poikilotherms as reservoirs of q-fever (coxiella burnetii) in uttar pradesh.water snakes (natrix natrix), rat snakes (ptyas korros), cobras (naja naja), pythons (python molurus), tortoises (kachuga sp.), plankton fish (cirrhina mrigala), frogs (rana tigrina), toads (bufo sp.) and monitors (varanus indicus) were screened for evidence of q-fever infection by the capillary agglutination test on sera to detect antibodies and/or by attempts to demonstrate coxiella burnetii in spleen and liver samples. sero-reactors were observed among water and rat snakes, pythons and tortoi ...1979459042
the cardiac effects of parathyroid hormone in the tiger frog, rana tigrina.1. the cardiac effects of the n-terminal (1-34) peptide fragment of bovine parathyroid hormone [bpth-(1-34)] on isolated atria were examined in the frog, rana tigrina. 2. bpth-(1-34) produced dose-related inotropic response but no chronotropic response. this inotropic response varied at different times of the year. 3. the inotropic effect of bpth-(1-34) was attenuated in the presence of verapamil and imidazole. 4. the mechanism of action of bpth-(1-34) is probably a stimulation of calcium influx ...19901977549
pituitary extract of the ricefield eel monopterus albus (synbranchidae, teleostei) exhibits gonadotropic activity in the classes mammalia, aves, reptilia and amphibia.pituitary extract of the ricefield eel monopterus albus demonstrated gonadotropic activity in mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates. using the rat as the recipient, fsh activity was detected in monopterus pituitaries in the hcg augmentation test and lh activity in the ovarian ascorbic acid depletion test. cyclic amp level in superovulated ovaries, ovarian lactate production and glucose uptake in vitro, plasma testosterone level in males, testicular enzymes, ventral prostate weight and other andr ...19862873938
pharmacological study of antihistaminic principle(s) in the rana tigrina tissues. 19734151007
comparative effects of homoplastic pituitary homogenate, hcg & pmsg on follicular development in the frog rana tigerina during post-breeding regression phase. 19827169229
sequence analysis of the complete genome of an iridovirus isolated from the tiger frog.we have isolated a tiger frog virus (tfv) from diseased tiger frogs, rana tigrina rugulosa. the genome was a linear double-stranded dna of 105,057 basepairs in length with a base composition of 55.01% g+c. about 105 open reading frames were identified with coding capacities for polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1294 amino acids. computer-assisted analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 39 of 105 putative gene products showed significant homology to functionally characterized pro ...200211878922
genomic sequence of a ranavirus (family iridoviridae) associated with salamander mortalities in north america.disease is among the suspected causes of amphibian population declines, and an iridovirus and a chytrid fungus are the primary pathogens associated with amphibian mortalities. ambystoma tigrinum virus (atv) and a closely related strain, regina ranavirus (rrv), are implicated in salamander die-offs in arizona and canada, respectively. we report the complete sequence of the atv genome and partial sequence of the rrv genome. sequence analysis of the atv/rrv genomes showed marked similarity to other ...200314599794
a broadly applicable method to characterize large dna viruses and adenoviruses based on the dna polymerase gene.many viral pathogens are poorly characterized, are difficult to culture or reagents are lacking for confirmatory diagnoses. we have developed and tested a robust assay for detecting and characterizing large dna viruses and adenoviruses. the assay is based on the use of degenerate pcr to target a gene common to these viruses, the dna polymerase, and sequencing the products.200616608526
isolation of laribacter hongkongensis, a novel bacterium associated with gastroenteritis, from chinese tiger frog.laribacter hongkongensis is a recently discovered novel bacterium associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis. although the bacterium has been isolated from freshwater fish and natural freshwater environments, it is not known if other freshwater animals could also be a source of l. hongkongensis. in a surveillance study on freshwater food animals (other than fish) in hong kong, l. hongkongensis was isolated from eight of 10 chinese tiger frogs (hoplobatrachus chinensis), a widespread frog ...200919033083
first isolation and identification of elizabethkingia meningoseptica from cultured tiger frog, rana tigerina rugulosa.elizabethkingia meningoseptica has been recognised as an occasional but serious opportunistic bacterial pathogen to human beings. recently, it was frequently isolated from tiger frog, rana tigerina rugulosa, with cataract disease, which is the most common disease of unknown aetiology of frogs in hainan, china. the purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the bacterial strains isolated from the recent outbreaks of cataract disease in farmed tiger frog in hainan, china, and to evalua ...200919327918
a survey on the faunal diversity of savar upazila, dhaka, bangladesh.a survey was conducted during january to december 2006 to assess the status of faunal diversity of savar upazila, dhaka, bangladesh. a total of 30 species of birds, 24 species of winter birds, 7 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 15 species of mammalians and 32 species of fishes were recorded. relative abundance of those species were determined. of the birds, house sparrow (passer domesticus) was abundant while blyth's kingfisher (alcedo hercules), rock eagle owl (bubo bengalensis), h ...200818817158
complete sequence determination of a novel reptile iridovirus isolated from soft-shelled turtle and evolutionary analysis of iridoviridae.soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (stiv) is the causative agent of severe systemic diseases in cultured soft-shelled turtles (trionyx sinensis). to our knowledge, the only molecular information available on stiv mainly concerns the highly conserved stiv major capsid protein. the complete sequence of the stiv genome is not yet available. therefore, determining the genome sequence of stiv and providing a detailed bioinformatic analysis of its genome content and evolution status will facilitate furthe ...200919439104
development of an rt-pcr detection method for mud crab reovirus.mud crab reovirus (mcrv) causes high mortality in the cultivated mud crab. to control better an outbreak of this virus, a rapid, specific and sensitive detection method based on rt-pcr was developed. the mcrv detection method was designed based on the one-step and two-step rt-pcr which resulted in the amplification of predicted products of 433 and 304 bp. the method is specific as no cross-reaction was observed between grass carp hemorrhage virus (gchv), white spot syndrome virus (wssv), tiger f ...200818572256
