuary, china.we assessed the spatiotemporal trends of the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (hms) in the liver and kidney of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) from western pearl river estuary (pre) during 2004-2015. the hepatic levels of cr, as, and cu in these dolphins were among the highest reported for cetaceans globally, and the levels of zn, cu, and hg were sufficiently high to cause toxicological effects in some of the animals. between same age-sex groups, dolphins from lingdingyang were ...201728075564
threshold of long-term survival of a coastal delphinid in anthropogenically degraded environment: indo-pacific humpback dolphins in pearl river delta.defining demographic and ecological threshold of population persistence can assist in informing conservation management. we undertook such analyses for the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) in the pearl river delta (prd) region, southeast china. we use adult survival estimates for assessments of population status and annual rate of change. our estimates indicate that, given a stationary population structure and minimal risk scenario, ~2000 individuals (minimum viable population in ...201728230056
passive acoustic monitoring the diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns in the biosonar activity of the indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in the pearl river estuary, china.a growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the pearl river estuary, china, which sustains the world's largest known population of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis). dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. by using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the pearl river estuary during pre-construction period had been collect ...201526580966
humpback dolphins (genus sousa) in india: an overview of status and conservation issues.this chapter aims to collate recent work done by different research teams along the indian coast and presents research plans for the conservation and management of the genus sousa in indian waters. humpback dolphins are the most common nearshore cetaceans found along the indian coast. the taxonomy is confused, but two or more species of humpback dolphins may be present in india. dedicated research on humpback dolphins and other cetaceans has been initiated only in the past few years and vast gap ...201526555628
reconstruction of the forehead acoustic properties in an indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis), with investigation on the responses of soft tissue sound velocity to temperature.computed tomography (ct) imaging and ultrasound experimental measurements were combined to reconstruct the acoustic properties (density, velocity, and impedance) of the head from a deceased indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis). the authors extracted 42 soft forehead tissue samples to estimate the sound velocity and density properties at room temperature, 25.0  °c. hounsfield units (hus) of the samples were read from ct scans. linear relationships between the tissues' hus and velocity, ...201728253667
severe mutilation of a critically endangered taiwanese humpback dolphin sousa chinensis taiwanensis by fishing observations of the causes of injuries to cetaceans are rare events. for very small and declining populations, such events may be even less likely to be observed because of the few individuals that remain. a long-term monitoring program using photographic identification of individuals resulted in the documentation of an individual taiwanese humpback dolphin sousa chinensis taiwanensis that survived a harmful interaction with fishing gear. an adult female that was accompanied by a young ca ...201728322212
indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in hong kong: modelling demographic parameters with mark-recapture techniques.indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) inhabiting hong kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. we have conducted a 5-year (2010-2014) photo-id study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. cormack-jolly-seber (cjs) models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as ...201728355228
correlation of trace element concentrations between epidermis and internal organ tissues in indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis).trace element accumulation in the epidermis of cetaceans has been less studied. this study explored the feasibility of using epidermis as a surrogate tissue to evaluate internal contaminant burdens in indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis). eleven trace elements were analyzed in the epidermis, muscle and liver tissues from 46 individuals of dolphins stranded along the pearl river estuary (pre) coast between 2007 and 2013. trace elemental concentrations varied among the three tissues, ge ...201728667850
a framework for the assessment of the spatial and temporal patterns of threatened coastal delphinids.the massively accelerated biodiversity loss rate in the anthropocene calls for an efficient and effective way to identify the spatial and temporal dynamics of endangered species. to this end, we developed a useful identification framework based on a case study of locally endangered sousa chinensis by combining both lek (local ecological knowledge) evaluation and regional boat-based survey methods. our study investigated the basic ecological information of sousa chinensis in the estuaries of east ...201626804347
conservation status of the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) in the northern beibu gulf, china.there has been very little previous research on indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in the beibu gulf of southern china. here, we report on the population size, habitat and ecology, threats, and overall conservation status of this putative population. 'population size' was estimated based on photo-identification mark/recapture analysis. it was estimated to number a total of 398-444 individuals (95% ci: 393-506), with two apparently distinct groups in the dafengjiang-nanliujiang estu ...201626790890
