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geographic distribution and frequency of a taurine bos taurus and an indicine bos indicus y specific allele amongst sub-saharan african cattle breeds.we report for the first time, and for the whole of sub-saharan africa, the geographical distribution and the frequency of an indicine and a taurine y specific allele amongst african cattle breeds. a total of 984 males from 69 indigenous african populations from 22 countries were analysed at the microsatellite locus inra 124. the taurine allele is probably the oldest one on the continent. however, the taurine and the indicine alleles were present in 291 males (30%), and 693 males (70%), respectiv ...200010736042
life history and spatial distribution of oriental beetle (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) in golf courses in korea.larval and adult activity of the oriental beetle exomala orientalis (waterhouse), a pest of turfgrass in korea, was investigated at four golf clubs in pusan, korea, from 1995 to 1999. adult emergence was first observed on the greens in late may with peak activity occurring 2 wk later. during the day, e. orientalis adults were most active between 1800 and 2200 hours. first instars were found mostly in early july, second instars mostly in late july, and third instars from august to april. the dens ...200211942767
comparative analysis of carbohydrate-binding properties of two tandem repeat-type jacalin-related lectins, castanea crenata agglutinin and cycas revoluta leaf lectin.lectins belonging to the jacalin-related lectin family are distributed widely in the plant kingdom. recently, two mannose-specific lectins having tandem repeat-type structures were discovered in castanea crenata (angiosperm) and cycas revoluta (gymnosperm). the occurrence of such similar molecules in taxonomically less related plants suggests their importance in the plant body. to obtain clues to understand their physiological roles, we performed detailed analysis of their sugar-binding specific ...200515943812
overall carbohydrate-binding properties of castanea crenata agglutinin (cca).the carbohydrate-binding properties of castanea crenata agglutinin (cca) were investigated by an enzyme-linked lectin absorbent assay. the binding ability of each carbohydrate was compared using ic(50) values. cca exhibited mannose/glucose specificity, as observed with many mannose-binding jacalin-related lectins. for oligosaccharides containing glucose, it has been shown that the degree of polymerization and the linkage mode of glucose residues have no effect on cca-carbohydrate interaction; th ...200516023628
glutathione transferase, but not agglutinin, is a dormancy-related protein in castanea crenata trees.the annual changes in japanese chestnut (castanea crenata sieb. et zucc.) agglutinin (cca) were investigated by both protein and rna blotting analyses, to clarify whether cca has a function as storage protein. in the woody part of shoots and leaves, cca expression was only detected at both the protein and rna levels in may and june. in buds, the cca protein and mrna expressions were both restricted to april. however, the amount of accumulated cca was too low to act as a nitrogen reserve. no expr ...200717296304
effect of mineral nutrition on the vigor and susceptibility to blight of old japanese chestnut trees. 194620989346
the expression profile of lectin differs from that of seed storage proteins in castanea crenata trees.using northern blot analysis, the expression of the japanese chestnut (castanea crenata sieb. et zucc.) agglutinin (cca) gene was compared with that of its seed storage protein (ssp) gene. after cdna cloning of ssp, the expression profile of ssp mrna and cca mrna were compared. ssp mrna was seed-specific, while cca mrna was expressed in the stems and flowers (both male and female) as well as in the seeds. whereas extracts from all organs observed using western blot analysis exhibited positive si ...200415322353
hepatoprotective effects of chestnut (castanea crenata) inner shell extract against chronic ethanol-induced oxidative stress in c57bl/6 mice.this study was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of chestnut inner shell extract (cise) on chronic ethanol-induced oxidative stress in liver. mice were fed a control liquid diet (normal-control), liquid diet containing ethanol alone (etoh+vehicle), or were administered cise and ethanol (etoh+cise) for 6 weeks. administration of ethanol induced liver damage with significant increase of plasma got, gpt, hepatic triglyceride (tg) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (tbars) level ...201121457746
analysis of the sugar-binding specificity of mannose-binding-type jacalin-related lectins by frontal affinity chromatography--an approach to functional classification.the jacalin-related lectin (jrl) family comprises galactose-binding-type (gjrls) and mannose-binding-type (mjrls) lectins. although the documented occurrence of gjrls is confined to the family moraceae, mjrls are widespread in the plant kingdom. a detailed comparison of sugar-binding specificity was made by frontal affinity chromatography to corroborate the structure-function relationships of the extended mjrl subfamily. eight mjrls covering a broad taxonomic range were used: artocarpin from art ...200818266762
cloning and expression of a mannose-binding jacalin-related lectin from leaves of japanese cycad (cycas revoluta thunb.).cycad leaf lectin (crll), a mannose-recognizing jacalin-related lectin (mjrl), was first cloned as a gymnosperm lectin and expressed. the cdna sequence of crll (ddbj, accession no. ab198328), coding 291 amino acid residues, has a tandem repeat of about 150 amino acids divided into n- and c-terminal domains as japanese chestnut mjrl. sequence alignment showed deletion and insertion of the sequence, and its putative carbohydrate-binding sites showed some differences from other jrls. pcr analysis s ...200616960375