development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of lymphocystis disease virus.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed for the detection of lymphocystis disease virus (lcdv). a set of five specific primers, two inner and two outer primers and a loop primer, were designed on the basis of the major capsid protein gene of lcdv. the reaction time and temperatures were optimized for 60 min at 63 degrees c, respectively. lamp amplification products were detected by a ladder-like appearance on agarose gel electrophoresis or a naked-eye inspection of a ...201019891986
identification of two novel membrane proteins from the tiger frog virus (tfv).the tiger frog virus (tfv) belongs to the genus ranavirus in the family iridoviridae, and its genome was completely sequenced in 2002. in order to better understand the viral structure and functional genes involved in infection and virus-host interactions, two candidate genes, orf001l and orf020r, were selected for our study. orf001l and orf020r were analyzed by genomic comparison and by using the tmhmm software. both genes were conserved in the genus ranavirus, may encode putative membrane prot ...200818538433
chromatin organization and basic nuclear proteins in the male germ cells of rana tigerina.the process of chromatin condensation during spermiogenesis in rana tigerina is similar to the heterochromatization in somatic cells, where 30 nm fibers are coalesced together into a dense mass in spermatozoa without changing their initial size and nucleosomal organization. this conclusion was supported by the finding that the full set of core histones (h2a, h2b, h3, h4) are still present in sperm chromatin, but histone h1 is replaced by its variant, h1v. rabbit anti-sera were raised against his ...200515570620
identification and characterization of a glucagon receptor from the goldfish carassius auratus: implications for the evolution of the ligand specificity of glucagon receptors in vertebrates.the structural basis of ligand selectivity of g protein-coupled receptors for metabolic hormones has been an area of intense investigation, and yet it remains unresolved. one approach to delineating the mechanism of ligand-receptor interactions is to compare the ligand specificities of receptors expressed in species that emerged at different times within vertebrate evolution. in this paper we describe the isolation, functional, and phylogenetic characterization of the glucagon receptor from the ...200415033912
identification of a proglucagon cdna from rana tigrina rugulosa that encodes two glp-1s and that is alternatively spliced in a tissue-specific manner.glucagon plays a pivotal role in the regulation of metabolism. a glucagon receptor has been previously characterized in the frog, rana tigrina rugulosa, and the frog and human glucagon receptors have been shown to possess similar binding affinities toward human glucagon. to study the structural evolution of glucagon peptide and its receptor in vertebrates, in the current study, a proglucagon cdna from the same frog species was cloned. interestingly, in contrast to the mammalian proglucagons that ...200111703080
structural and functional identification of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor vpac2 from the frog rana tigrina rugulosa.recently, a frog pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (pacap)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip) receptor (fpvr) has been characterized, and interestingly, this receptor exhibits characteristics of both mammalian pacap type ii receptors vpac(1)r and vpac(2)r. in order to investigate the receptors responsible for mediating the actions of vip and pacap in amphibians, in this report, a frog vpac(2) receptor (fvpac(2)r) cdna was isolated. fvpac(2)r shares 47.7, 46.9 and 62.5% amino ac ...200111564605
the chemoarchitectonics of the diencephalon of frog (rana tigrina).the study deals with the distribution of acid and alkaline phosphatases, atpase, 5-nucleotidase, nonspecific esterase, specific cholinesterase, and beta-galactosidase in the diencephalon of the frog. the highlights of the present study are the following: i) acid phosphatase is present in all the neurons, whereas the tracts and commissures are completely negative. ii) most of the tracts and commissures are positive for 5-nucleotidase. this confirms the author's previous findings that the tracts a ...2002154581
the effect of 17 beta-estradiol acetate on the testis and thumb pad of rana cyanophlyctis (schn.) and rana tigrina (daud.). 20021222901
virulence properties of motile aeromonads isolated from farmed frogs rana tigerina and r. rugulosa.virulence factors were compared in aeromonas species isolated from clinically normal and septicaemic farmed frogs from thailand. haemolysin activities against frog erythrocytes were significantly different within the collection of aeromonads. groups of high haemolytic activity (unspeciated aeromonas, au), moderate haemolytic activity (a. hydrophila), and low haemolytic activity (a. veronii biovar sobria, a. veronii biovar veronii, a. caviae, a. schubertii) were noted. dna colony hybridisation st ...200010843556
beta-glucuronidase in kidney-adrenal of male frogs (rana tigrina): a correlation of observations on histochemistry and biochemistry. 20164993430
effect of (d-ala6) lhrh on hypophyseal gonadotrophs and ovary of adult frog, rana tigrina (daud.) during post-breeding regression phase.effects of synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh, 1.5 micrograms) agonist on pituitary and ovary were studied in r. tigrina during november, the post-breeding regression phase. injections (ip) were given 6 days a week for 30 days and frogs were sacrificed on day 31. pituitary sections were stained with ab-pas-og. the staining intensity, cytoplasmic granulation and cell, nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of hypophyseal gonadotrophs (b2 cells) increased (p < 0.05) following lhrh admini ...19938359846
differential autophagic effects triggered by five different vertebrate iridoviruses in a common, highly permissive mandarinfish fry (mff-1) cell model.autophagy of five vertebrate iridoviruses, including one megalocytivirus (infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus, isknv) and four ranaviruses (chinese giant salamander iridovirus, cgsiv; tiger frog virus, tfv; grouper iridovirus, giv; and largemouth bass virus, lmbv) were investigated in a common, highly permissive mandarinfish fry (mff-1) cell model. the results showed marked autophagosome formation in giv- and lmbv-infected cells but not in isknv-, cgsiv- and tfv-infected mff-1 cells. str ...201626748344
