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additional records of metazoan parasites from caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.studies of marine mammal parasites in the caribbean are scarce. an assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from puerto rico and the virgin islands, but extending to other areas of the caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. the present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including globicephala macrorhynchus, kogi ...200919582477
metazoan parasites of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of brazil.this study represents the first survey of the parasitic fauna of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of brazil. parasites were collected from 82 animals rescued from the states of ceará to bahia, including the archipelago of fernando de noronha. a total of 14 species of cetaceans were evaluated: sotalia guianensis, stenella sp., stenella clymene, stenella longirostris, stenella coeruleoalba, stenella frontalis, megaptera novaeangliae, peponocephala electra, steno bredanensis, kogia breviceps, k ...201020638793
genetic analysis of anisakis typica (nematoda: anisakidae) from cetaceans of the northeast coast of brazil: new data on its definitive hosts.anisakids from 5 different species of cetacean, kogia breviceps, peponocephala electra, stenella clymene, stenella longirostris and steno bredanensis, were submitted to genetic analysis. adults and larvae fixed in ethanol-formalin-acetic acid or in 70% ethanol for periods ranging from 10 months to 10 years were isolated from 9 cetaceans stranded on ceará coast, northeast brazil. the 18s rdna gene, its1, and specific anisakis typica its regions were amplified by pcr. 18s rdna and its1 region conf ...201121324600
morbillivirus infection in live stranded, injured, trapped, and captive cetaceans in southeastern queensland and northern new south wales, australia.we report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (cmv) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern queensland and northern new south wales, australia between december 2005 and january 2011. antibody to cmv was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (p=0.018). there was high antibody prevalence (8 ...201222247373
marine mammal strandings in the new caledonia region, southwest pacific.four hundred twenty three marine mammals, in 72 stranding events, were recorded between 1877 and 2005 in new caledonia, the loyalty islands, and vanuatu in the southwest pacific. sixteen species were represented in this count, including: minke whale, balaenoptera acutorostrata (1 single stranding), sei whale, b. borealis (1 single stranding), blue whale, b. musculus (1 single stranding), humpback whale, megaptera novaeangliae (2 single strandings), giant sperm whale, physeter macrocephalus (18 s ...200616644500
the use of non destructive biomarkers in the study of marine mammals.marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. the development of a series of non destructive ...199723899212
automatic classification of delphinids based on the representative frequencies of whistles.classification of odontocete species remains a challenging task for passive acoustic monitoring. classifiers that have been developed use spectral features extracted from echolocation clicks and whistle contours. most of these contour-based classifiers require complete contours to reduce measurement errors. therefore, overlapping contours and partially detected contours in an automatic detection algorithm may increase the bias for contour-based classifiers. in this study, classification was cond ...201526328716
passive cambering and flexible propulsors: cetacean flukes.the flukes are the primary locomotor structure in cetaceans, which produce hydrodynamic thrust as the caudal vertebrae are oscillated dorso-ventrally. effective thrust generation is a function of the kinematics of the flukes, the angle of attack between the flukes and the incident water flow, and the shape of the flukes. we investigated the effect of bending within the caudal region of odontocete cetaceans to determine how changes in angular displacement between caudal vertebrae could effect pas ...200617671317
cytochrome p4501a1 expression in blubber biopsies of endangered false killer whales (pseudorca crassidens) and nine other odontocete species from hawai'i.odontocetes (toothed whales) are considered sentinel species in the marine environment because of their high trophic position, long life spans, and blubber that accumulates lipophilic contaminants. cytochrome p4501a1 (cyp1a1) is a biomarker of exposure and molecular effects of certain persistent organic pollutants. immunohistochemistry was used to visualize cyp1a1 expression in blubber biopsies collected by non-lethal sampling methods from 10 species of free-ranging hawaiian odontocetes: short-f ...201425134676
histological, immunohistochemical and pathological features of the pituitary gland of odontocete cetaceans from the western gulf of mexico.pituitary glands were recovered from dolphins and small whales found stranded along the texas coast of the gulf of mexico over a 15-year period (1991-2006). one hundred animals of 14 species were found to be suitable for inclusion in this study. of these, 72 were atlantic bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus). other species included were the melon-headed whale (peponocephala electra), spinner dolphin (stenella longirostris), striped dolphin (stenella coeruleoalba), pantropical spotted dolphin ...200818621384
molecular identification of cetaceans from the west atlantic using the e3-i5 region of coi.molecular identification is very useful in cases where morphology-based species identification is not possible. examples for its application in cetaceans include the identification of carcasses of stranded animals in advanced state of decomposition and body parts that are illegally traded. one dna region that is often used for molecular identification is the folmer region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) (locus 48 to 705 bp). this locus has been used for the identif ...201728437554