excavation of lead compounds that inhibit mast cell degranulation by combinatorial chemistry and activity-guided.an allergic reaction ensues after antigen binds to mast cell or basophil high affinity ige receptor, fc epsilonri, resulting in degranulation of various inflammatory mediators that produce various allergic symptoms. in this study, i) we isolated the active component for the inhibition of mast cell degranulation from the extract of leaves of castanea crenata and identified it as quercetin; ii) we established the total synthesis procedure of quercetin; iii) using quercetin as positive control, we ...200415202557
spatial arrangement of branches in relation to slope and neighbourhood competition.to gain a better understanding of the effects of spatial structure on patterns of neighbourhood competition among hardwood trees, the three-dimensional extension of primary branches was surveyed for ten community-grown castanea crenata (fagaceae) trees with respect to the positioning of neighbouring branches and the slope of the forest floor. there were significantly more branches extending towards the lower side of the slope than towards the upper side, but structural properties such as branch ...200212096742
molecular cloning and expression of the mannose/glucose specific lectin from castanea crenata cotyledons.cdna clones encoding a mannose/glucose specific lectin, cca, from castanea crenata cotyledons have been isolated and sequenced. the cloned cca cdna had an open reading frame of 927 bp encoding 309 amino acid residues. compared with the amino acid sequence determined for the protein chemically, it was clarified that cca has no signal peptide and undergoes no proteolytic cleavage as do other mannose specific jacalin-related lectins. the coding region of cca was introduced into an expression vector ...200211820938
analysis of physicochemical factors related to the automatic pellicle removal in korean chestnut (castanea crenata).analyses were carried out for condensed tannin content, soluble sugar content, color, firmness, and peeling ratio of the pellicle of 14 varieties of korean chestnut. the correlation between these physicochemical components and the peeling ratio was measured. the total soluble sugar content ranged from 4.20 to 11.83%. condensed tannin contents in the inner and outer chestnut shells were 7.83-71.42% and 0.31-2.04%, respectively. in the outer shell of chestnut, cie l* value was 26.98-33.34, cie a v ...200111743806
complete amino acid sequence of japanese chestnut agglutinin.the complete amino acid sequence of japanese chestnut (castanea crenata sieb. et zucc.) agglutinin (cca) was determined. analysis by sims of the acidic peptide obtained by pepsin digestion revealed that the n-terminal amino acid sequence should be acetyl-met-glu-glu. prior to sequence analysis, redetermination of cysteine residues indicated the presence of one cysteine residue per subunit. the complete sequence was determined by endoproteinase arg-c and achromobacter protease i digestion, and cn ...200011006076
anti-allergic actions of the leaves of castanea crenata and isolation of an active component responsible for the inhibition of mast cell degranulation.the anti-allergic actions of the leaves of castanea crenata (fagaceae) were studied. the water extract demonstrated potent anti-allergic actions in in vivo and in vitro experiments. the oral or intraperitoneal administration of the extract (100 or 200 mg/kg) caused a significant inhibition of the 48 hr-pca (up to 90%) and the vascular permeability induced by histamine or serotonin in rats (about 80%). the anaphylactic release of beta-hexosaminidase from rbl-2h3 cells was also significantly inhib ...199910403140
purification and characterization of a mannose/glucose-specific lectin from castanea crenata.a hemagglutinin was purified from the cotyledons of japanese chestnut (castanea crenata sieb. et zucc.) by affinity chromatography on asialo-fetuin sepharose 4b column followed by anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. the hemagglutinating activity of castenea crenate agglutinin (cca) was strong for sialidase-treated human erythrocytes, but was inhibited by mannose, glucose, and their derivatives as well as by glycoproteins having an n-linked complex carbohydrate type. the apparent m( ...19989779592
regulation of collagen gene expression in 3t3-l1 cells. effects of adipocyte differentiation and tumor necrosis factor alpha.an early feature in the development of adipocytes from fibroblast-like precursor cells is the biogenesis of an extracellular basement membrane (napolitano, 1963; kuri-harcuch et al., 1984). interactions between components of the basement membrane (e.g., collagens) and the surfaces of differentiating adipocytes are thought to regulate subsequent phases of the developmental program. since fibroblasts principally secrete type i and iii collagens whereas type iv collagen is abundant in basement memb ...19892752011
pollen donor composition during the early phases of reproduction revealed by dna genotyping of pollen grains and seeds of castanea crenata.in plants, pollen donor composition can differ during the early phases of reproduction through various selection mechanisms favouring self, related or nonrelated pollen donors, but such differences have not been examined under natural conditions because paternity is difficult to analyse in a natural setting. here, we performed paternity analyses based on microsatellite genotyping of individual pollen grains deposited on female flowers (n = 773) and seeds (n = 304) to evaluate pollen donor compos ...200919383107