effect of synthetic nonapeptide (thr-cys-ser-val-ser-glu-trp-gly-ile) on ovarian follicular development in the bull frog rana tigrina (daud).effect of synthetic nonapeptide (thr-cys-ser-val-ser-glu-trp-gly-ile) representing the amino acid sequence 86-94 of human seminal plasma was studied on the ovarian follicular growth in the bullfrog r. tigrina during preparatory phase of reproductive cycle. daily (except on sundays) injections of 10 micrograms nonapeptide for one month caused a significant increase in ovarian weight and number of second growth phase (sgp) or vitellogenic oocytes. the results suggest that the nonapeptide is biolog ...19938270281
blood fibrinolytic system in rana tigrina.fibrinolytic activity as well demonstrable in the blood of rana tigrina. there occurs prompt lysis of diluted plasma; and the plasma euglobulin fraction shows lysis on both unheated and heated fibrin (human or bovine) plates, implying the presence of plasmin-like enzyme in this fraction. the fibrinolytic activity is remarkably inhibited by the erythrocyte-lysate and is moderately enhanced by leucocytes-thrombocytes. eaca suppresses the lysis of dilute cell-free plasma clots at concentrations of ...19817281104
preponement of ovarian follicular development in the frog, rana tigerina, using pmsg, hcg, growth hormone, heteroplastic pituitary pars distalis homogenate, fsh and lh. 19846442272
meta-phosphoric acid-its use in the selective extraction of rna from fixed tissue sections.this communication presents a new quick method for selective extraction of rna from formalin-fixed tissues, such as kidney, intestine, ovary and testis of white rat and liver of rodents, tatera indica and millardia meltada and of the frog, rana tigrina as well as of human wart. sections of pancreas and kidney fixed in acetic acid-alcohol were also tried. the method is to treat deparaffinised sections in 20% and 15% meta-phosphoric acid at 5 degrees c for 10-20 and 20-30 min, respectively, and th ...19816171707
different types of pinealocytes as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy of anti-s-antigen and antiopsin binding sites in the pineal organ of toad, frog, hedgehog and bat.s-antigen- and opsin-immunoreactive sites were studied in the pineal organ of toad (bufo bufo), frog (rana tigrina), hedgehog (erinaceus roumanicus) and bat (myotis myotis) by light microscopic avidin-biotin-peroxidase and electron microscopic immunoglobulin-gold (immunogold), protein a-gold and avidin-biotin-ferritin techniques. the corresponding retinas served as reference tissues. a large number of photoreceptors of toad and frog pineal organ exhibited either strong or weak s-antigen immunore ...19862937652
influence of calcitonin administration of serum calcium and inorganic phosphate level of the frog, rana tigrina.the effect of salmon calcitonin (0.25 mrc mu/g body wt) was investigated on the serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels of the frog. rana tigrina. the hormone evokes hypocalcemia (on day 1 and day 3) which is followed by a significant hypercalcemia on day 10. thereafter, the level of calcium decreases again on day 15. calcitonin induces hypophosphatemia (on day 3 and day 5). thereafter, hyperphosphatemia is recorded on day 10. normal serum phosphate value is achieved by day 15. the results ...19892737450
genome-wide analyses of proliferation-important genes of iridovirus-tiger frog virus by rnai.tiger frog virus (tfv), a species of genus ranavirus in the family iridoviridae, is a nuclear cytoplasmic large dna virus that infects aquatic vertebrates such as tiger frog (rana tigrina rugulosa) and chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis). based on the available genome sequences of tfv, the well-developed rna interference (rnai) technique, and the reliable cell line for infection model, we decided to analyze the functional importance of all predicted genes. firstly, a relative quantita ...201424886972
predation by asian bullfrog tadpoles, hoplobatrachus tigerinus, against the dengue vector, aedes aegypti, in an aquatic environment treated with mosquitocidal nanoparticles.aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue and chikungunya. the use of synthetic insecticides to control aedes populations often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. botanical extracts have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles, but their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has not been well studied. we propose a single-step method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnp) using the extract of artemisia vulgar ...201526091763
efficacy of lagenidium giganteum metabolites on mosquito larvae with reference to nontarget organisms.lagenidium giganteum is a water mold and an effective mosquito control agent with limited use due to poor survival and contamination during storage. invert extracellular metabolites of l. giganteum is easy to produce, long shelf life, and a potential candidate in tropical climates. this fungus was grown in pyg broth in the laboratory at 25 +/- 2 degrees c, and relative humidity was maintained at 75 +/- 5% for 15 +/- 2 days. filtration process of metabolites was done using whatman filter paper, c ...200717334944
a lectin from the thigh muscle of rana tigerina.lectin activity has been detected in the thigh muscle extracts of rana tigerina, which was found to agglutinate both trypsinized and untrypsinized rabbit erythrocytes. the lectin has been purified to homogeneity by mepbs (0.01 m phosphate-buffered saline (ph 7.2) with 4 mm beta-mercaptoethanol) buffer extraction of the tissue and affinity chromatography on acid-treated sepharose 6b. the molecular weight (mr) of the purified lectin was determined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel ...19892730922
role of temperature in regulation of ovarian cycle in bull frog rana tigerina.effect of temperature on the ovarian cycle was studied in r. tigerina by exposing them to (1) constant low (22 degrees c) temperature during preparatory (active vitellogenic growth) phase (march-may) when the mean ambient temperature ranged from 26 degrees-28 degrees c and (2) to constant high (30 degrees +/- 1 degrees c) temperature during postbreeding regression phase (august-november) when the mean ambient temperature ranged from 22 degrees-26 degrees c. the ovaries of initial controls (biops ...19902279774
cardiovascular effects of bpth-(1-34) and isoproterenol in the frog, rana tigrina.1. the cardiovascular effects of bovine parathyroid hormone fragment [bpth-(1-34)] and isoproterenol (iso) on frog (rana tigrina) isolated atria and helical strips of blood vessels were examined since pth produces a beta-adrenergic-like effect in the mammal. 2. data showed that both bpth-(1-34) and iso were vasorelaxant in kcl and arginine vasoctocin (avt) preconstricted dorsal aorta, iliac and femoral arteries. 3. they both relaxed extracellular calcium-dependent contrations. 4. there was no ad ...19911687555
