chronic poisoning in a lamb grazing phalaris arundinacea. 19854061233
ad libitum intake and digestibility of selected reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) clones as measured by the fecal index method. 19676077173
a comparison of methods for the estimation of the proportion of microbial nitrogen in duodenal digesta, and of correction for microbial contamination in nylon bags incubated in the rumen of sheep.four sheep, each fitted with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum, were given two diets (1390 g dry matter (dm)/d) consisting of lucerne (medicago sativa) pellets (24.2 g nitrogen/kg dm) plus pelleted reed canary grass (phalaris arundinacea; 14.1 g n/kg dm) or chopped hay (11.8 g n/kg dm) at intervals of 2 h. flow of duodenal digesta measured by reference to the markers 51cr-edta and 103ru-phenanthroline indicated a net gain of 5.8-7.5 g non-ammonia-n (nan) between mouth and duodenum. the ...19846477868
alkaloids in ergot found on different gramineae in the netherlands.the alkaloid content and the composition of the alkaloid complex of thirteen samples of ergot sclerotia from different gramineous host species collected in the netherlands were investigated. two samples collected in france were also examined. ergot of glyceria fluitans (l.) did not contain alkaloids. the total alkaloid content of ergot found on the other wild grasses was more than 0.2%. the ratio between the contents of water soluble and water insoluble alkaloids of the investigated ergot ...19836646990
[concentration of heavy metals in brook trout in comparison to aquatic plants and sediments].from 1974 to 1977 the heavy metal content of river water, fishes (salmo trutta fario), three aquatic plants (cladophora glomerata, potamogeton pectinatus, zannichellia palustris), one river-bank plant (phalaris arundinacea), and sediments (clay fraction) taken from the river leine, up and downstream of göttingen, were determined. galvanic-bath sewage containing heavy metals caused an increase (11-60%) in the concentration of nine elements in the water. the average level of heavy metals in the ri ...19836685956
some hematological and histopathological effects of the alkaloids gramine and hordenine on meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus).meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) were used to evaluate the relative toxicity of the alkaloids, gramine and hordenine, which are present in reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea) and to assess their effects on the quality of this grass as a forage. one hundred and twenty meadow voles, 31 days of age, were fed gramine (0, 0.125, 0.25, or 0.5% of a nutritionally complete diet) or hordenine sulfate (0, 0.15, 0.31, or 0.62% of the diet) for 21 days. the effects of treatment on growth, mortalit ...19807020159
in vitro determination of oxidation of atmospheric tritium gas in vegetation and soil in ibaraki and gifu, quantify the rate of oxidation of tritium gas (referred to as ht) to tritiated water in the environment, various woody and herbaceous plant leaves and roots, mosses and lichens taken from a forest and fields in ibaraki prefecture, and a forest in toki, gifu prefecture, were investigated as to their ability to oxidize atmospheric ht in in vitro experiments. the ht oxidation activity in vegetation was compared with that in the surrounding surface soil (0-5 cm in depth). the rate of oxidation of ...199910641486
spatial and temporal association of as and fe species on aquatic plant roots.the formation of an fe(iii) precipitate (plaque) on the surface of aquatic plant roots may provide a means of attenuation and external exclusion of metals. presently, the mechanisms of metal(loid) sequestration at the root surface are unresolved. accordingly, we investigated the mechanisms of fe and as attenuation and association on the roots of two common aquatic plant species, phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) and typha latifolia (cattail) using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fl ...200212026982
bioremediation process for sediments contaminated by heavy metals: feasibility study on a pilot scale.the core stages of a sediment remediation process--the conditioning of dredged sludge by plants and the solid-bed leaching of heavy metals using microbially produced sulfuric acid--were tested on a pilot scale using a highly polluted river sediment. conditioning was performed in 50 m3 basins at sludge depths of 1.8 m. during one vegetation period the anoxic sludge turned into a soil-like oxic material and became very permeable to water. reed canary grass (phalaris arundinacea) was found to be be ...200415046363
a test of four plant species to reduce total nitrogen and total phosphorus from soil leachate in subsurface wetland microcosms.four wetland plant species (scirpus validus, carex lacustris, phalaris arundinacea, and typha latifolia) were grown in monoculture and as a four-species mixture to compare effectiveness of nutrient removal in controlled 18.93-l outdoor subsurface treatment wetland microcosms. a nutrient treatment that mimicked single-resident domestic effluent consisted of two levels of nitrogen (n) and phosphorus (p) [low (56 mg/l n and 31 mg/l p) and high (112 mg/l n and 62 mg/l p)] of nutrient solution applie ...200415158511
a biological oil adsorption filter.a new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (af) has been developed. it is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. by choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. the aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed ...200415556187