the behavioural ecology of indo-pacific humpback dolphins in hong kong.fewer than 200 indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) occur in hong kong waters (though these are part of a much larger population in the pearl river estuary), with a decrease in the past about 10 years. they have partially overlapping individual ranges (mean=100km(2)), and two partially overlapping communities. seasonal occurrence is higher in june-november than december-may, approximate wet and dry monsoon seasons, respectively. group sizes tend to average three dolphins, a decrease ...201626790888
humpback dolphins in hong kong and the pearl river delta: status, threats and conservation coastal waters of the pearl river delta (prd) region, the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) is thought to number approximately 2500 individuals. given these figures, the putative prd population may appear strong enough to resist demographic stochasticity and environmental pressures. however, living in close proximity to the world's busiest seaport/airport and several densely populated urban centres with major coastal infrastructural developments comes with challenges to the long ...201626790887
re-assessment of the conservation status of the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) using the iucn red list criteria.the iucn red list designation of the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) is re-assessed in light of its newly recognized taxonomic status (it has recently been separated into three species) and findings that humpback dolphins along the coast of bangladesh, and possibly eastern india, are phylogenetically distinct from other members of the sousa genus. sousa chinensis is found in southeast/south asia (in both the indian and pacific oceans), from at least the southeastern bay of bengal ...201626790886
low major histocompatibility complex class ii variation in the endangered indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis): inferences about the role of balancing has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is under balancing selection due to its immune function across terrestrial and aquatic mammals. the comprehensive studies at mhc and other neutral loci could give us a synthetic evaluation about the major force determining genetic diversity of species. previously, a low level of genetic diversity has been reported among the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) in the pearl river estuary (pre) using both mitoch ...201626787544
comparison of indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western peninsular malaysia.differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western peninsular malaysia were investigated. duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. a total of 960 whistles from matang mangroves and 823 whistles from langkawi island were used in analyses. the wh ...201526627759
likely age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) in a stranded indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis).the hearing of a stranded indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) in zhuhai, china, was measured. the age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. the animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (aep) method. the results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 khz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. the lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained ...201626611012
humpback dolphins: a brief introduction to the genus sousa.the delphinid genus sousa has recently undergone a major revision, and currently contains four species, the atlantic humpback (sousa teuszii), indian ocean humpback (sousa plumbea), indo-pacific humpback (sousa chinensis), and australian humpback (sousa sahulensis) dolphins. recent molecular evidence suggests that humpback dolphins in the bay of bengal may comprise a fifth species. these moderate-sized dolphin species are found in shallow (<30m), coastal waters of the eastern atlantic, indian, a ...201526555620
echolocation signals of free-ranging indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in sanniang bay, china.while the low-frequency communication sounds of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) have been reported in a number of papers, the high-frequency echolocation signals of sousa chinensis, especially those living in the wild, have been less studied. in the current study, echolocation signals of humpback dolphins were recorded in sanniang bay, guangxi province, china, using a cross-type hydrophone array with five elements. in total, 77 candidate on-axis clicks from 77 scans were selecte ...201526428773
accumulation of organotin compounds in tissues and organs of dolphins from the coasts of thailand.the concentration of organotin (ot) in seven species of dolphin (bottlenose dolphin, finless porpoise, indo-pacific humpbacked dolphin, long-beaked common dolphin, pantropical spotted dolphin, spinner dolphin, and striped dolphin), which were stranded on the coasts of thailand, were measured. butyltin (bt) and phenyltin (pt) compounds in tissues and organs of the dolphins were in the range of 16-1,152 microg kg(-1) and <1-62 microg kg(-1), respectively. the highest concentration of tributyltin ( ...200817687583
biology and conservation of the taiwanese humpback dolphin, sousa chinensis taiwanensis.the humpback dolphins of the eastern taiwan strait were first discovered scientifically in 2002 and since then have received much research attention. we reviewed all information published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on these dolphins and where appropriate and available, peer-reviewed scientific workshop reports and graduate theses were also examined. recent evidence demonstrated that this population warranted recognition as a subspecies, sousa chinensis taiwanensis. it is found in a hig ...201626790889