cardiac activity of some peptide hormones in the frog, rana tigrina.1. the cardiac responses of isolated frog (rana tigrina) atria to peptide hormones were studied. 2. calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp), arginine vasotocin (avt), bovine parathyroid hormone fragment (bpth-(1-34)) and oxytocin (oxy) produced dose-related positive chronotropic and inotropic responses; atrial natriuretic peptide (anp) was negative chronotropic and inotropic; cholecystokinin (cck), vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip) were without effects. 3. the dose-related responses under bpth- ...19921363298
effect of a calcium rich environment on the ultimobranchial gland of rana tigrina.thirty two specimens of rana tigrina were divided into four equal groups : group i = controls; group ii = injected with vitamin d2 and placed in a 0.8% aqueous solution of cacl2; group iii = injected with vitamin d2 and kept in tap water; group iv = placed only in a 0.8% cacl2 solution. the experimental specimens exhibited varying degrees of hyperactivity of their ultimobranchial gland. specimens from all the groups were x-rayed. the experimental ones showed different intensity of calcium deposi ...19751232921
first report of seuratascaris numidica seurat, 1917 (nematoda: ascarididae) and other helminths from amphibians of west bengal, india.studies on nematode parasites from anuran hosts from eastern india, particularly west bengal, are rare. to our knowledge, there is a report of larvae of monhysterides sp. (a fish parasite) from cysts within the body cavity and musculature of duttaphrynus melanostictus, hoplobatrachus tigerinus and euphlyctis hexadactylus as well as descriptions of aplectana duttaphryni from d. melanostictus, aplectana dubrajpuri from h. tigerinus, cosmocerca microhylae from microhyla rubra and rhabdias bulbicaud ...201728316428
aplectana dubrajpuri sp. nov. (nematoda: cosmocercidae) in hoplobatrachus tigerinus (anura: dicroglossidae) from dubrajpur, birbhum, west bengal, india.aplectana dubrajpuri sp. nov., recovered from the rectum of indian bull frog, hoplobatrachus tigerinus, collected from dubrajpur in the birbhum district of west bengal, india, is described and illustrated. this species is characterised by absence of gubernaculum and differs from other species of aplectana which lack a gubernaculum (viz. a. akhrami, a. artigasi, a. chilensis, a. crossodactyli, a. crucifer, a. delirae, a. meridionalis, a. papillifera, a. praeputialis, a. tarija and a. vercammeni) ...201526204179
the life history of pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. (digenea: pleurogenidae) from amphibious and aquatic hosts in kerala, india.the life-cycle stages of pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the indian bullfrog hoplobatrachus tigerinus (daudin) and the skipper frog euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in malampuzha, which forms part of the district of palakkad, kerala, are described. the species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, p. gastroporus (luhe, 1901) and p. orientalis (srivastava, 1934). the life-cycle st ...201423517639
studies on mast cells of rana tigrina.mast cell degranulators cause vasoconstriction in the frog. a comparative study of the mesenteric mast cells of the frog and rat showed that the frog mast cells differed from those of the rat in having a dense perigastric instead of a sparse ideal distribution, and in responding to compound 48/80 by a rapid and marked disappearance and/or fragmented appearance instead of classical degranulation. the vasoconstriction and mast cell response after in vivo compound 48/80 appeared related since they ...1978668813
inhibition of reporter gene and iridovirus-tiger frog virus in fish cell by rna interference.we describe the specific silencing of reporter gene lacz in fhm cells (muscle cells of fathead minnow, a fish cell line) by either expressing small hairpin rnas (shrnas) from plasmids or transfecting small interfering rnas (sirnas) transcribed in vitro. two types of dsrnas could inhibit reporter gene expression, and sirnas were more effective, while both of them worked very well in hela cells. sirnas were tested for silencing expression of the major capsid protein (mcp) encoded by tiger frog vir ...200515932766
spontaneous occurrence of aneuploidy in somatic cells of rana tigrina (ranidae: anura). 20154547306
selected emerging diseases of amphibia.this review summarizes the most recent updates on emerging infectious diseases of amphibia. a brief summary of batrachochytrium dendrobatidis history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, life cycle, diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity is provided. ambystoma tigrinum virus, common midwife toad virus, frog virus 3, rana grylio virus, rana catesbeiana ranavirus, mahaffey road virus, rana esculenta virus, bohle iridovirus, and tiger frog virus ranaviruses are extensively reviewed. emerging bacterial patho ...201323642863
functional studies of a glucagon receptor isolated from frog rana tigrina rugulosa: implications on the molecular evolution of glucagon receptors in this report, the first amphibian glucagon receptor (glur) cdna was characterized from the liver of the frog rana tigrina rugulosa. functional expression of the frog glur in cho and cos-7 cells showed a high specificity of the receptor towards human glucagon with an ec(50) value of 0.8+/-0.5 nm. the binding of radioiodinated human glucagon to glur was displaced in a dose-dependent manner only with human glucagon and its antagonist (des-his(1)-[nle(9)-ala(11)-ala(16)]) with ic(50) values of 12. ...199910471837
investigations on wound healing by using amphibian skin.the present investigation is aimed to justify the validity of traditional practice of using the frog skin in wound healing. studies were carried out on skin wounds from female albino rats of wistar strain weighing 100-120 g. the wounds of standard size (5 cm2) were created in the experimental and control groups. the experimental group was dressed with dorsal skin of freshly sacrificed frogs (rana tigrina) while the control group was dressed with cotton gauze. a faster healing was observed in the ...19958557310
effects of garlic (allium sativum) extract on the heart rate, rhythm and force of contraction in frog: a dose-dependent study.garlic juice (dose equivalent to 3.3 g to 33 g garlic) mainly caused bradycardia in frog rana tigerina. the disturbance in ventricular rhythm was observed prior to than that of atria. rhythm was specially disturbed at higher doses causing bizarre pattern. force of contraction of the heart also decreased with higher dose of the garlic extract. the results suggest that garlic extract has some beneficial effect on heart rate modulating the rate, rhythm and force of contraction positively but very h ...200415260118