screening the wetland plant species alisma plantago-aquatica, carex rostrata and phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with eriophorum angustifolium and festuca rubra merlin.several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. in previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants typha latifolia, phragmites australis, glyceria fluitans and eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. this study screened three other species of wetland plants: alisma plantago-aquatica, carex rostrata and phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. the degree of tolerance ...200515589661
emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. in this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. the dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (phalaris arundinacea l.), and combusted in bot ...200515823746
phalaris arundinacea as a cause of deaths and incoordination in sheep. 196916030658
lack of effects of bacillus sphaericus (vectolex) on nontarget organisms in a mosquito-control program in southeastern wisconsin: a 3-year study.a 3-year study (2000-2002) in southeastern wisconsin was conducted to assess the effects of bacillus sphaericus applied for mosquito control on nontarget wetland invertebrates. the experimental design consisted of control and treatment sites (that were applied by helicopter with vectolex cg), each in 2 vegetation habitat types: reed canary grass marsh (phalaris arundinacea) and cattail marsh (typha spp.). in each of these areas, a predetermined number of timed (30-sec) d-frame aquatic net sample ...200516033123
root-associated n(2) fixation (acetylene reduction) by enterobacteriaceae and azospirillum strains in cold-climate spodosols.n(2) fixation by bacteria in associative symbiosis with washed roots of 13 poaceae and 8 other noncultivated plant species in finland was demonstrated by the acetylene reduction method. the roots most active in c(2)h(2) reduction were those of agrostis stolonifera, calamagrostis lanceolata, elytrigia repens, and phalaris arundinacea, which produced 538 to 1,510 nmol of c(2)h(4).g (dry weight). h when incubated at po(2) 0.04 with sucrose (ph 6.5), and 70 to 269 nmol of c(2)h(4). g (dry weight).h ...198116345687
regulation of lignin formation in reed canarygrass in relation to disease resistance.lignin content and enzymes involved in lignification were measured in leaf discs of reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) inoculated with helminthosporium avenae and floated on water or solutions of cycloheximide (25 mug/ml). fungal germ tubes did not penetrate localized lignified swellings, which formed beneath penetration sites, in the outer epidermal wall of discs floated on water. within 18 hours, inoculated discs on water had higher lignin content and higher activity of the enzymes phe ...197616659598
soluble and cell wall peroxidases in reed canarygrass in relation to disease resistance and localized lignin formation.the relationship of peroxidases to an inducible disease-resistance mechanism involving lignification of leaf epidermal cell walls was studied. reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) leaf discs were inoculated with helminthosporium avenae eidam and floated on water. in inoculated discs, the activity of soluble, ionic wall-bound and covalent wall-bound peroxidases was about twice the level of activity in noninoculated discs. the increase was attributable to increases in activity of three catho ...197616659599
root penetration of sealing layers made of fly ash and sewage ash and sewage sludge are suggested materials for constructing sealing layers covering mine tailings impoundments. little is known, however, of their effect on vegetation or resistance to root penetration. we investigate: (i) the ability of different plant species to grow in sealing layers comprising fly ash and sewage sludge, (ii) the impact on plant growth of freshly hardened fly ash compared to aged and leached ash, and (iii) the plant stress response to fly ashes of different properties. ...200616825445
growth and foliar nitrogen status of four plant species exposed to atmospheric ammonia.a chamber study was conducted to evaluate the growth response and leaf nitrogen (n) status of four plant species exposed to continuous ammonia (nh3) for 12 weeks (wk). this was intended to evaluate appropriate plant species that could be used to trap discharged nh3 from the exhaust fans in poultry feeding operations before moving off-site. two hundred and forty bare-root plants of four species (juniperus virginiana (red cedar), gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis (thornless honey locust), populus ...200616977722
metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at central elbe river floodplains (germany).floodplain soils at the elbe river are frequently polluted with metals and arsenic. high contents of these pollutants were detected down to subsoil layers. nh4no3-extractable (phytoavailable) cd, ni, and zn were elevated in horizons with high acidity. among five common floodplain plant species, artemisia vulgaris showed highest concentrations of cd, cu, and hg, alopecurus pratensis of as and phalaris arundinacea of ni, pb, and zn. relationships were weak between metal concentrations in plants an ...200716996182
