safety evaluation of phosphodiesterase derived from leptographium procerum.5'-phosphodiesterase is produced by fermentation of the fungus leptographium procerum and is used to hydrolyse yeast rna to produce flavour enhancers. to establish the safety in use of this enzyme preparation a number of studies have been performed: analysis for the potential of the production strain to produce toxic secondary metabolites, 28-days oral toxicity study of the preparation in the rat, bacterial mutation assay and in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test in human lymphocytes. th ...200415110102
altered carbohydrates allocation by associated bacteria-fungi interactions in a bark beetle-microbe symbiosis.insect-microbe interaction is a key area of research in multiplayer symbiosis, yet little is known about the role of microbe-microbe interactions in insect-microbe symbioses. the red turpentine beetle (rtb) has destroyed millions of healthy pines in china and forms context-dependent relationships with associated fungi. the adult-associated fungus leptographium procerum have played key roles in rtb colonization. however, common fungal associates (l. procerum and ophiostoma minus) with rtb larvae ...201626839264
ima genome-f 3: draft genomes of amanita jacksonii, ceratocystis albifundus, fusarium circinatum, huntiella omanensis, leptographium procerum, rutstroemia sydowiana, and sclerotinia echinophila.the genomes of fungi provide an important resource to resolve issues pertaining to their taxonomy, biology, and evolution. the genomes of amanita jacksonii, ceratocystis albifundus, a fusarium circinatum variant, huntiella omanensis, leptographium procerum, sclerotinia echinophila, and rutstroemia sydowiana are presented in this genome announcement. these seven genomes are from a number of fungal pathogens and economically important species. the genome sizes range from 27 mb in the case of cerat ...201425734036
ophiostomatoid fungi including two new fungal species associated with pine root-feeding beetles in northern spain.many bark beetles live in a symbiosis with ophiostomatoid fungi but very little is known regarding these fungi in spain. in this study, we considered the fungi associated with nine bark beetle species and one weevil infesting two native tree species (pinus sylvestris and pinus nigra) and one non-native (pinus radiata) in cantabria (northern spain). this included examination of 239 bark beetles or their galleries. isolations yielded a total of 110 cultures that included 11 fungal species (five sp ...201425253585
putative origins of the fungus leptographium procerum.appropriate management of invasive fungi requires adequate understanding of their global diversities and movement histories. the fungus leptographium procerum is associated with root-colonizing forest insects in pine forests throughout the world, and may have contributed to the aggressive behaviour of the red turpentine beetle (dendroctonus valens) in the beetle's invasive range in china. we used microsatellites and mating type loci to investigate the global diversity of l. procerum and the sour ...201728007219
does cryptic microbiota mitigate pine resistance to an invasive beetle-fungus complex? implications for invasion potential.microbial symbionts are known to assist exotic pests in their colonization of new host plants. however, there has been little evidence linking symbiotic invasion success to mechanisms for mitigation of native plant resistance. the red turpentine beetle (rtb) was introduced with a fungus, leptographium procerum, to china from the united states and became a destructively invasive symbiotic complex in natural pinus tabuliformis forests. here, we report that three chinese-resident fungi, newly acqui ...201627621032
comparative behavior of root pathogens in stems and roots of southeastern pinus species.root diseases are expected to become a greater threat to trees in the future due to accidental pathogen introductions and predicted climate changes, thus there is a need for accurate and efficient pathogenicity tests. for many root pathogens, these tests have been conducted in stems instead of roots. it, however, remains unclear whether stem and root inoculations are comparable for most fungal species. in this study we compared the growth and damage caused by five root pathogens (grosmannia hunt ...201627020149
inducible pine rosin defense mediates interactions between an invasive insect-fungal complex and newly acquired sympatric fungal associates.mutualism between insects and fungi drives insect evolutionary diversification and niche expansion; for invasive insects, however, mechanisms by which they maintain mutualistic relationships with beneficial fungi have not been clearly explored. here, we report that an invasive herbivorous insect, the red turpentine beetle (rtb), with its co-invasive mutualistic fungus, leptographium procerum, has newly acquired a set of sympatric fungi during invasion, which could potentially outcompete the rtb ...201525939920
taxonomy and phylogeny of the leptographium procerum complex, including leptographium sinense sp. nov. and leptographium longiconidiophorum sp. nov.leptographium procerum (ophiostomatales, ascomycota) is a well-known fungal associate of pine root-infesting bark beetles and weevils, occurring in several countries of the world. the fungus is not a primary pathogen but has been associated with white pine root decline in the usa and with serious damage caused by the introduced red turpentine beetle (rtb) dendroctonus valens in china. several species closely related to l. procerum have been described during the past decade. the aim of this study ...201525510728
large shift in symbiont assemblage in the invasive red turpentine beetle.changes in symbiont assemblages can affect the success and impact of invasive species, and may provide knowledge regarding the invasion histories of their vectors. bark beetle symbioses are ideal systems to study changes in symbiont assemblages resulting from invasions. the red turpentine beetle (dendroctonus valens) is a bark beetle species that recently invaded china from its native range in north america. it is associated with ophiostomatalean fungi in both locations, although the fungi have ...201324205124
characterization of the mating-type genes in leptographium procerum and leptographium profanum.leptographium procerum and the closely related species leptographium profanum, are ascomycetes associated with root-infesting beetles on pines and hardwood trees, respectively. both species occur in north america where they are apparently native. l. procerum has also been found in europe, china new zealand, and south africa where it has most probably been introduced. as is true for many other leptographium species, sexual states have never been observed in l. procerum or l. profanum. the objecti ...201323809651
do novel genotypes drive the success of an invasive bark beetle-fungus complex? implications for potential reinvasion.novel genotypes often arise during biological invasions, but their role in invasion success has rarely been elucidated. here we examined the population genetics and behavior of the fungus, leptographium procerum, vectored by a highly invasive bark beetle, dendroctonus valens, to determine whether genetic changes in the fungus contributed to the invasive success of the beetle-fungal complex in china. the fungus was introduced by the beetle from the united states to china, where we identified seve ...201122164824
ecology of root-feeding beetles and their associated fungi on longleaf pine in georgia.root-feeding beetles, particularly of the curculionid subfamilies scolytinae and molytinae, are known to be effective vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi. infestation by these insects and subsequent infection by the ophiostomatoid fungi may play an important role in accelerating symptom progression in pine declines. to examine the relationship between beetles and fungi in longleaf pine stands, root-feeding curculionids were collected in pitfall traps baited with ethanol and turpentine for 62 wk, and ...201020388270
leptographium sinoprocerum sp. nov., an undescribed species associated with pinus tabuliformis-dendroctonus valens in northern china.during a study of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the invasive pest dendroctonus valens in the pinus tabuliformis ecosystem in northern china, a multigenic (its2-lsu, beta-tubulin and ef1-alpha) phylogenetic analysis and examination of morphological features revealed in addition to leptographium procerum the occurrence of an undescribed species. the new species, leptographium sinoprocerum, belongs to the l. procerum-l. profanum clade. both l. procerum and l. sinoprocerum are similar to each ...200818592901
complex interactions among host pines and fungi vectored by an invasive bark beetle.*recent studies have investigated the relationships between pairs or groups of exotic species to illustrate invasive mechanisms, but most have focused on interactions at a single trophic level. *here, we conducted pathogenicity tests, analyses of host volatiles and fungal growth tests to elucidate an intricate network of interactions between the host tree, the invasive red turpentine beetle and its fungal associates. *seedlings inoculated with two strains of leptographium procerum isolated from ...201020546136
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