tiger frog virus can infect zebrafish cells for studying up- or down-regulated genes by proteomics approach.tiger frog virus (tfv), a member of the iridovirus family, causes high mortality of cultured tiger frog tadpoles in southern china. to better understand tfv infection and its interaction with host cells, zebrafish embryonic fibroblast (zf4) cells, a stable polyploid cell line with most clear genetic map, was used for our present study. our results showed that tfv caused typical lytic plaque forming cytopathic effect (cpe) and that various stages of viral proliferation were observed using electro ...200919409947
prevalence and characterization of quinolone resistance in laribacter hongkongensis from grass carp and chinese tiger frog.laribacter hongkongensis is a food-borne bacterium associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis and diarrhoea. quinolone resistance was recently reported in bacterial isolates from aquatic products, but the molecular mechanisms for resistance were still unknown. in this study, a total of 157 l. hongkongensis strains were isolated from grass carps (n = 443) and chinese tiger frogs (n = 171). twenty-one ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were analysed for mutations in quinolone resistance-deter ...201323906590
arginase isoforms in frog and lizard tissues.isoforms of arginase in the liver and kidney tissues of the ureotelic frog (rana tigerina) and uricotelic lizard (calotes versicolor) were fractionated by deae-cellulose chromatography (ph 8.3). four molecular forms, designated as a'1, a2, a3 and a4 based on the kcl concentration required for their elution from the ion-exchange column, were detected in lizard liver, while only two forms were found in lizard kidney (a3 and a4) and frog liver and kidney (a2 and a3). no major differences were found ...201021086749
purification, characterization and cloning of two novel tigerinin-like peptides from skin secretions of fejervarya cancrivora.while investigating the innate defense of brackish water-living amphibian and its comparison with freshwater-living amphibians, two novel 12-residue antimicrobial peptides were purified from the skin secretions of the crab-eating frog, fejervarya cancrivora which typically inhabits brackish water of mangrove forests of southeast asia. these two antimicrobial peptides, tigerinin-rc1 and -rc2 share significant structural similarity with tigerinins found in the skin of indian frog, hoplobatrachus t ...200919540421
role of cholinergic receptors in melanophore responses of amphibians.responses of isolated skin melanophores of rana tigerina and bufo melanostictus to cholinergic drugs were studied using the mean melanophore size index assay to explore the nature and role of cellular receptors in melanophore regulation activity. acetylcholine (ach) in a concentration of 10(-7) to 6.4 x 10(-6) g/ml caused dispersion of the skin melanophores of r. tigerina and b. melanostictus. these effects were blocked by both atropine and hyoscine in a concentration of 8 x 10(-6) g/ml each. es ...19958714764
efficacy of frog skin lipids in wound healing.background: frog skin has been sequentially and scientifically evaluated by our group for its wound healing efficiency. owing to the complex structure of skin, attempts were being made to analyse the role of individual constituents in different phases of healing. our earlier papers have shown the significance of frog skin not only in wound healing but also enhancing the proliferating activity of the epidermal and dermal cells which are instrumental for normal healing process. we also have identi ...201020637131
energetics of metamorphic climax in the pickerel frog (lithobates palustris).anuran metamorphosis, the transition from aquatic larvae to terrestrial juveniles, is accompanied by significant morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. timing of metamorphosis and final size, which can influence adult fitness, may depend on sufficient energy accumulated during the larval period to support metamorphosis. however, only two species of anurans have been examined for energetic costs of metamorphosis, rana tigrina and anaxyrus terrestris. based on these species, it has ...200919508896
out of asia: mitochondrial dna evidence for an oriental origin of tiger frogs, genus hoplobatrachus.most examples of intercontinental dispersal events after the miocene contact between africa and asia involve mammal lineages. among amphibians, a number of probably related groups are known from both continents, but their phylogenies are so far largely unresolved. to test the hypothesis of miocene dispersal against a mesozoic vicariance scenario in the context of gondwana fragmentation, we analyzed fragments of the mitochondrial 16s rrna gene (572 bp) in 40 specimens of 34 species of the anuran ...200111741382
assessment of heavy metals and metalloids in tissues of two frog species: rana tigrina and euphlyctis cyanophlyctis from industrial city sialkot, the present study, we investigated the concentrations of ni, fe, pb, cu, co, zn, cd, mn, and cr in selected body tissues (liver, stomach, kidney, heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles) of two frog species: rana tigrina and euphlyctis cyanophlyctis captured from industrial wastewater of sialkot city known worldwide for its tanning industry. the both frog species had darker appearance, distinctively different wet body weight, and snout-vent length. the results revealed that the heavy metal concent ...201525966879
development and characterization of 27 new microsatellite markers for the indian bullfrog hoplobatrachus tigerinus and its congeneric species.the indian bullfrog hoplobatrachus tigerinus and its four congeneric species are common frog species and distributed throughout south asia. due to recent human activity, they are facing a changing environment and reduction in natural population size. for effective conservation and molecular ecological studies, we therefore isolated and characterized microsatellite loci for these frogs. we obtained genomic data using an ion torrent pgm sequencer and designed 54 primer sets for candidate loci. by ...201425475937
complete mitochondrial genomes and novel gene rearrangements in two dicroglossid frogs, hoplobatrachus tigerinus and euphlyctis hexadactylus, from bangladesh.we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial (mt) genomes from two dicroglossid frogs, hoplobatrachus tigerinus (indian bullfrog) and euphlyctis hexadactylus (indian green frog). the genome sizes are 20462 bp in h. tigerinus and 20280 bp in e. hexadactylus. although both genomes encode the typical 37 mt genes, the following unique features are observed: 1) the nd5 genes are duplicated in h. tigerinus that have completely identical sequences, whereas duplicated nd5 genes in e. ...201021041980
