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antibiotic screening of medicinal plants of the british columbian native peoples.one hundred methanolic plant extracts, 96 of which had documented medicinal uses by british columbian native peoples, were screened for antibiotic activity against 11 bacterial strains. eighty-five percent were found to have significant antibiotic activity against at least two of the bacteria tested. ninety-five percent of the plants categorized as potential antibiotics based on their ethnobotanical usage were found to exhibit significant antibiotic activity. seventy-five were found to be active ...19921453710
antifungal screening of medicinal plants of british columbian native peoples.one hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antifungal activity against 9 fungal species. eighty-one were found to have some antifungal activity and 30 extracts showed activity against 4 or more of the fungi assayed. the extracts with the greatest fungal inhibition were prepared from alnus rubra catkins, artemisia ludoviciana aerial parts, artemisia tridentata aerial parts, geum macrophyllum roots, mahonia aquifolium roots and moneses uniflora aerial parts. in addition to these, extr ...19947898123
root cooperation in a clonal plant: connected strawberries segregate roots.the ability to selectively avoid competition with members of the same clone should be highly advantageous but has not been demonstrated in plants. we found that physical connection between plants in a clone of the wild strawberry fragaria chiloensis induced them to segregate their roots, significantly increasing clonal performance. such increase in performance was not found when plants were grown in containers that artificially divided their rooting zones. there was no effect of connection in a ...200312647182
multiplex rt-pcr detection of four aphid-borne strawberry viruses in fragaria spp. in combination with a plant mrna specific internal control.the principal aphid-borne viruses infecting strawberry (fragaria spp.) strawberry crinkle virus (scv), strawberry mild yellow edge virus (smyev), strawberry mottle virus (smov) and strawberry vein banding virus (svbv) can cause serious crop losses. in this paper, a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) method is described for the simultaneous detection of all four viruses in combination with a plant mrna specific internal control which can be used as an indicator of ...200312880923
high variability and disomic segregation of microsatellites in the octoploid fragaria virginiana mill. (rosaceae).the objectives of the present study were to develop microsatellite markers for the wild strawberry, fragaria virginiana, to evaluate segregation patterns of microsatellite alleles in this octoploid species, and assess genetic variability at microsatellite loci in a wild population. a genomic library was screened for microsatellite repeats and several pcr primers were designed and tested. we also tested the use of heterologous primers and found that f. virginiana primers amplified products in cul ...200312908097
new features in the genus ilarvirus revealed by the nucleotide sequence of fragaria chiloensis latent virus.fragaria chiloensis latent virus (fcllv), a member of the genus ilarvirus was first identified in the early 1990s. double-stranded rna was extracted from fcllv infected plants and cloned. the complete nucleotide sequence of the virus has been elucidated. rna 1 encodes a protein with methyltransferase and helicase enzymatic motifs while rna 2 encodes the viral rna dependent rna polymerase and an orf, that shares no homology with other ilarvirus genes. rna 3 codes for movement and coat proteins an ...200515878214
e-cinnamic acid derivatives and phenolics from chilean strawberry fruits, fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis.three e-cinnamic acid glycosides, tryptophan, and cyanidin-3-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside were isolated from ripe fruits of the chilean strawberry fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis. 1-o-e-cinnamoyl-beta-d-xylopyranoside, 1-o-e-cinnamoyl-beta-d-rhamnopyranoside, and 1-o-e-cinnamoyl-alpha-xylofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranose are reported for the first time. the cinnamic acid glycosides and aromatic compound patterns in f. chiloensis fruits were determined by high-performance liquid chromatogra ...200516248546
variation in and correlation between intrinsic rate of increase and carrying capacity.intrinsic population growth rate and density dependence are fundamental components of population dynamics. theory suggests that variation in and correlations between these parameters among patches within a population can influence overall population size, but data on the degree of variation and correlation are rare. replicate populations of a specialist aphid (chaetosiphon fragaefolii) were followed on 11 genotypes of host plant (fragaria chiloensis) in the greenhouse. population models fit to t ...200717206592
nucleotide sequence of the tripartite fragaria chiloensis cryptic virus and presence of the virus in the americas.the plant used in the characterization of fragaria chiloensis latent virus (fcllv) contained double-stranded rna (dsrna) bands that did not correspond in size to the genomic or subgenomic rnas of known strawberry viruses. using shotgun cloning, sequences of a cryptic virus, named fragaria chiloensis cryptic virus (fccv), were obtained. this communication presents the complete genome sequence of fccv. the genome of fccv consists of three monocistronic rnas, an unusual feature for cryptic viruses ...200818157739
