neonatal mortality in puppies due to bacteremia by streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae.we report a case of bacteremia in puppies caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. identification was achieved by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. this is the first report of the recovery of s. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae from dogs.200616455943
intramammary infections in heifers during early lactation following intramammary infusion of pirlimycin hydrochloride or penicillin-novobiocin at the first milking after parturition.a study was conducted to determine whether intramammary antibiotic treatment of heifer mammary glands following the first milking after calving was effective for reducing the percentage of mammary quarters infected during early lactation. jersey and holstein heifers from two research herds were assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) no intramammary infusion following the first milking after parturition, (2) intramammary infusion of all quarters with pirlimycin hydrochloride following the ...200717227598
cloning, expression, and characterization of the superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin g from streptococcus dysgalactiae.we identified seven novel variants of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin g (spegg), a superantigen, in streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or equisimilis isolates from clinical cases of infection in humans and animals. phylogenetic analysis of the spegg variants indicated two clades in the dendrogram: one composed of variants derived from the bacteria isolated from the humans and the other composed of variants from the bacteria isolated from the animals. bovine peripheral blood mononucl ...200717283088
streptococcal cellulitis following preparation of fresh raw seafood.we describe three zoonotic streptococcal soft tissue infections resulting from fresh seafood contact. one was a localized thumb infection with streptococcus iniae in an immunocompetent healthy young male resulting from a puncture wound from a crab pincer. the other two were cases of ascending upper limb cellulitis associated with bacteraemia in mastectomy patients. one of these infections was caused by s. iniae while the other was caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, a speci ...200919309483
diversity and mobility of integrative and conjugative elements in bovine isolates of streptococcus agalactiae, s. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, and s. uberis.bovine isolates of streptococcus agalactiae (n = 76), streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (n = 32), and streptococcus uberis (n = 101) were analyzed for the presence of different integrative and conjugative elements (ices) and their association with macrolide, lincosamide, and tetracycline resistance. the diversity of the isolates included in this study was demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing for s. agalactiae and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for s. dysgalactiae and s. uber ...201020952646
streptococcus spp. and related bacteria: their identification and their pathogenic potential for chronic mastitis - a molecular approach.streptococcus spp. and related bacteria form a large group of organisms which are associated with bovine intramammary infections (imi). some of them are the well-known mastitis pathogens streptococcus uberis and streptococcus agalactiae. in addition, there are a considerable number of these gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci (pnc) with unclear mastitic pathogenicity such as aerococcus viridans which make the conventional diagnostics of pnc difficult. one diagnostic, api 20 strep (api, biomér ...201020971488
comparative genomics and the role of lateral gene transfer in the evolution of bovine adapted streptococcus addition to causing severe invasive infections in humans, streptococcus agalactiae, or group b streptococcus (gbs), is also a major cause of bovine mastitis. here we provide the first genome sequence for s. agalactiae isolated from a cow diagnosed with clinical mastitis (strain fsl s3-026). comparison to eight s. agalactiae genomes obtained from human disease isolates revealed 183 genes specific to the bovine strain. subsequent polymerase chain reaction (pcr) screening for the presence/absenc ...201121536150
molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, streptococcus agalactiae and staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as streptococcus uberis, streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or staphyloc ...201121968538
genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, streptococcus canis.streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. it is also an emerging human pathogen.201223244770
analysis of a viridans group strain reveals a case of bacteremia due to lancefield group g alpha-hemolytic streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis in a patient with pyomyositis and reactive arthritis.streptococcus dysgalactiae is classified by a combination of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics into lancefield group c alpha-hemolytic streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and lancefield group c, group g, and group l beta-hemolytic streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. in this study, we report the isolation of a catalase-negative, alpha-hemolytic, optochin- and bacitracin-resistant viridans group strain, which does not grow in 10 or 40% bile, on macconkey agar or bile e ...200312574255
use of maldi-tof mass spectrometry for the fast identification of gram-positive fish pathogens.gram-positive cocci, such as streptococcus agalactiae, lactococcus garvieae, streptococcus iniae, and streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, are found throughout the world, particularly in outbreaks in farmed fish, and are thus associated with high economic losses, especially in the cultivation of nile tilapia. the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (maldi)-time of flight (tof) mass spectrometry (ms) as an alternative for the di ...201728848512
antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of streptococci from bovine mastitis.streptococcus agalactiae (group b streptococcus, gbs), streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (group c streptococcus, gcs) and streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. the aims of this study were the evaluation of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns, particularly important for streptococcal mastitis control and the identification of strain molecular features. antimic ...201322964008
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge): application in population structure studies of bovine mastitis-causing streptococci.pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) separates large dna molecules by the use of an alternating electrical field, such that greater size resolution can be obtained when compared to normal agarose gel electrophoresis. pfge is often employed to track pathogens and is a valuable typing scheme to detect and differentiate strains. particularly, the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (chef) pfge system is considered to be the gold standard for use in epidemiological studies of many bacteria ...201525399106
virulence gene pool detected in bovine group c streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae using a group a streptococcus pyogenes virulence microarray.a custom designed microarray containing 220 virulence genes of s. pyogenes (gas) was used to test group c streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (gcs) field strains causative of bovine mastitis and group c or group g streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (gcs/ggs) isolates from human infections - the latter used for comparative purposes - for the presence of virulence genes. all bovine and all human isolates carried a fraction of the 220 genes (23% and 39%, respectively). the vir ...201121525223