histamine receptors in the skin melanophores of indian bullfrog rana tigerina.histamine and 2-methyl histamine caused dose-dependent aggregation of the integumental melanophores of rana tigerina both in vitro and in vivo. the aggregating effects were antagonised by mepyramine and metiamide, specific h1 and h2 receptor blockers, respectively. compound 48/80 and edta augmented the melanin-aggregating effects of exogenously applied histamine and 2-methyl histamine in in vivo experiments. 4-methyl histamine, a specific h2 receptor agonist, dispersed the frog melanophores in i ...19989972321
effects of cyproterone acetate, cyproterone and testosterone on hcg induced spermatogenesis in the indian bullfrog rana tigerina (daud) during postbreeding regression phase. 19852939026
some events in cardiac cycle of the indian bullfrog rana tigerina (daud). 19817275222
effect of steroid hormones on the levels of serum calcium cholesterol & glucose in the indian bullfrog rana tigerina (daud) during pre-spawning period. 19807429593
inter- and intra-specific genetic divergence of asian tiger frogs (genus hoplobatrachus), with special reference to the population structure of h. tigerinus in bangladesh.the five frog species of the genus hoplobatrachus are widely distributed in asia and africa, with asia being considered the genus' origin. however, the evolutionary relationships of asian hoplobatrachus species remain ambiguous. additionally, genetic diversity and fundamental differentiation processes within species have not been studied. we conducted molecular phylogenetic analysis on asian hoplobatrachus frogs and population genetic analysis on h. tigerinus in bangladesh using the mitochondria ...201727452042
cloning, characterization, and biological function analysis of the sidt2 gene from siniperca chuatsi.the systemic rna interference defective protein (sid)-1 plays an important role in dsrna uptake in cells. we identified the scsidt2 gene from the mandarin fish (siniperca chuatsi), which is the first-studied sid-1 homolog in fish. scsidt2 mrna is 3380 bp long and contains a 2568-bp open reading frame that encodes an 855-amino-acid protein with an n-terminal signal peptide and ten putative transmembrane domains. tissue distribution profile in healthy fish and expression profiles of scsidt2 in inf ...201121334374
tiger frog virus (an iridovirus) entry into hepg2 cells via a ph-dependent, atypical caveola-mediated endocytosis pathway.tiger frog virus (tfv), in the genus ranavirus of the family iridoviridae, causes high mortality of cultured tiger frog tadpoles in china. to explore the cellular entry mechanism of tfv, hepg2 cells were treated with drugs that inhibit the main endocytic pathways. we observed that tfv entry was inhibited by nh(4)cl, chloroquine, and bafilomycin, which all can elevate the ph of acidic organelles. in contrast, tfv entry was not influenced by chlorpromazine or overexpression of a dominant-negative ...201121543502
mediation of cholino-piperine like receptors by extracts of piper nigrum induces melanin dispersion in rana tigerina tadpole melanophores.the present study was carried out to determine the effects of lyophilized dried fruit extracts of piper nigrum and pure piperine on the tadpole melanophores of frog rana tigerina which offer excellent in vitro opportunities for studying the effects of pharmacological and pharmaceutical agents. the nature of specific cellular receptors present on the neuro-melanophore junction and their involvement in pigmentary responses has been explored.201121663558
do cryptic species exist in hoplobatrachus rugulosus? an examination using four nuclear genes, the cyt b gene and the complete mt genome.he chinese tiger frog hoplobatrachus rugulosus is widely distributed in southern china, malaysia, myanmar, thailand, and vietnam. it is listed in appendix ii of cites as the only class ii nationally-protected frog in china. the bred tiger frog known as the thailand tiger frog, is also identified as h. rugulosus. our analysis of the cyt b gene showed high genetic divergence (13.8%) between wild and bred samples of tiger frog. unexpected genetic divergence of the complete mt genome (14.0%) was als ...201525875761
acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to chinese tiger frog (hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.we studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to chinese tiger frog (hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. for acute toxicity, the lc50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/l; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/l; 1.74, ...201425017745
effects of hydroperiod duration on developmental plasticity in tiger frog (hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.while developmental plasticity can facilitate evolutionary diversification of organisms, the effects of water levels as an environmental pressure on tiger frogs remains unclear. this study clarifies the relationship by studying the responses of tiger frog (hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., constant low water levels, constant high water levels, increasing water levels, decreasing water levels, rapid changes in water levels and gradual fluctuations in water levels ...201424668655
[prey selection by tiger frog larvae (hoplobatrachus chinensis) of two sympatric anuran species' tadpoles].we examined the prey selection and behavioral responses of tiger frog hoplobatrachus chinensis larvae exposed to unpalatable and palatable sympatric prey tadpoles, bufo melanostictus and pelophylax nigromaculatus. we found that after a short exposure to the toxic toad tadpoles b. melanostictus, predators may learn to decrease going after unpalatable prey, subsequently it seems they may express short-term behavioral memory in order to avoid the toxic prey. in general, h. chinensis showed no prefe ...201323775997
prevalence of spirometra mansoni in dogs, cats, and frogs and its medical relevance in guangzhou, china.sparganosis is an important parasitic disease in guangzhou and is mainly acquired through the consumption of frog meat or contact with fresh frogs infected by larval stages (spargana) of the tapeworm species spirometra mansoni.201627777093
budding of tiger frog virus (an iridovirus) from hepg2 cells via three ways recruits the escrt pathway.the cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (escrt) pathway is a multifunctional pathway involved in cell physiological activities. while the majority of rna viruses bearing l-domains are known to hijack the escrt pathway to complete the budding process, the budding of large and complex enveloped dna viruses, especially iridoviruses, has been rarely investigated. in the present study, we use the tiger frog virus (tfv) as a model to investigate whether iridoviruses are released ...201627225426
