cellulose-degrading bacteria associated with the invasive woodwasp sirex noctilio.sirex noctilio is an invasive wood-feeding wasp that threatens the world's commercial and natural pine forests. successful tree colonization by this insect is contingent on the decline of host defenses and the ability to utilize the woody substrate as a source of energy. we explored its potential association with bacterial symbionts that may assist in nutrient acquisition via plant biomass deconstruction using growth assays, culture-dependent and -independent analysis of bacterial frequency of a ...201121368904
dna sequence and rflp data reflect geographical spread and relationships of amylostereum areolatum and its insect vectors.the white rot fungus, amylostereum areolatum (basidiomycetes), is best known for its symbiotic relationship with various siricid wood wasp species. in this study, the relationship between isolates of a. areolatum associated with two wood wasp species, sirex noctilio and s. juvencus, are considered to identify possible intraspecific groups. isolates from the northern (native) and southern (exotic) hemispheres are included to determine patterns of geographical spread and origin of introductions in ...200212207733
genetic linkage map for amylostereum areolatum reveals an association between vegetative growth and sexual and self-recognition.amylostereum areolatum is a filamentous fungus that grows through tip extension, branching and hyphal fusion. in the homokaryotic phase, the hyphae of different individuals are capable of fusing followed by heterokaryon formation, only if they have dissimilar allelic specificities at their mating-type (mat) loci. in turn, hyphal fusion between heterokaryons persists only when they share the same alleles at all of their heterokaryon incompatibility (het) loci. in this study we present the first g ...200919523529
gene expression associated with vegetative incompatibility in amylostereum filamentous fungi, vegetative compatibility among individuals of the same species is determined by the genes encoded at the heterokaryon incompatibility (het) loci. the hyphae of genetically similar individuals that share the same allelic specificities at their het loci are able to fuse and intermingle, while different allelic specificities at the het loci result in cell death of the interacting hyphae. in this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) followed by pyrosequencing and ...201121889597
microbial symbionts shape the sterol profile of the xylem-feeding woodwasp, sirex noctilio.the symbiotic fungus amylostereum areolatum is essential for growth and development of larvae of the invasive woodwasp, sirex noctilio. in the nutrient poor xylem of pine trees, upon which sirex feeds, it is unknown whether amylostereum facilitates survival directly through consumption (mycetophagy) and/or indirectly through digestion of recalcitrant plant polymers (external rumen hypothesis). we tested these alternative hypotheses for amylostereum involvement in sirex foraging using the innate ...201323224570
fidelity among sirex woodwasps and their fungal symbionts.we report that associations between mutualistic fungi and their economically and ecologically important woodwasp hosts are not always specific as was previously assumed. woodwasps in the genus sirex engage in obligate nutritional ectosymbioses with two species of amylostereum, a homobasid\iomycete genus of white rot fungi. in the present study, the amylostereum species and genotypes associated with three species of sirex native to eastern north america and one relatively recent invasive sirex fr ...201323532503
lack of fidelity revealed in an insect-fungal mutualism after invasion.symbiont fidelity is an important mechanism in the evolution and stability of mutualisms. strict fidelity has been assumed for the obligate mutualism between sirex woodwasps and their mutualistic amylostereum fungi. this assumption has been challenged in north america where the european woodwasp, sirex noctilio, and its fungal mutualist, amylostereum areolatum, have recently been introduced. we investigate the specificity of the mutualism between sirex and amylostereum species in canada, where s ...201323740297
mutualism and asexual reproduction influence recognition genes in a fungal symbiont.mutualism between microbes and insects is common and alignment of the reproductive interests of microbial symbionts with this lifestyle typically involves clonal reproduction and vertical transmission by insect partners. here the amylostereum fungus-sirex woodwasp mutualism was used to consider whether their prolonged association and predominance of asexuality have affected the mating system of the fungal partner. nucleotide information for the pheromone receptor gene rab1, as well as the transl ...201323809654
the bark beetle, ips grandicollis, disrupts biological control of the woodwasp, sirex noctilio, via fungal symbiont interactions.the corticoid fungus, amylostereum areolatum, is deposited in pine trees by the woodwasp, sirex noctilio, at the time of oviposition. this fungus is essential in s. noctilio larval growth and it is also a food source for beddingia siricidicola, the nematode used for s. noctilio biological control. in recent years, the historically successful biological control programme has been disrupted in australia by the bark beetle, ips grandicollis. this study investigated whether the mechanism of this dis ...201424308452