partial recn gene sequencing: a new tool for identification and phylogeny within the genus streptococcus.partial sequences of the recn gene (1249 bp), which encodes a recombination and repair protein, were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship and identification of streptococci. the partial sequences presented interspecies nucleotide similarity of 56.4-98.2 % and intersubspecies similarity of 89.8-98 %. the mean dna sequence similarity of recn gene sequences (66.6 %) was found to be lower than those of the 16s rrna gene (94.1 %), rpob (84.6 %), soda (74.8 %), groel (78.1 %) and gyrb ( ...201019880633
bacteriocin st91km, produced by streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus st91km, is a narrow-spectrum peptide active against bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy cattle.streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus st91km produces a bacteriocin (macedocin st91km) active against streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, streptococcus uberis, staphylococcus aureus, and staphylococcus epidermidis. macedocin st91km is, according to tricine-sds page, between 2.0 and 2.5 kda in size. antimicrobial activity remained unchanged after 2 h of incubation at ph 2.0-10.0 and after 100 min at 100 degrees c. the peptide was inactivated after 20 ...200818641698
streptococcus dysgalactiae cellulitis and toxic shock like syndrome in a brown swiss adult brown swiss cow was presented to the large animal hospital of the centre hospitalier universitaire vétérinaire de l'université de montréal due to a postpartum downer cow syndrome. the animal had severe and generalized swelling of all 4 limbs and was in shock, as demonstrated by hypotension, dehydration, hypothermia, altered mental status, and abnormal blood parameters. it died rapidly, and necropsy revealed a generalized, severe cellulitis caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dys ...200818182521
streptococcus ictaluri sp. nov., isolated from channel catfish ictalurus punctatus broodstock.a streptococcal-like organism was associated with diseased channel catfish ictalurus punctatus broodstock on four commercial aquaculture operations in the mississippi delta. conventional biochemical testing, 16s rrna gene sequence analysis and dna-dna hybridization distinguished the isolates from these fish from previously published streptococcus species. comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing studies revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically most similar to streptococcus iniae, streptococc ...200717625202
intracellular killing of mastitis pathogens by penethamate hydriodide following internalization into mammary epithelial cells.penethamate hydriodide was highly effective in killing streptococcus uberis, streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and staphylococcus aureus that internalized mammary epithelial cells. at higher concentrations (32 microg/ml to 32 mg/ml), killing rates ranged from 85% to 100%. at lower concentrations (0.032 microg/ml to 3.2 microg/ml), killing rates ranged from 0 to 80%. results of this proof-of-concept study demonstrated that: (1) penethamate hydriodide is capable of entering mammary ep ...200717348901
identification and molecular characterization of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from harbor seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) of the german north and baltic seas.bacteriological investigations of seals of the german north and baltic seas resulted in the isolation of bacteria of the genus streptococcus belonging to lancefield's serological groups c, f, and l. according to biochemical, serological, and 16s ribosomal dna analysis, the group c and group f streptococci were identified as streptococcus phocae. the group l streptococci could be classified as streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae.200414715808
production and properties of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances from the swine pathogen streptococcus suis serotype 2.streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a major pathogen found in the upper respiratory tract of swine. in this study, isolates of this bacterial species were tested for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (blis). of the 38 strains tested, four inhibited the growth of other s. suis isolates according to a deferred-antagonism plate assay. interestingly, three of the strains were originally isolated from healthy carrier pigs and were considered nonvirulent. three isolates (94-623, 90 ...200312902232
binding of bovine lactoferrin to streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae isolated from cows with mastitis.three strains of streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (ut516, ut519, atcc 27957) were used to determine if bovine lactoferrin (lf) binds to bacterial cells by biotin avidin binding assay (baba), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and binding inhibition assay. binding assays revealed that all strains of s. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (s. dysgalactiae) evaluated in this study bound to lf. however, differences in lf binding capability among strains and between methods used we ...200211934491
identification of lactoferrin-binding proteins in streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and streptococcus agalactiae isolated from cows with mastitis.three strains of streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (s. dysgalactiae) and five strains of streptococcus agalactiae were used to identify lactoferrin-binding proteins (lbps). lbps from extracted surface proteins were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. all strains of s. dysgalactiae evaluated had 52- and 74-kda protein bands. all strains of s. agalactiae evaluated had 52-, 70- and 110-kda protein bands. in addition, a 45-kda band was detected in two of ...200211886756
identification and molecular characterization of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena) of the north and baltic seas.the present study was designed to identify and comparatively investigate 35 beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from stranded harbor porpoises or from animals caught in fishing nets of the north and baltic seas. according to biochemical and serological data and to lectin agglutination tests with the lectin of arachis hypogaea, all 35 isolates could be classified in lancefield's serological group l and could be identified as streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. all 35 group l streptoc ...19989650933
partial sequencing of soda gene and its application to identification of streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae isolated from farmed investigate the difference between lancefield group c streptococcus dysgalactiae (gcsd) strains isolated from diseased fish and animals by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the soda gene.200817971096
infection of human keratinocytes by streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (sdsd) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. to unravel if bovine sdsd isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine sdsd strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy in ...201626655883
new tricks from an old cow: infective endocarditis caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae.we present a case of infective endocarditis caused by streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, a major cause of bovine mastitis and previously thought to be an animal-restricted pathogen. the patient reported no direct contact with animals, and the clinical course was severe and complicated.201525472489
correlation of virulence genes to clinical manifestations and outcome in patients with streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis bacteremia.streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (sdse) is increasingly recognized as a human pathogen responsible for invasive infection and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (stss). the pathogen possesses virulence genes that resemble those found in streptococcus pyogenes (gas). we analyzed the association between these specific toxic genes, clinical presentations, and outcome in patients with sdse infections.201424210866
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