limited trophic partitioning among sympatric delphinids off a tropical oceanic atoll.understanding trophic relationships among marine predators in remote environments is challenging, but it is critical to understand community structure and dynamics. in this study, we used stable isotope analysis of skin biopsies to compare the isotopic, and thus, trophic niches of three sympatric delphinids in the waters surrounding palmyra atoll, in the central tropical pacific: the melon-headed whale (peponocephala electra), gray's spinner dolphin (stenella longirostris longirostris), and the ...201728767677
discriminating features of echolocation clicks of melon-headed whales (peponocephala electra), bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus), and gray's spinner dolphins (stenella longirostris longirostris).spectral parameters were used to discriminate between echolocation clicks produced by three dolphin species at palmyra atoll: melon-headed whales (peponocephala electra), bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and gray's spinner dolphins (stenella longirostris longirostris). single species acoustic behavior during daytime observations was recorded with a towed hydrophone array sampling at 192 and 480 khz. additionally, an autonomous, bottom moored high-frequency acoustic recording package (har ...201020968391
negative apci-lc/ms/ms method for determination of natural persistent halogenated products in marine biota.a sensitive and selective method utilizing high performance liquid chromatography coupled to negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (apci-lc/ms/ms) was developed to enable analysis of selected natural persistent organohalogens accumulated in marine biota. the analytes were three methoxylated tetrabromodiphenyl ethers (6-meo-bde47, 2'-meo-bde68, and 2',6-dimeo-bde68), a dimethoxylated tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-dimeo-bb80), and two halogenated methyl bipyrroles ( ...200819012416
functional anatomy of the ocular circulatory system: vascular corrosion casts of the cetacean eye.to examine the functional anatomy of the ocular circulation in four bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and five melon-headed whales (peponocephala electra).200717565555
compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios (delta13c values) of the halogenated natural product 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (q1).compound-specific isotope analysis using gas chromatography interfaced to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (gc/irms) was applied for the determination of delta13c values of the marine halogenated natural product 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (q1). the delta13c value of a lab-made q1 standard (-34.20 +/- 0.27 per thousand) was depleted in 13c by more than 11 per thousand relative to the residues of q1 in dolphin blubber from australia and skua liver from antarctica. this cl ...200616969768
automated extraction of odontocete whistle contours.many odontocetes produce frequency modulated tonal calls known as whistles. the ability to automatically determine time × frequency tracks corresponding to these vocalizations has numerous applications including species description, identification, and density estimation. this work develops and compares two algorithms on a common corpus of nearly one hour of data collected in the southern california bight and at palmyra atoll. the corpus contains over 3000 whistles from bottlenose dolphins, long ...201121973376
molecular identification of novel alpha- and gammaherpesviruses from cetaceans stranded on japanese coasts.herpesviral infections have been documented in some cetaceans; however, they have not yet been identified in species in the western north pacific. in the present study, 178 tissue samples from 76 stranded cetacean individuals were tested for the presence of herpesviruses. herpesvirus genomic dna fragments surrounding the dna polymerase gene were amplified in samples from four individuals. ta cloning and direct sequencing of these dna fragments revealed the presence of two novel alphaherpesviruse ...201121303205
polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites (oh-pcbs) in the blood of toothed and baleen whales stranded along japanese coastal waters.in this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and hydroxylated pcbs (oh-pcbs) in the blood from eight species of toothed whales and three species of baleen whales stranded along the japanese coast during 1999-2007. penta- through hepta-chlorinated pcb congeners were the dominant homologue groups in all cetaceans. in contrast, specific differences in the distribution of dominant oh-pcb isomers and homologues were found among the cetacean species. ...201020426459
contamination levels of mercury and cadmium in melon-headed whales (peponocephala electra) from a mass stranding on the japanese coast.total mercury (t-hg), methyl mercury (m-hg), cadmium (cd), selenium (se), zinc (zn) and copper (cu) concentrations in the organs of melon-headed whales from a mass stranding on the japanese coast were analyzed. the mean concentration of t-hg in the liver (126+/-97 microg/wet g, n=13) was markedly higher than those in kidney (6.34+/-2.36 microg/wet g, n=12) and muscle (4.90+/-2.33 microg/wet g, n=15). in contrast, the mean concentration of m-hg in the liver (9.08+/-2.24 microg/wet g) was similar ...200818499232
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and organochlorines in melon-headed whales, peponocephala electra, mass stranded along the japanese coasts: maternal transfer and temporal trend.polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and organochlorine compounds (ocs) were determined in the blubber of 55 melon-headed whales (peponocephala electra) mass stranded along the japanese coasts since 1982. ddts and pcbs were predominant in all the specimens investigated. in whales that died during the latest event in 2006, concentrations of pbdes (190-510 ng/g lipid wt) were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than ddts and pcbs, but comparable with hchs and hcb. maternal transfer of pb ...200818272274