sirex woodwasp: a model for evolving management paradigms of invasive forest pests.the sirex woodwasp, sirex noctilio, and its fungal mutualist, amylostereum areolatum, together constitute one of the most damaging invasive pests of pine. despite a century of research and well-established management programs, control remains unpredictable and spread continues to new areas. variable success in managing this pest has been influenced by complex invasion patterns, the multilayered nature of biological interactions, the varying local ecologies, and microevolutionary population proce ...201525386723
multilocus genotyping of amylostereum spp. associated with sirex noctilio and other woodwasps from europe reveal clonal lineage introduced to the us.sirex noctilio is a woodwasp of eurasian origin that was inadvertently introduced to the southern hemisphere in the 1900s and to north america over a decade ago. its larvae bore in pinus spp. and can cause significant mortality in pine plantations. s noctilio is associated with a symbiotic white rot fungus, amylostereum areolatum, which females inject into trees when they oviposit and which is required for survival of developing larvae. we compared the genetic diversity of a. areolatum isolated ...201526058535
detection and identification of the invasive sirex noctilio (hymenoptera: siricidae) fungal symbiont, amylostereum areolatum (russulales: amylostereacea), in china and the stimulating effect of insect venom on laccase production by a. areolatum yql03.the eurasian woodwasp sirex noctilio f. was first detected in daqing, heilongjiang province, in the northeast region of china in 2013. here, we investigated the s. noctilio's fungal symbiont, amylostereum areolatum, and insect venom produced in its acid (venom) gland. overall, seven out of 10 fungal isolates obtained from the mycangia of 10 adult s. noctilio females in this study were identified as a. areolatum. the remaining three isolates were identified as trichoderma viride, verticillium dah ...201526470239
growth of the sirex-parasitic nematode deladenus siricidicola on the white rot fungus amylostereum.the kamona strain of the nematode deladenus siricidicola has been extensively used as a biological control agent against invasive sirex noctilio woodwasps in the southern hemisphere, where it sterilizes female hosts. in north america, a non-sterilizing (ns) strain of d. siricidicola, thought to have been introduced with s. noctilio, is commonly found parasitizing this invasive woodwasp. species of deladenus that parasitize sirex have a parasitic form, as well as a mycophagous form. the mycophago ...201626724378
putative source of the invasive sirex noctilio fungal symbiont, amylostereum areolatum, in the eastern united states and its association with native siricid woodwasps.two genotypes of the fungal symbiont amylostereum areolatum are associated with the invasive woodwasp sirex noctilio first found in north america in 2004. s. noctilio is native to europe but has been introduced to australasia, south america and africa where it has caused enormous losses in pine plantations. based on nucleotide sequence data from the intergenic spacer region (igs) of the nuclear ribosomal dna, the a. areolatum genotypes found in north america are most similar to genotypes found i ...200919716415
detection and identification of amylostereum areolatum (russulales: amylostereaceae) in the mycangia of sirex nigricornis (hymenoptera: siricidae) in central louisiana.the woodwasp sirex noctilio f. (hymenoptera: siricidae) has become established in north america. a primary tactic for the management of s. noctilio in the southern hemisphere has been the development of a biological control agent, deladenus siricidicola bedding. this nematode has a bicyclic life cycle including a mycetophagous free-living and parasitic cycle. during oviposition, female sirex woodwasps inject a symbiotic fungus. because d. siricidicola only develops well on amylostereum areolatum ...201324468555
characterization of the systems governing sexual and self-recognition in the white rot homobasidiomycete amylostereum areolatum.this study considered the systems controlling sexual and self-recognition in amylostereum areolatum, a homobasidiomycetous symbiont of the sirex woodwasp. to investigate the structure and organization of these systems in a. areolatum, we identified a portion of a putative homologue (rab1) of the pheromone receptor genes of schizophyllum commune and coprinus cinereus, and a portion of a putative homologue of the s. commune mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (mip) gene. diagnostic dna-based assa ...200818414867
putative origin of clonal lineages of amylostereum areolatum, the fungal symbiont associated with sirex noctilio, retrieved from pinus sylvestris, in eastern canada.the eurasian sirex noctilio-amylostereum areolatum complex was discovered and has become established close to the north american great lakes in the 2000s. this invasive forest insect pest represents a very high risk to native and exotic pines in north america. we investigated the geographical origin of clonal lineages of the fungal symbiont a. areolatum in the recently pest-colonized eastern canadian region by analyzing mitochondrial and nuclear sequence variations and comparing the genetic dive ...201121802055
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