a preliminary investigation on genetic diversity of sousa chinensis in the pearl river estuary and xiamen of chinese this study, the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of stranded indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) samples from the pearl river estuary and xiamen waters were sequenced and analyzed. the result of mtdna control region revealed 34 variable sites and four unique haplotypes (named as a, b, c and d) identified among the total samples from these two water areas, and the most common haplotype (a) was shared by 75% of the dolphins sampled fro ...200818721786
geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from asian waters.polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) are one of the flame retardants widely used in plastics, textiles, electronic appliances, and electrical household appliances. in this study, pbdes and organochlorine compounds (ocs) were determined in the archived samples from the environmental specimen bank for global monitoring (es-bank) at ehime university. the blubber of cetaceans found stranded along the coasts of japan, hong kong, the philippines and india during the period from 1990 to 2001 were emp ...200616439003
organochlorine residues in odontocete species from the southeast coast of india.blubber from bottle-nose dolphins, spinner dolphins, humpback dolphin (tursiops truncatus, stenella longirostris and sousa chinensis) were collected from the bay of bengal (southeast coast of india) and analyzed for the organochlorine pesticides hexachlorocyclohexane (hchs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (ddts), and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs). all nine specimens analyzed contained considerable levels of all the three chemical classes where ddt was in the range of 3330-23330 ng/g; h ...200515992595
resource partitioning in sympatric delphinids: space use and habitat preferences of australian snubfin and indo-pacific humpback dolphins.1. many species of delphinids co-occur in space and time. however, little is known of their ecological interactions and the underlying mechanisms that mediate their coexistence. 2. snubfin orcaella heinsohni, and indo-pacific humpback dolphins sousa chinensis, live in sympatry throughout most of their range in australian waters. i conducted boat-based surveys in cleveland bay, north-east queensland, to collect data on the space and habitat use of both species. using geographic information system ...200617009750
anthropogenic contaminants in indo-pacific humpback and australian snubfin dolphins from the central and southern great barrier reef.we present the first evidence of accumulation of organochlorine compounds (ddts, pcbs, hcb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in indo-pacific humpback and australian snubfin dolphins from the central and southern great barrier reef. these dolphins are considered by the great barrier marine park authority to be high priority species for management. analyses of biopsy samples, collected from free ranging individuals, showed pahs levels comparable to those reported from highly industriali ...201324016630
population differentiation and hybridisation of australian snubfin (orcaella heinsohni) and indo-pacific humpback (sousa chinensis) dolphins in north-western australia.little is known about the australian snubfin (orcaella heinsohni) and indo-pacific humpback (sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western australia. while both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the iucn, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across australia. understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conserva ...201424988113
indo-pacific humpback dolphins in borneo: a review of current knowledge with emphasis on sarawak.indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) are documented from various locations along borneo's coast, including three sites in sarawak, malaysia, three sites in sabah, malaysia, three locations in kalimantan, indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the sultanate of brunei. observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for chinese populations known as s. chinensis, and that of sousa sahulensis in australia ...201626790891
temporal trends and pattern changes of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in marine mammals from the south china sea over the past decade.temporal trends of short- (sccps) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (mccps) were examined in blubber samples of 50 finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides) and 25 indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) collected from the south china sea between 2004 and 2014. elevated levels of sccps and mccps were detected in all blubber samples of both cetacean species. concentrations of sccps ranged from 280 to 3900 ng·g(-1) dry weight (dw) in porpoises and from 430 to 9100 ng·g(-1) dw in d ...201526335162
perfluoroalkyl substances (pfass) in marine mammals from the south china sea and their temporal changes 2002-2014: concern for alternatives of pfos?perfluorinated sulfonic acids (pfsas) and perfluorinated carboxylic acids (pfcas), as well as the replacement for the phase-out c8 pfsas were determined in the liver samples of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides) from the south china sea between 2002 and 2014. levels of total perfluoroalkyl substances (pfass) in samples ranged from 136-15,300 and 30.5-2,720 ng/g dw for dolphin and porpoise, respectively. significant increasing trends ...201626889942