complete nucleotide sequences and genome characterization of a novel double-stranded rna virus infecting rosa multiflora.the three double-stranded (ds) rnas were detected in rosa multiflora plants showing rose spring dwarf (rsd) symptoms. northern blot analysis revealed three dsrnas in preparations of both dsrna and total rna from r. multiflora plants. the complete sequences of the dsrnas (referred to as dsrna 1, dsrna 2 and dsrna 3) were determined based on a combination of shotgun cloning of dsrna cdnas and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). the largest dsrna (dsrna 1) was 1,762 bp long wi ...200818172568
genetic diversity of pto-like serine/threonine kinase disease resistance genes in cultivated and wild strawberries.degenerate oligonucleotide primers, designed based on conserved regions of several serine-threonine kinases (stk) previously cloned in tomato and arabidopsis, were used to isolate stk candidates in wild and cultivated strawberries. seven distinct classes of stks were identified from three related wild species, i.e., fragaria vesca, fragaria chiloensis, and potentilla tucumanensis, and seven different fragaria x ananassa cultivars. alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences and the pto r prote ...200818618068
refinement of hot water treatment for management of aphelenchoides fragariae in strawberry.the effects of hot water treatments on a california population of the foliar nematode, aphelenchoides fragariae, and on five strawberry cuttivars ('chandler', 'douglas', 'fern', 'pajaro', and 'selva') were assessed in laboratory and greenhouse tests. nematodes extracted from fern leaves were placed in water maintained at 44.4, 46.1,47.7, or 49.4 c for different time periods. exposure periods of 15, 5, 4, and 2 minutes were required to produce 100% mortality at 44.4, 46.1, 47.7, and 49.4 c, respe ...199319279842
morphological observations of pratylenchus penetrans from celery and strawberry in southern ontario.pratylenchus penetrans was obtained from premier strawberry in norfolk county and the niagara peninsula and from celery in the latter area. host affected the dimensions of p. penetrans to a greater extent than geographical area in ontario. adults of p. penetrans from southern ontario tended to be smaller than those reported elsewhere. the presence of three lip annules was consistent in the seven populations studied, although in some specimens one of the annules did not entirely encompass the hea ...199119283114
aroma development during ripening of fragaria chiloensis fruit and participation of an alcohol acyltransferase (fcaat1) gene.fragaria chiloensis is characterized for having great aroma and flavor properties. using headspace-spme different volatile compounds were identified and quantified during development and ripening of the fruit. the headspace was dominated by esters, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate and ethyl hexanoate being the most abundant in fully ripe fruit. as esters are important for aroma and synthesized through alcohol acyltransferases (aat), a full-length cdna (fcaat1) was isolated from f. c ...200919731914
berries from south america: a comprehensive review on chemistry, health potential, and commercialization.dietary intake of berry fruits has been demonstrated to positively impact human health. interest in exploring new and exotic types of berries has grown in recent years. this article provides botanical descriptions and reviews the chemistry, biological activities, and commercialization of berry-producing plants from south america, specifically aristotelia chilensis, euterpe oleracea, malpighia emarginata, ugni molinae, fragaria chiloensis, rubus glaucus, rubus adenotrichus, and vaccinium floribun ...201020170356
isolation of genes differentially expressed during development and ripening of fragaria chiloensis fruit by suppression subtractive hybridization.fragaria chiloensis, the native chilean strawberry, is noted for its good fruit quality characters. however, it is a highly perishable fruit due to its rapid softening. with the aim to screen for genes differentially expressed during development and ripening of strawberry fruit, the subtractive suppressive hybridization (ssh) methodology was employed. six libraries were generated contrasting transcripts from four different developmental stages. a set of 1807 genes was isolated and characterized. ...201020413181
comparison of transcriptional profiles of flavonoid genes and anthocyanin contents during fruit development of two botanical forms of fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis.difference in fruit pigmentation observed between two botanical forms of fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (form chiloensis and form patagonica) was studied through transcriptional and chemical approaches. the proportion of different anthocyanins was demonstrated to be characteristic of each botanical form, with pelargonidin 3-glucoside being the most abundant in f. patagonica fruit and cyaniding 3-glucoside as the major one in f. chiloensis fruit. partial gene sequences of the phenylpropanoid ...201020800857
comparative genetic mapping points to different sex chromosomes in sibling species of wild strawberry (fragaria).separate sexes have evolved repeatedly from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants, and thus select taxa can provide unparalleled insight into the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes that are thought to be shared by plants and animals alike. here we ask whether two octoploid sibling species of wild strawberry--one almost exclusively dioecious (males and females), fragaria chiloensis, and one subdioecious (males, females, and hermaphrodites), f. virginiana--share the same sex-determini ...201020923978