identification and differential expression analysis of micrornas encoded by tiger frog virus in cross-species infection in vitro.tiger frog virus (tfv), dsdna virus of the genus ranavirus and family iridoviridae, causes a high mortality of tiger frog tadpoles cultured in southern china. micrornas (mirnas) have been identified in many viruses especially dna viruses such as singapore grouper iridoviruses (sgiv). micrornas play important roles in regulating gene expression for virus subsistence in host. considering that tfv infects cells of different species under laboratory conditions, we aim to identify the specific and es ...201627129448
tiger frog virus orf080l protein interacts with litaf and impairs egf-induced egfr degradation.tiger frog virus (tfv) belongs to the genus ranavirus, family iridoviridae, and causes severe mortality in commercial cultures in china. tfv orf080l is a gene homolog of lipopolysaccharide-induced tnf-α factor (litaf), which is a regulator in endosome-to-lysosome trafficking through its function in the endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery. the characteristics and biological roles of tfv orf080l were identified. tfv orf080l was predicted to encode an 84-amino acid peptide (v ...201626956473
caveolae restrict tiger frog virus release in hepg2 cells and caveolae-associated proteins incorporated into virus particles.caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane. caveolae play important roles in the process of viruses entry into host cells, but the roles of caveolae at the late stage of virus infection were not completely understood. tiger frog virus (tfv) has been isolated from the diseased tadpoles of the frog, rana tigrina rugulosa, and causes high mortality of tiger frog tadpoles cultured in southern china. in the present study, the roles of caveolae at the late stage of tfv infection we ...201626887868
acoustic characteristics of the tiger frog, hoplobatrachus rugulosus, during the breeding season.we recorded and described the calls and acoustic characteristics of the male tiger frog, hoplobatrachus rugulosus, in an artificial pond during mating season. spectral and temporal call parameters, along with call intensity were analyzed. three harmonics were distinguishable from the spectrogram. four patterns of dominant frequency were found in calls produced late at night, i.e, 3 patterns in the first harmonic (located in 500 hz section, 700 hz section, and 800 hz section respectively) and 1 i ...201121842543
calcitonin-like immunoreactivity in the subcommissural organ and reissner's fiber in the teleost clarias batrachus, frog rana tigrina and lizard calotes the cns of vertebrates, although the subcommissural organ (sco) has been identified as an ependymal brain gland and reissner's fiber (rf) as a condensed product of its secretion, the exact nature of the secretory substances has remained elusive. in the present study, immunocytochemical application of polyclonal antibodies against calcitonin revealed intense immunoreactivity in the cells, cell processes and cerebrospinal spinal fluid (csf)-contacting apical terminals of the columnar ependymal ...19979098563
cardiac activity of calcitonin gene-related peptide in amphibian species (rana tigrina, triturus sp).1. calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) produced dose-related positive chronotropic and inotropic responses in isolated atria of a newt, triturus sp. and a frog, rana tigrina. it was apparent that cgrp was stimulatory on the heart of the amphibian species. 2. in the frog, these dose-related responses were attenuated in the presence of a cgrp antagonist (hcgrp 3 x 10(-8) m). this was indicative of the presence of cardiac cgrp receptors. 3. in the presence of beta-adrenergic (propranolol 10(-6) ...19921358546
frog intestinal perfusion to evaluate drug permeability: application to p-gp and cyp3a4 evaluate the reliability of using in situ frog intestinal perfusion technique for permeability assessment of carrier transported drugs which are also substrates for cyp enzymes. single pass intestinal perfusion (spip) studies were performed in frogs of the species rana tigrina using established method for rats with some modifications after inducing anesthesia. effective permeability coefficient (p eff) of losartan and midazolam was calculated in the presence and absence of inhibitors using th ...201526236236
comparative effects of mast cell degranulators on perfused systemic blood vessels of bufo melanostictus and rana tigrina.three agents known to induce release of mast cell constituents, viz. polymyxin, compound 48/80 and polysorbate-80, were evaluated for effect on perfused blood vessels of r. tigrina and b. melanostictus. the mast cell degranulators caused vasoconstriction in frog and toad, except that for p-80 whose responses in toad were equivocal. toads showed a general low responsiveness in comparison to frogs. pharmacologic intervention with pheniramine, metergoline, hydergine, atropine and mecamylamine, resp ...19921338198
histochemical study of normal & denervated gastrocnemius muscle of frog rana tigrina & toad bufo melanostictus. 1977892871
ubiquitous lens alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins accumulate in anuran cornea as corneal crystallins.corneal epithelium is known to have high levels of some metabolic enzymes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase in mammals, gelsolin in zebrafish, and alpha-enolase in several species. analogous to lens crystallins, these enzymes and proteins are referred to as corneal crystallins, although their precise function is not established in any species. although it is known that after lentectomy, the outer cornea undergoes transdifferentiation to regenerate a lens only in anuran amphibians, major proteins ex ...200717452334
studies on the life-cycle of ganeo tigrinus mehra & negi, 1928 (digenea).the life-history stages of ganeo tigrinus mehra & negi, 1928 infecting the indian bull frog hoplobatrachus tigerinus (daudin) are described, those from cercaria to egg-producing adult having been established in the laboratory. non-virgulate xiphidiocercariae are released by the planorbid snail indoplanorbis exustus (deshayes). metacercariae occur in the haemocoel of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frog h. tigerinus within 15 days. the pre-patent period is 45 days. growth and develop ...201222488428