occurrence of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in the brain of cetaceans stranded along the japanese coast.levels of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (oh-pcbs) and pcbs were measured in the brain of melon-headed whales (mw: peponocephala electra), striped dolphins (sd: stenella coeruleoalba) and finless porpoises (fp: neophocaena phocaenoides) stranded along the japanese coast during 2002-2003. levels of oh-pcbs (including identified and unknown oh-p(5)cb, -h(6)cb, -h(7)cb and o(8)cb congeners) in the brain of mw, sd and fp were in the range of 20-290, 21-330 and 170-240pg/g wet wt., respective ...200717445835
stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen and mercury concentrations in 13 toothed whale species taken from the western pacific ocean off japan.stable isotope ratios of carbon (partial differential(13)c) and nitrogen (partial differential(15)n) and total mercury (t-hg) concentrations were measured in red meat samples from 11 odontocete species (toothed whales, dolphins, and porpoises) sold in japan (n = 96) and in muscle samples from stranded killer whales (n = 6) and melon-headed whales (n = 15), and the analytical data for these species were classified into three regions (northern, central, and southern japan) depending on the locatio ...201020218671
stenurus globicephalae baylis et daubney, 1925 (nematoda: pseudaliidae) from a false killer whale, pseudorca crassidens (cetacea: delphinidae), stranded on the coast of uruguay.stenurus globicephalae baylis et daubney, 1925 (nematoda: pseudaliidae) was found in the cranial air sinuses of a false killer whale, pseudorca crassidens (owen), stranded on the coast of uruguay in 1999. although this species has been reported once in p. crassidens from the north atlantic, this is the first record for south america. a total of 920 specimens were obtained, of which 663 were females (body length: 4.34 +/- 0.45 cm) and 257 were males (2.99 +/- 0.18 cm). morphometric details are pr ...200212016448
cdna-derived amino acid sequences of myoglobins from nine species of whales and dolphins.we determined the myoglobin (mb) cdna sequences of nine cetaceans, of which six are the first reports of mb sequences: sei whale (balaenoptera borealis), bryde's whale (balaenoptera edeni), pygmy sperm whale (kogia breviceps), stejneger's beaked whale (mesoplodon stejnegeri), longman's beaked whale (indopacetus pacificus), and melon-headed whale (peponocephala electra), and three confirm the previously determined chemical amino acid sequences: sperm whale (physeter macrocephalus), common minke w ...200616962803
a description of sounds recorded from melon-headed whales (peponocephala electra) off hawai'i.between 2004 and 2006, large groups of melon-headed whales were recorded off the big island of hawai'i. no other odontocete species were sighted in these groups. recordings contained echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds, and whistles. echolocation clicks typically contained energy beginning at 13 khz and continued strongly to the frequency cutoff of the recording system, suggesting that the frequency content of the clicks continued well beyond 24 khz. burst-pulse sounds were typically short, ...201021117773
repeated call types in hawaiian melon-headed whales (peponocephala electra).melon-headed whales are pantropical odontocetes that are often found near oceanic islands. while considered sound-sensitive, their bioacoustic characteristics are relatively poorly studied. the goal of this study was to characterize the vocal repertoire of melon-headed whales to determine whether they produce repeated calls that could assist in recognition of conspecifics. the first tag-based acoustic recordings of three melon-headed whales were analyzed. tag records were visually and aurally in ...201425190412
myoglobin oxygen affinity in aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals.myoglobin (mb) is an oxygen binding protein found in vertebrate skeletal muscle, where it facilitates intracellular transport and storage of oxygen. this protein has evolved to suit unique physiological needs in the muscle of diving vertebrates that express mb at much greater concentrations than their terrestrial counterparts. in this study, we characterized mb oxygen affinity (p50) from 25 species of aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals. among diving species, we tested for correlations bet ...201525987728
acoustic behavior of melon-headed whales varies on a diel cycle.many terrestrial and marine species have a diel activity pattern, and their acoustic signaling follows their current behavioral state. whistles and echolocation clicks on long-term recordings produced by melon-headed whales (peponocephala electra) at palmyra atoll indicated that these signals were used selectively during different phases of the day, strengthening the idea of nighttime foraging and daytime resting with afternoon socializing for this species. spectral features of their echolocatio ...201726300583
time trends and transplacental transfer of perfluorinated compounds in melon-headed whales stranded along the japanese coast in 1982, 2001/2002, and 2006.as a result of the phase-out of production of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-based compounds by a major producer, concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (pfos) in marine mammals from north american and european coastal waters have been declining since the early 2000s. nevertheless, temporal trends in perfluorochemical (pfc) concentrations in marine mammals from asian coastal waters have not been examined. in this study, pfcs were determined in livers of melon-headed whales (peponocephala electra) c ...200818939537
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