voluntary intake and digestibility of reed canarygrass and timothy hay fed to horses.thousands of hectares of timothy (phleum pretense l.) grown in the mid-atlantic region are infected by cereal rust mite (abacarus hysterix) that causes discoloration and curling of leaves, decreased nutritional quality, and substantial decreases in yield. a decline in production of timothy hay can lower income for hay producers and cause horse owners to search for alternative hays. low alkaloid reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) hay has potential as an alternative to timothy hay because ...200617032805
pcdd/f in source-sorted waste fractions and emissions from their co-combustion with reed canary-grass.the dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste, including material that would otherwise be recycled, was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (phalaris arundinacea l.), and combusted as briquettes in 150 and 600 kw biofuel-boilers without advanced cleaning systems. the source-sorted waste was further sorted and characterized according to its material and chemical contents. the bulk of the waste's chlorine content came from the non-package plastic fraction, whereas 90-95% o ...200717085031
potential for phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-(pcb-)contaminated soil.weathered soils contaminated with commercial-grade aroclor 1260 from three sites in canada were used to investigate the polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) phytoextraction potential of nine plant species (festuca arundinacea, glycine max, medicago sativa, phalaris arundinacea, lolium multiflorum, carex normalis, and three varieties of cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) under controlled greenhouse conditions. the soils used varied in pcb concentration (90-4200 microg/g) and total organic content (0.06-2.02%). ...200617120525
influence of harvest time on fuel characteristics of five potential energy crops in northern china.five potential energy crops in northern china were examined for fuel characteristics over different harvest times to test whether or not a delayed harvest improves fuel quality in a semiarid area in china as is the case in northern europe and north america. the five crops include indigo bush (amorpha fruticosa), sand willow (salix cheilophila), switch grass (panicum virgatum), reed canary grass (phalaris arundinacea), and sainfoin (onobrychis viciifolia). these crops are considered as fuels for ...200817382539
utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.the mixture of kura clover (trifolium ambiguum m. bieb.) and reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern united states, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. twenty lactating holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (dm) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (krs) or alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) silage (as). forages were cut, wilted, ens ...200818650290
negative per capita effects of two invasive plants, lythrum salicaria and phalaris arundinacea, on the moth diversity of wetland communities.invasive plants have been shown to negatively affect the diversity of plant communities. however, little is known about the effect of invasive plants on the diversity at other trophic levels. in this study, we examine the per capita effects of two invasive plants, purple loosestrife (lythrum salicaria) and reed canary grass (phalaris arundinacea), on moth diversity in wetland communities at 20 sites in the pacific northwest, usa. prior studies document that increasing abundance of these two plan ...200918947450
correlation of edaphic factors with plant-parasitic nematode population densities in a forage field.two hundred soil samples from the a(p) horizon of a reed canarygrass field overlaying several different but related soils in northern minnesota were analyzed for plant-parasitic nematodes and 22 edaphic factors. pratylenchus penetrans was the predominant nematode taxon. others were aglenchus agricola, tylenchorhynchus spp., heterodera trifolii, paratylenchus spp., tylenchus maius, and criconemella sp. five nematode taxa, p. penetrans, a, agricola, tylenchorhynchus spp., h. trifolii, and paratyle ...199319279821
investigations of the host range of the corn cyst nematode, heterodera zeae, from maryland.the host range of the corn cyst nematode, heterodera zeae, recently detected in maryland, was investigated. a total of 269 plant entries, representing 68 families, 172 genera, and 204 species, was inoculated with cysts or a mixture of eggs and second-stage juveniles of h. zeae. the host range of the maryland population of h. zeae was limited to plants of the gramineae and included 11 tribes, 33 genera, 42 species, and 77 entries. all 22 corn (zea mays) cultivars tested were hosts. other economic ...198719290286
responses of plasma acetate metabolism to hop (humulus lupulus l.) in isotope dilution method using [1-(13)c]sodium (na) acetate was conducted to determine the effect of feeding hop (humulus lupulus l.) residues on plasma acetate metabolism in six adult crossbred sheep. the sheep were fed 63 g/kg bw(0.75)/d of either mixed hay (mh-diet) of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) and reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) at a 60:40 ratio or mh-diet and hop-residues (hop-diet) at 85:15 ratio with a crossover design for each of 3 week period. the isotope dilutio ...200919365576
removal of personal care compounds from sewage sludge in reed bed container (lysimeter) studies--effects of macrophytes.sludge reed beds have been used for dewatering (draining and evapotranspiration) and mineralisation of sludge in europe since 1988. although reed beds are considered as a low cost and low contamination method in reducing volume, breaking down organic matter and increasing the density of sludge, it is not yet clear whether this enhanced biological treatment is suitable for degradation of organic micro-pollutants such as personal care products. within this project the effect of biological sludge t ...200919682727