anti-ice nucleation activity in xylem extracts from trees that contain deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells.boreal hardwood species, including japanese white birch (betula platyphylla sukat. var. japonica hara), japanese chestnut (castanea crenata sieb. et zucc.), katsura tree (cercidiphyllum japonicum sieb. et zucc.), siebold's beech (fagus crenata blume), mulberry (morus bombycis koidz.), and japanese rowan (sorbus commixta hedl.), had xylem parenchyma cells (xpcs) that adapt to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling. crude extracts from xylem in all these trees were found to have anti-ice nu ...200717936742
molecular evidence for an asian origin and a unique westward migration of species in the genus castanea via europe to north america.the genus castanea (fagaceae) is widely distributed in the deciduous forests of the northern hemisphere. the striking similarity between the floras of eastern asia and those of eastern north america and the difference in chestnut blight resistance among species has been of interest to botanists for a century. to infer the biogeographical history of the genus, the phylogeny of castanea was estimated using dna sequence data from different regions of the chloroplast genome. sequencing results suppo ...200717098448
effects of the chestnut inner shell extract on the expression of adhesion molecules, fibronectin and vitronectin, of skin fibroblasts in culture.the inner shell of the chestnut (castanea crenata s. et z., fagaceae) has been used as an anti-wrinkle/skin firming agent in east asia, and preliminary experiments have found that a 70% ethanol extract from this plant material can prevent cell detachment of skin fibroblasts from culture plates. in order to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, its effects on the expression of adhesion molecules, such as fibronectin and vitronectin, were investigated using the mouse skin fi ...200212214858
diagnosis of trichomoniasis by polymerase chain reaction.the clinical usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis was evaluated in comparison with other conventional tests. pcr was used for specific detection of trichomonas vaginalis by primers based on the repetitive sequence cloned from t. vaginalis (tv-e650). between june 1996 and august 1997, 426 patients visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology, hanyang university kuri hospital and were examined for trichomoniasis using wet mount examination, papan ...199910198607
carbon allocation to defense, storage, and growth in seedlings of two temperate broad-leaved tree species.optimal carbon allocation to growth, defense, or storage is a critical trait in determining the shade tolerance of tree species. thus, examining interspecific differences in carbon allocation patterns is useful when evaluating niche partitioning in forest communities. we hypothesized that shade-tolerant species allocate more carbon to defense and storage and less to growth compared to shade-intolerant species. in gaps and forest understory, we measured relative growth rates (rgr), carbon-based d ...201019763628
japanese chestnut (castanea crenata) agglutinin may have a role as vegetative storage protein.the expression of japanese chestnut (castanea crenata) agglutinin (cca) and its mrna was investigated in nitrogen-fertilized young potted plants and in floral organs of adult trees. two levels of n were used: 10 and 20mm nh(4)no(3). both levels increased protein content in all vegetative organs, though the magnitude of the increase differed. the highest increase was observed in stems. high levels were retained in 20mm n-fertilized plants, whereas the protein content decreased at 10mm n fertiliza ...200817936407
'candidatus phytoplasma castaneae', a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with chestnut witches' broom disease.in korea, japanese chestnut trees (castanea crenata sieb. and zucc.) showing symptoms indicative of witches' broom disease, including abnormally small leaves and yellowing of young leaves, were examined. since the symptoms were suggestive of a phytoplasma infection, tissues were assayed for phytoplasmas by pcr analysis using a pair of universal primers that amplify a 1.4-kbp phytoplasma 16s rdna fragment. the phytoplasma-specific fragment was amplified from diseased plants, but not from healthy ...200212361256
antioxidant effects of the chestnut (castanea crenata) inner shell extract in t-bhp-treated hepg2 cells, and ccl4- and high-fat diet-treated mice.the antioxidant effects of chestnut inner shell extract (cise) were investigated in a tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-bhp)-treated hepg2 cells, and in mice that were administered carbon tetrachloride (ccl(4)) and fed a high-fat diet (hfd). pre-incubation with cise significantly blocked the oxidative stress induced by t-bhp treatment in hepg2 cells (p<0.05) and preserved the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase compared to group treated with t ...201020732376
neonectria castaneicola and neo. rugulosa in japan.differences between neonectria castaneicola, which causes stem and perennial canker of trees, and neo. rugulosa have not been clearly shown in previous studies. in this study these two species were compared in detail using 17 japanese isolates consisting of 10 strains of neo. castaneicola and seven of neo. rugulosa. four-spored asci were constantly found in neo. castaneicola and this species produced larger ascospores and macroconidia than neo. rugulosa which produced eight-spored asci. the mati ...200516596957
[free amino acids of chestnuts from castanea sativa mill., castanea crenata sieb. and zucc., castanea molissima blume and the hybrids: castanea crenata x sativa]. 19846543488
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