isomer specific determination of hexabromocyclododecanes (hbcds) in small cetaceans from the south china sea--levels and temporal variation.a diastereoisomer (alpha, beta, and gamma) specific analytical method for measuring hexabromocyclododecanes (hbcds) was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms-ms). the method developed was applied to analyze blubber of small cetaceans to divulge the distribution and temporal variation of hbcds in the asian marine environment. hbcds were detected in all the blubber samples of finless porpoises (neophocaena phocaenoides) and indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chin ...200717568625
discovery and widespread occurrence of polyhalogenated 1,1'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyrroles (pdbps) in marine biota.polyhalogenated 1,1'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyrroles (pdbps) are halogenated natural products (hnps) previously shown to bioaccumulate in marine mammals and birds. since their discovery in 1999, six hexahalogenated and a few lesser halogenated congeners have been identified in diverse marine mammal samples. here we report the identification of 17 additional hexahalogenated pdbps in the blubber extract of a humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) from queensland, australia. thirteen of these new pdbps were a ...201323603470
distribution and conservation of the indo-pacific humpback dolphin in china.the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis osbeck, 1765) is a threatened species inhabiting the waters of china. despite being of conservation concern, the distribution and abundance of this species has not been comprehensively evaluated. from 1994 to 2008 we performed over 14 000 km of line-transect surveys and administered over 700 questionnaires to collect basic information on the geographic range and likely abundance of indo-pacific humpback dolphins along the southern and eastern co ...200921392294
tissue distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants in indo-pacific humpback dolphins from the pearl river estuary, china.eleven persistent organic pollutant (pop) compounds including ∑pcbs, ∑ddts, ∑hchs, aldrin, mirex, endrin, ∑chls, dieldrin, hcb, heptachlor and pentachlorobenzene were measured in the kidney, liver, muscle, melon and other tissues of sousa chinensis stranded on the western coast of the pearl river estuary in china during 2007-2013. for most parameters of pops measured, melon tissues contained the highest mean concentrations with the exception of aldrin, which was higher in the kidney and liver ti ...201425066456
possible age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and corresponding change in echolocation parameters in a stranded indo-pacific humpback dolphin.the hearing and echolocation clicks of a stranded indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) in zhuhai, china, were studied. this animal had been repeatedly observed in the wild before it was stranded and its age was estimated to be ~40 years. the animal's hearing was measured using a non-invasive auditory evoked potential (aep) method. echolocation clicks produced by the dolphin were recorded when the animal was freely swimming in a 7.5 m (width)×22 m (length)×4.8 m (structural depth) pool ...201324172886
de novo assembly of the indo-pacific humpback dolphin leucocyte transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in the aquatic adaptation and immune response.the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis), a marine mammal species inhabited in the waters of southeast asia, south africa and australia, has attracted much attention because of the dramatic decline in population size in the past decades, which raises the concern of extinction. so far, this species is poorly characterized at molecular level due to little sequence information available in public databases. recent advances in large-scale rna sequencing provide an efficient approach to ge ...201324015242
derivation and characterization of cell cultures from the skin of the indo-pacific humpback dolphin sousa chinensis.the marine mammalian indo-pacific humpback dolphin, once widely lived in waters of the indian to western pacific oceans, has become an endangered species. the individual number of this dolphin has significantly declined in recent decades, which raises the concern of extinction. direct concentration on laboratorial conservation of the genetic and cell resources should be paid to this marine species. here, we report the successful derivation of cell lines form the skin of indo-pacific humpback dol ...201323661087
whistle characteristics of free-ranging indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in sanniang bay, china.broadband recording systems were adapted to characterize the whistle characteristics of free-ranging indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in sanniang bay, china. a total of 4630 whistles were recorded, of which 2651 with legible contours and relatively good signal-to-noise ratios were selected for statistical analysis. of the six tonal types (i.e., flat, down, rise, convex, u-shaped, and sine), flat (n = 1426; 39.45%) was the most predominant, followed by down (n = 754; 23.35%) and r ...201323556612
evaluation of organochlorine contamination in indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) from the pearl river estuary, china.organochlorine compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (ddts), hexachlorocyclohexane (hchs), chlordanes (chls) and hexachlorobenzene (hcb) were analyzed in blubber samples collected from fifteen indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) stranded in the pearl river delta during the period from 2004 to 2009. in general, the magnitude of the mean concentrations is: ∑ddts>∑pcbs>∑hchs>∑chls>hcb. ddt levels found in this study were very high, with ...201323280301