the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of fig cryptic virus, a novel bipartite dsrna virus infecting fig, widely distributed in the mediterranean basin.two double-stranded rna (dsrna) segments of a virus with a bipartite genome identified in fig (ficus carica l.) and denoted fig cryptic virus (fcv) were cloned and sequenced. viral dsrnas are 1696 bp (rna-1) and 1415 bp (rna-2) in size. rna-1 contains a single orf (1419 nt) potentially encoding a 54 kda protein and comprising the conserved amino acid motifs of the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) domain of species of the genus alphacryptovirus. its full-length amino acid sequence has the high ...201121318240
characterization of two divergent cdnas encoding xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (xth) expressed in fragaria chiloensis fruit.chilean strawberry (fragaria chiloensis), the maternal progenitor of fragaria+ùananassa, has emerged as a new berry fruit with excellent organoleptic characteristics. the fast softening of strawberries is a limiting step for their commercialization. fruit softening has been shown to be related to cell wall degradation. several enzymatic activities related to this process have been isolated in strawberry fruit, however xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (xth) enzymes have not been identifi ...201021802606
genetic structure of the aphid, chaetosiphon fragaefolii, and its role as a vector of the strawberry yellow edge virus to a native strawberry, fragaria chiloensis in chile.the monoecious anholocyclical aphid, chaetosiphon fragaefolii (cockerell) (homoptera: aphididae), was collected on a native strawberry, fragaria chiloensis (l.) duchesne (rosales: rosaceae) from different sites in chile. the presence of this aphid was recorded during two consecutive years. f. chiloensis plants were collected from seven natural and cultivated growing areas in central and southern chile. aphids were genotyped by cross-species amplification of four microsatellite loci from other ap ...201223438175
epigenetic modifiers alter the secondary metabolite composition of a plant endophytic fungus, pestalotiopsis crassiuscula obtained from the leaves of fragaria chiloensis.the addition of the dna methyltransferase inhibitor 500 μm 5-azacytidine to the culture medium of a plant endophytic fungus, pestalotiopsis crassiuscula, obtained from the leaves of fragaria chiloensis, dramatically altered the profiles of its metabolites and resulted in the isolation of one new coumarin (1), along with six known compounds (2-7). hplc profiles revealed that only compounds 3, 4, and 7 belonged to the new induced secondary metabolites. the structures of all isolated compounds were ...201424498889
analysis of genomic dnas from nine rosaceae species using surface-enhanced raman scattering.surface-enhanced raman scattering (sers) of genomic dna was used to determine genetic relationships and species identification of nine plants from three subfamilies of rosaceae. genomic dna was extracted, and the sers spectra were obtained by using a nanosilver collosol at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. adenine and ribodesose were the active sites of genomic dnas in the silver surface-enhanced raman spectra. the strong peak at 714 cm(-1) was assigned to the stretching vibration of adenine, ...201526555541
fcldp1, a gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant (lea) domain protein, responds to brassinosteroids and abscisic acid during the development of fruits in fragaria chiloensis.white chilean strawberries (fragaria chiloensis) are non-climacteric fruits, with an exotic color and aroma. in order to discover genes involved in the development of these fruits, we identified a fragment of a gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant domain protein, fcldp1, that was expressed in early stages of fruit development, particularly in receptacles. hormones play key roles in regulating the development of non-climacteric fruits. we show that the brassinosteroid content of the white ...201627379111
homomorphic zw chromosomes in a wild strawberry show distinctive recombination heterogeneity but a small sex-determining region.recombination in ancient, heteromorphic sex chromosomes is typically suppressed at the sex-determining region (sdr) and proportionally elevated in the pseudoautosomal region (par). however, little is known about recombination dynamics of young, homomorphic plant sex chromosomes. we examine male and female function in crosses and unrelated samples of the dioecious octoploid strawberry fragaria chiloensis in order to map the small and recently evolved sdr controlling both traits and to examine rec ...201627102236
insight into octoploid strawberry (fragaria) subgenome composition revealed by gish analysis of pentaploid hybrids.as the product of interspecific hybridization between its two ancestral octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) species (fragaria chiloensis and f. virginiana), the cultivated strawberry (f. ×ananassa) is among the most genomically complex of crop plants, harboring subgenomic components derived from as many as four different diploid ancestors. to physically visualize the octoploids' subgenome composition(s), we launched molecular cytogenetic studies using genomic in situ hybridization (gish), comparative gish ...201626835888
effects of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate and chitosan on postharvest decay, quality and chemical attributes of fragaria chiloensis fruit.fragaria chiloensis fruit has a short postharvest life mainly due to its rapid softening. in order to improve its postharvest life, preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (meja) and chitosan were evaluated during postharvest storage at room temperature. the quality and chemical parameters, and protection against decay were evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage from fruits of two subsequent picks (termed as first harvest and second harvest). in general, fruits treated with meja and chit ...201626212995