mine wastewater treatment using phalaris arundinacea plant material hydrolyzate as substrate for sulfate-reducing bioreactor.a low-cost substrate, phalaris arundinacea was acid hydrolyzed (reed canary grass hydrolyzate, rcgh) and used to support sulfate reduction. the experiments included batch bottle assays (35 degrees c) and a fluidized-bed bioreactor (fbr) experiment (35 degrees c) treating synthetic mine wastewater. dry plant material was also tested as substrate in batch bottle assays. the batch assays showed sulfate reduction with the studied substrates, producing 540 and 350mgl(-1) dissolved sulfide with rcgh a ...201020137922
optimizing on-farm pretreatment of perennial grasses for fuel ethanol production.switchgrass (panicum virgatum l.) and reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) were pretreated under ambient temperature and pressure with sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide in separate experiments. chemical loadings from 0 to 100g (kg dm)(-1) and durations of anaerobic storage from 0 to 180days were investigated by way of a central composite design at two moisture contents (40% or 60% w.b.). pretreated and untreated samples were fermented to ethanol by saccharomyces cerevisiae d5a in the pre ...201020202834
comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff.treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. the research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in sweden (2005 to 2007). contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with alnus glutinosa (l.) gärtner (common alder), salix schwerinii x viminalis (willow ...201020669729
phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) grass staggers in beef cattle.four adult mixed-breed beef cows from a cow-calf operation in west virginia were referred to the virginia-maryland regional college of veterinary medicine in march 2009 with weakness, ataxia, hind limb paresis progressing to lateral recumbency, and death within 2-3 days. histologically, there was accumulation of light brown, granular pigment in neurons of the ventral gray horns of the spinal cord (more severe in thoracic and lumbar sections), brain stem, and pons, resulting in distortion and bul ...201020807948
favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.river valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. to consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded ...201020945766
ammonia volatilization from surface-banded and broadcast application of liquid dairy manure on grass forage.manure can provide valuable nutrients, especially n, for grass forage, but high nh, volatilization losses from standard surface-broadcast application limits n availability and raises environmental concerns. eight field trials were conducted to evaluate the emission of nh, from liquid dairy manure, either surface broadcast or applied in narrow surface bands with a trailing-foot implement. manure was applied using both techniques at rates of approximately 25 and 50 m3 ha(-1) on either orchardgrass ...201121520744
greater seasonal carbon gain across a broad temperature range contributes to the invasive potential of phalaris arundinacea (poaceae; reed canary grass) over the native sedge carex stricta (cyperaceae).• premise of the study: most invasive plants grow faster and produce more biomass than the species that they displace, but physiological mechanisms leading to invasive success are poorly understood. to foster novel control approaches, our goal was to determine whether the grass phalaris arundinacea possessed superior physiological strategies that contributed to its success over native sedges. • methods: data for spring, summer, and autumn diel gas-exchange, leaf morphology, and nitrogen content ...201121613081
effect of ensiled hop (humulus lupulus l.) residues on plasma acetate turnover rate in isotope dilution method using [1-(13) c]sodium acetate was applied to determine the effect of feeding ensiled hop (humulus lupulus l.) residues on plasma acetate turnover rate in six adult crossbred sheep. the sheep were fed 63 g/kg body weight (bw)(0.75) /day of either mixed hay of orchardgrass (dactylis glomerata l.) and reed canarygrass (phalaris arundinacea l.) and round bale silage at 3:1 ratio (hay-diet), or another where round bale silage was replaced by ensiled hop residues (hop-diet) ...201121615839
Environmental factors associated with the distribution of floodwater mosquito eggs in irrigated fields in Wroclaw, Poland.A survey of distribution patterns of floodwater mosquito eggs related to environmental conditions such as moisture and plant associations was conducted by using soil samples from irrigated fields in Wroclaw, Poland. Mosquito egg distribution was determined by repeatedly flooding the soil samples with aerated water at a temperature of 25° C. Under laboratory conditions, hatching in installments of Aedes caspius (Pallas) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) were commonly observed. The results show that ~75% ...201122129404