evoked-potential audiogram of an indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis).an evoked-potential audiogram was measured for an indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis) living in the dolphinarium of nanning zoo, china. rhythmic 20 ms pip trains composed of cosine-enveloped 0.25 ms tone pips at a pip rate of 1 khz were presented as sound stimuli. the dolphin was trained to remain still at the water surface and to wear soft latex suction-cup eeg electrodes used to measure the animal's envelope-following evoked potentials to the sound stimuli. responses to 1000 rhythm ...201222660775
sounds of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in west hong kong: a preliminary description.vocalizations of indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) in west hong kong waters were described from 12 recordings in 2010. a broadband hydrophone system recorded sounds. vocalizations were characterized as broadband click trains, burst pulses, and narrowband frequency modulated sounds, including whistles generally similar to those of some other delphinid cetaceans. a comparison of results to previous humpback dolphin sound descriptions for moreton bay, australia found broad similariti ...201222280729
in vitro assessment of environmental stress of persistent organic pollutants on the indo-pacific humpback dolphin.persistent organic pollutants (pops) are detected ubiquitously and are linked to range of adverse health effects. the indo-pacific humpback dolphin inhabited the pearl river estuary (pre), china, where high concentrations of pops have been reported. this study evaluated the threats posed by pops in the environment to the dolphin using an in vitro system. we selected bnf(β-naphthoflavone) and four pops (ddts (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes), chls(chlorides), hchs(hexachlorocyclohexanes) and hcb ...201526363203
mid- to high-frequency noise from high-speed boats and its potential impacts on humpback dolphins.the impact of noise made by vessels on marine animals has come under increased concern. however, most measurements on noise from vessels have only taken into account the low-frequency components. for cetaceans operating in the mid- and high-frequencies, such as the indo-pacific humpback dolphin (sousa chinensis), mid- to high-frequency noise components may be of more concern, in terms of their potential impacts. in this study, noise made by a small high-speed boat was recorded using a broadband ...201526328710
the world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority.chinese white dolphins (sousa chinensis) inhabiting shallow coastal waters are vulnerable to impacts from human activities in the near shore waters. this study examined the population of chinese white dolphins occurring off the coast of zhanjiang in the northern south china sea. a total of 492 chinese white dolphins were identified, 176 of which were photographed on more than one occasion. the zhanjiang chinese white dolphin population is isolated from populations of conspecifics along the guang ...201525634769
mercury and selenium in stranded indo-pacific humpback dolphins and implications for their trophic transfer in food top predators in the pearl river estuary (pre) of china, indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) are bioindicators for examining regional trends of environmental contaminants in the pre. we examined samples from stranded s. chinensis in the pre, collected since 2004, to study the distribution and fate of total mercury (thg), methylmercury (mehg) and selenium (se) in the major tissues, in individuals at different ages and their prey fishes from the pre. this study also investigated th ...201425310100
evolution of sousa chinensis: a scenario based on mitochondrial dna study.taxonomy within genus sousa is confused largely due to inconsistencies among external morphology, skull morphology, pigmentation patterns and molecular studies. here we provide our understanding of the evolution of sousa chinensis by proposing a phylogeographic history based on mtdna study. it is proposed that the species originated in eastern australian waters and the current distribution has taken shape over the last 8.02-1.24 million years. populations in southeast asia and australian region ...201020678579
assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (octa-kong) and its potential effects on the indo-pacific humpbacked dolphin (sousa chinensis).anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. the hongkong-zhuhai-macao bridge is currently under construction in the pearl river estuary, a hot spot for the indo-pacific humpbacked dolphin (sousa chinensis) in china. the octa-kong, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. this activity poses a substanti ...201425338113
bioaccumulation and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) from the pearl river estuary, china.indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa chinensis) are apex predators in the pearl river estuary waters (pre) of china. pcbs, ddts and other organochlorine pesticides (ocps) (e.g., hchs, hcb, mirex and dieldrin) were analysed in blubber samples of 45 dolphins and 10 prey fishes of s. chinensis collected from 2004 to 2013 in the pre region to investigate the bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (pops). ddts were the most abundant residue in the dolphins, w ...201425113190
development of a risk assessment methodology for evaluating potential impacts associated with contaminated mud disposal in the marine order to assess impacts associated with disposal of contaminated mud arising from hong kong's dredging and reclamation projects, a methodology has been formulated to determine the level of risk posed by consumption of seafood/marine prey species to humans and to the chinese white dolphin (sousa chinensis). this methodology improves on previously used techniques by incorporating risks for organic contaminants, accounting for doses from sources other than seafood, and incorporating additional l ...200010819181
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