evolutionary origins and dynamics of octoploid strawberry subgenomes revealed by dense targeted capture linkage maps.whole-genome duplications are radical evolutionary events that have driven speciation and adaptation in many taxa. higher-order polyploids have complex histories often including interspecific hybridization and dynamic genomic changes. this chromosomal reshuffling is poorly understood for most polyploid species, despite their evolutionary and agricultural importance, due to the challenge of distinguishing homologous sequences from each other. here, we use dense linkage maps generated with targete ...201425477420
chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and gas exchange changes assessed by spectroradiometry in fragaria chiloensis under salt stress.chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents provide a valuable indicator of the status of a plant's physiology, but to be more widely utilized it needs to be assessed easily and non-destructively. this is particularly evident in terms of assessing and exploiting germplasm for plant-breeding programs. we report, for the first time, experiments with fragaria chiloensis (l.) duch. and the estimation of the effects of response to salinity stress (0, 30, and 60 mmol nacl/l) in terms of these pigments conten ...201424618024
identification of volatile compounds associated with the aroma of white strawberries (fragaria chiloensis).fragaria chiloensis (l.) mill spp. chiloensis form chiloensis, is a strawberry that produces white fruits with unique aromas. this species, endemic to chile, is one of the progenitors of fragaria x ananassa duch. in order to identify the volatile compounds that might be responsible for aroma, these were extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms), gas chromatography-olfactometry (gc-o) and compared with sensory analyses.201424115051
methyl jasmonate treatment induces changes in fruit ripening by modifying the expression of several ripening genes in fragaria chiloensis fruit.to investigate the role of jasmonates (jas) in the ripening of fragaria chiloensis fruit, two concentrations of methyl jasmonate (meja, 10 and 100 μm) were evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 d using an in vitro ripening system. fruit quality parameters; the contents of anthocyanin, lignin and cell wall polymers; and the transcriptional profiles of several ripening-related genes were analyzed. meja accelerated fruit ripening by means of a transitory increase in the soluble solid content/titratable acidity r ...201323835361
bioclimatic, ecological, and phenotypic intermediacy and high genetic admixture in a natural hybrid of octoploid strawberries. 201323579477
increased accumulation of anthocyanins in fragaria chiloensis fruits by transient suppression of fcmyb1 gene.anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (pas), flavonoid-derived metabolites with different physiological roles, are produced by plants in a coordinated manner during fruit development by the action of transcription factors (tfs). these regulatory proteins have either an activating or repressing effect over structural genes from the biosynthetic pathway under their control. famyb1, a tf belonging to the r2r3-myb family and isolated from commercial strawberry fruit (fragaria×ananassa), was reported as ...201323522932
sex-determining chromosomes and sexual dimorphism: insights from genetic mapping of sex expression in a natural hybrid fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia.we studied the natural hybrid (fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia) between two sexually dimorphic octoploid strawberry species (fragaria virginiana and fragaria chiloensis) to gain insight into the dynamics of sex chromosomes and the genesis of sexual dimorphism. male sterility is dominant in both the parental species and thus will be inherited maternally, but the chromosome that houses the sex-determining region differs. thus, we asked whether (1) the cytotypic composition of hybrid populati ...201323169558
clonal integration in fragaria chiloensis differs between populations: ramets from grassland are selfish.in plants, only species with clonal growth are able to directly transfer resources between otherwise independent units of the same genetic individual. a simple conceptual model of plant performance as a function of internal resource supply and environmental resource availability suggests that resource sharing between ramets within clones is likely to be disadvantageous in uniform habitats and advantageous in patchy ones. it was therefore hypothesized that clones in populations from relatively un ...199928308055
reciprocal transport between ramets increases growth of fragaria chiloensis when light and nitrogen occur in separate patches but only if patches are rich.fragaria chiloensis is a stoloniferous perennial herb that grows on coastal sand dunes where scattered shrubs create small patches of lower photon flux density (pfd) but higher soil nitrogen availability. the potential effects of resource transport between ramets when pfd and soil nitrogen are negatively associated in space were tested by comparing the growth of pairs of ramets in which the vascular connection between ramets was either severed or left intact. one ramet in each pair was given hig ...199128313161
resource sharing among ramets in the clonal herb, fragaria chiloensis.the herbaceous perennial, fragaria chiloensis, reproduces vegetatively on coastal sand dunes in california by growth of stolons that bear rosettes. movement of water and photosynthates through stolons integrates water and carbon metabolism of rosettes both before and after they root. new, unrooted rosettes import sufficient water and nitrogen to maintain levels near those of established rosettes; yet support of an unrooted rosette did not decrease growth of a connected, rooted sibling given abun ...198628311662
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