cd, cu and zn mobility in contaminated sediments from an infiltration basin colonized by wild plants: the case of phalaris arundinacea and typha latifolia.infiltration basins are shallow reservoirs in which stormwater is temporarily collected in order to reduce water volume in downstream networks. the settling of stormwater particles leads to a contaminated sediment layer. wild plants can colonize these basins and can also play a role on the fate of heavy metals either directly by their uptake or indirectly by modification of physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment and therefore by modification of the mobility of heavy metals. the aim of ...201122053483
isolation of phyllosilicate-iron redox cycling microorganisms from an illite-smectite rich hydromorphic soil.the biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate-fe redox cycling was studied in a phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from shovelers sink, a small glacial depression near madison, wi. the clay size fraction of shovelers sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total fe. the dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite-smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, fe(iii) oxides are present in low a ...201222493596
coupled enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation: ionic liquid pretreatment for enhanced yields.pretreatment is a vital step upon biochemical conversion of lignocellulose materials into biofuels. an acid catalyzed thermochemical treatment is the most commonly employed method for this purpose. alternatively, ionic liquids (ils), a class of neoteric solvents, provide unique opportunities as solvents for the pretreatment of a wide range of lignocellulose materials. in the present study, four ionic liquid solvents (ils), two switchable ils (sils) dbu-mea-so2 and dbu-mea-co2, as well as two 'cl ...201526339292
indole-diterpenoid profiles of claviceps paspali and claviceps purpurea from high-resolution fourier transform orbitrap mass spectrometry.the biological activities most commonly associated with indole-diterpenoids are tremorgenicity in mammals and toxicity in insects through modulation of ion channels. the neurotoxic effects of some analogues are the cause of syndromes such as 'ryegrass staggers' and 'paspalum staggers' in cattle and sheep. our purpose was to obtain and interpret mass spectra of some pure claviceps-related indole-diterpenoids (paspaline, paspalinine, paxilline, paspalitrems a and b) to facilitate identification of ...201424895259
concentrations of heavy metals and plant nutrients in water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes of anthropogenic lakes (former open cut brown coal mines) differing in stage of acidification.concentration of heavy metals (al, ba, cd, co, cr, cu, fe, mn, ni, pb, sr, v and zn) as well as macronutrients (n, p, k, ca, mg, s) were measured in water, bottom sediments and plants from anthropogenic lakes in west poland. the collected plants were: phragmites australis, potamogeton natans, iris pseudoacorus, juncus effusus, drepanocladus aduncus, juncus bulbosus, phalaris arundinacea, carex remota and calamagrostis epigeios. two reference lakes were sampled for nymphaea alba, phragmites austr ...200111778963
water use efficiency and shoot biomass production under water limitation is negatively correlated to the discrimination against (13)c in the c3 grasses dactylis glomerata, festuca arundinacea and phalaris arundinacea.climate change impacts rainfall patterns which may lead to drought stress in rain-fed agricultural systems. crops with higher drought tolerance are required on marginal land with low precipitation or on soils with low water retention used for biomass production. it is essential to obtain plant breeding tools, which can identify genotypes with improved drought tolerance and water use efficiency (wue). in c3 plant species, the variation in discrimination against (13)c (δ(13)c) during photosynthesi ...201728152389
responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep-fed forage herb plantain and exposed to heat.the use of herbal plants as traditional medicines has a century long history. plantain (plantago lanceolata l.) is a perennial herb containing bioactive components with free radical scavenging activities. an isotope dilution technique using [u-13c]glucose was conducted to determine the effect of plantain on the responses of plasma glucose metabolism to exogenous insulin infusion in sheep. six crossbred sheep (three wethers and three ewes; mean initial bw=40±2 kg) were fed either a mixed hay of o ...201728091361
herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil.the selection of plant species is critical for the successful establishment and long-term maintenance of vegetation on reclaimed surface mined soils. a study was conducted to assess the capability of 16 forage grass and legume species in monocultures and mixes to establish and thrive on a reclaimed appalachian surface mine amended with biosolids. the 0.15-ha coarse-textured, rocky, non-acid forming mined site was prepared for planting by grading to a 2% slope and amending sandstone overburden ma ...201216151233
potential for using native plant species in stormwater wetlands.spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass) was grown under five hydroperiods (wet-dry cycles) to determine its potential for use in stormwater wetlands, particularly as an alternative to the highly invasive phalaris arundinacea (an exotic grass). rhizomes planted in outdoor microcosms grew vigorously in all treatments, namely, weekly flooding in early summer, weekly flooding in late summer, flooding every three weeks throughout the summer, weekly flooding throughout the summer, and no flooding. neit ...200211830768
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