5-ht receptors as novel targets for optimizing pigmentary responses in dorsal skin melanophores of frog, hoplobatrachus tigerinus.biochemical identification of 5-ht has revealed similar projection patterns across vertebrates. in cns, 5-ht regulates major physiological functions but its peripheral functions are still emerging. the pharmacology of 5-ht is mediated by a diverse range of receptors that trigger different responses. interestingly, 5-ht receptors have been detected in pigment cells indicating their role in skin pigmentation. hence, we investigated the role of this monoaminergic system in amphibian pigment cells, ...201221880033
on the action and mechanism of withaferin-a from withania somnifera, a novel and potent melanin dispersing agent in frog melanophores.the present work was carried out to determine the effects of lyophilized root extracts of withania somnifera along with pure withaferin-a, on the isolated skin melanophores of frog, rana tigerina which are disguised type of smooth muscle cells and offer excellent in vitro opportunities for studying the effects of pharmacological and pharmaceutical agents. the lyophilized extract of w. somnifera and its active ingredient withaferin-a induced powerful dose-dependent physiologically significant mel ...201121848494
absence of kin discrimination in cannibalistic anuran tadpoles of the frog hoplobatrachus tigerinus (daudin).kin discrimination was tested in the cannibalistic h. tigerinus tadpoles to know whether cannibalism is selectively directed towards non-kin members or it is indiscriminate. the association choice tests were conducted using satiated as well as starved subjects with the assumption that they will associate near non-sibs rather than near sibs with the intention of preferentially cannibalizing them. however, test tadpoles, fed or starved showed a random association choice with sibs and non-sibs, as ...201121615061
plasma membrane electron transport in frog blood an attempt to see if frog blood vessels possess a plasma membrane electron transport system, the postcaval vein and aorta isolated from rana tigrina were tested for their ability to reduce ferricyanide, methylene blue, and 2,6-dichloroindophenol. while the dyes remained unchanged, ferricyanide was reduced to ferrocyanide. this reduction was resistant to inhibition by cyanide and azide. heptane extraction or formalin fixation of the tissues markedly reduced the capability to reduce ferricyanid ...200920093738
effect of progesterone administration on the distribution of oviductal carbohydrates in rana tigrina.our aim has been to determine whether carbohydrate distribution in the oviducts of progesterone-treated animals is comparable with that of seasonal breeders in rana tigrina. like many other anurans, r. tigrina oviduct exhibits a short straight portion (pars recta, pr) at the beginning followed by a long, highly coiled portion (pars convoluta, pc). histologically, the oviduct of this species revealed some unique features, one of which was intense toluidine blue staining, specifically in the upper ...200919340461
inherent rhythmicity and interstitial cells of cajal in a frog vein.interstitial cells of cajal are responsible for rhythmic contractions of the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels.the existence of these cells and spontaneous rhythmicity were noticed in amphibian vein and the findings are reported in this paper.the postcaval vein was identified in the frog, rana tigrina and was perfused with amphibian ringer solution after isolation.contractile activity was recorded through a tension transducer connected to a polygraph.the isolated postca ...200819179763
the response of nucleus preopticus neurosecretory cells to ovarian pressure in the frog, rana tigrina.intraovarian pressure (iop) of 5, 15, and 25 mm hg was administered in the frog, rana tigrina, and the response of the nucleus preopticus (npo) pars magnocellularis was investigated with aldehyde fuchsin (af) stain and immunocytochemical method using neurophysin (np) antisera. the 5 mm hg iop treatment resulted in cell and cell nuclear hypertrophy (p less than 0.001); discrete signs of de novo synthesis of af-positive and np-immunoreactive material in the perikarya and remarkable increases in th ...19902289685
neurohypophysial hormones and cardiac activity in the frog, rana tigrina, and in the snake, ptyas mucosa.the cardiac effects of neurohypophysial hormones (nh) in the frog, rana tigrina, and in the snake, ptyas mucosa, were studied in isolated atrial preparations. arginine vasopressin (avp), vasotocin (avt), isotocin (isn), mesotocin (msn), and oxytocin (oxy) produced dose-related positive chronotropic and inotropic responses in the frog atria. avt was the most potent. in the snake, avp, avt, msn, and oxy produced dose-related positive inotropic but not chronotropic changes. oxy was the most potent. ...19902332147
inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the central nervous system of rana tigrina by an organophosphate. 19902402003
variation of ascorbic acid content in the different tissues of the frog rana tigrina as a function of season.ascorbic acid concentrations of the liver, thigh, and cardiac muscles, ventral and dorsal skin, as well as muscles of the frog rana tigrina were higher during summer and lower in winter. ascorbate concentration also showed another high peak in february. the cardiac ascorbate showed minimal seasonal fluctuations.19902273642
blood carbohydrates and phosalone poisoning in rana tigrina (daudin).in rana tigrina, blood levels of total carbohydrates, lactic acid and pyruvic acid were determined in relation to allometric growth in both sexes. the blood carbohydrates content increased in relation to growth and maturity of gonads. treatment by phosalone resulted in the accumulation of lactic acid in blood suggesting that this organophosphate compound inhibits the normal oxidative metabolism.19892480092
effect of beta-cyclodextrin compounds on the solubilization of three selected pesticides and their toxicity with methyl parathion to rana tigrina tadpoles. 200312719827
tyrosine and melanin contents in liver of tadpoles at various stages of development (bufo melanostictus and rana tigrina). 19684972845
pesticide impact on excretory physiology of the common frog, rana tigrina (daud) tadpoles. 200212068930
regulation of prolactin secretion by hypothalamus in some cold blooded vertebrates.effect of homoplastic hypothalamic extract (hhe) on the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland of three aquatic animals -- the fish, clarias batrachus, the amphibian, rana tigrina and the reptile, natrix piscator was studied. release of prolactin from the pituitary gland in the above animals was blocked within 4 hours by cg 603 (100 microgram/g body wt.) injection. administration of hhe and perphenazine (15 microgram/g body wt.) in such animals resulted in significantly increased level of ...19807439126
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