experiments on direct and secondary poisoning by fluoroacetamide (1081) in wildlife and domestic carnivores.fluoroacetamide (1081 or f.a.a) is used in israel for field rodent control. experiments on direct and secondary, short and long term poisoning caused by 1081 were carried out. mongoose (herpestes ichneumon), hyena (hyaena hyaena), cats and dogs were susceptible. barn owls (tyto alba), buzzards (buteo buteo) and black kites (milvus m. migrans) were markedly resistant. barn owls tolerated total direct poisoning ranging from 6.8 to 10.9, and a final dose ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 mg/kg. in secondary ...1979480523
weather dependent behaviour of captive striped hyaenas (hyaena hyaena). 19751165125
basic haematological values in carnivores--i. the canidae, the hyaenidae and the ursidae.basic haematological values for 32 animals of four carnivore species are reported. in six adult wolves (canis lupus) the mean values estimated for the erythrocyte count 7.48 x 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.465/l, haemoglobin 172.0 g/l and leukocyte counts 7.33 x 10(9)/l are given. for five young wolves, these parameters were markedly decreased, only the white cell count was raised. in 14 hunting dogs (lycaon pictus) the mean values estimated are: erythrocyte count 9.15 x 10(12)/l haematocrit 0.435/l, ...19872882894
descriptive and functional morphology of the neck and forelimb of the striped hyena (hyaena hyaena, l. 1758).the musculature of the neck and the forelimb of hyaena hyaena is described and the biomechanical implications of some morphological aspects of muscles and skeleton are discussed. the extensors of the head and neck, the protractors and retractors of the forelimb and the extensors of the shoulder, elbow and carpal joints are relatively stronger developed than those in canidae and felidae. moreover these muscles have larger moments about the joints. this is considered as an adaptation to lifting an ...19863729006
the brown hyaena (hyaena brunnea), a new host for nymphal armillifer armillatus (pentastomida: porocephalidae). 19744814798
ontogeny of a social display in hyaena hyaena: anal protrusion. 19715104084
skeleton of hyaena (hyaena hyaenae). 19676068477
comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (felidae), dogs (canidae), bears (ursidae) and hyaenas (hyaenidae).the structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the felidae, canidae, ursidae and hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. the felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (panthera leo), a panther neonate (panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. the canidae were represented by ...19957649822
the palaeoecology of the micromammals from the late middle pleistocene site of hoedjiespunt 1 (cape province, south africa).the palaeontological site of hoedjiespunt 1 (hdp1) represents a fossilized hyaena lair. a rich mammalian fauna, including four hominid teeth, has been recovered from the site. micromammals were recovered from the same sediments as the larger fauna. taphonomic analysis suggests that the micromammal assemblages from hdp1 were accumulated by a barn owl. the barn owl produces micromammal assemblages that provide a broad sample of micromammals, within a certain size range, living in the hunting area ...200516045969
molecular systematics of the hyaenidae: relationships of a relictual lineage resolved by a molecular supermatrix.the four extant species of hyenas (hyaenidae; carnivora) form a morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous group of feliform carnivorans that are remnants of a formerly diverse group of mammalian predators. they include the aardwolf (proteles cristatus), a termite-feeding specialist, and three species with a craniodental morphology adapted to cracking the bones of prey and/or carcasses, the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta), brown hyena (parahyaena brunnea), and striped hyena (hyaena hyaena). ...200616503281
geographic variation in body size: the effects of ambient temperature and precipitation.latitudinal trends in body size have been explained as a response to temperature- or water-related factors, which are predictors of primary production. we used the first principal component calculated from three body parameters (weight, body length and the greatest length of the skull) of a sample of mammals from israel and sinai to determine those species that vary in size geographically, and whether such variation is related to annual rainfall, average minimum january temperature and average m ...200616525785
transient genital abnormalities in striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena).the highly masculinized genitalia of female spotted hyenas crocuta crocuta is unique among mammals: crocuta have no external vagina so urination, penile intromission and parturition take place through the clitoris, which mimics a fully erectile male penis. among hyenids, virilization of external female genitalia has previously been observed only in crocuta, so functional explanations of masculinization have focused on aspects of social ecology unique to the species. here we first show that the s ...200717442316
patterns of relatedness and parentage in an asocial, polyandrous striped hyena population.we investigated patterns of relatedness and reproduction in a population of striped hyenas in which individuals are behaviourally solitary but form polyandrous spatial groups consisting of one adult female and multiple adult males. group-mate males were often close relatives, but were unrelated or distantly related in some cases, indicating that male coalitions are not strictly a result of philopatry or dispersal with cohorts of relatives. most male-female pairs within spatial groups were unrela ...200717784926
echinococcus in the wild carnivores and stray dogs of northern tunisia: the results of a pilot survey.echinococcus granulosus is endemic throughout tunisia and e. multilocularis has previously been reported as the cause of two cases of human alveolar echinococcosis in the north-west of the country. the aim of the present study was to screen wild carnivores from the north-western jendouba governorate and semi-stray dogs from the siliana and sejnane regions of northern tunisia for these two zoonotic cestodes. the results of the coproscopy, coproelisa and copropcr that were undertaken were compared ...200919508750
monitoring the local distribution of striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena l.) in the eastern mediterranean region of turkey (hatay) by using gis and remote sensing technologies.striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena l.) are one of the large carnivores whose numbers have rapidly decreased in turkey. to monitor and assess the distribution of striped hyenas in mediterranean region of turkey, geographical information systems (gis) and remote sensing technologies were implemented. for this purpose, the gis database was generated and digital maps were produced in arcgis 9.2 program, considering some of the main factors including signs of striped hyenas, elevation, slope, land use typ ...201021181258
brain size and social complexity: a computed tomography study in hyaenidae.the social brain hypothesis posits that the demands of living in complex social groups require increased neural processing, and that this underlies the expansion of brain areas involved in mediation of complex social behavior. however, much of the support for the social brain hypothesis is derived from comparative studies in primates. if large brains evolved as a result of selection pressures imposed by life within complex societies, as the social brain hypothesis predicts, then gregarious nonpr ...201121335942
non-invasive monitoring of glucocorticoid metabolites in brown hyaena (hyaena brunnea) feces.the brown hyaena (hyaena brunnea) is the least known of the large predators of southern africa. the current iucn status of the brown hyaena is "near threatened", and there are conservation concerns related to a general lack of biological knowledge of the species. for instance, a better knowledge of the responses to environmental and social stressors would improve our abilities to sustainably manage brown hyaena populations in both captive and free-ranging environments. we conducted adrenocortico ...201021538501
phylogenetic comparisons implicate sex hormone-binding globulin in "masculinization" of the female spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta).exposures to sex steroids during fetal development are thought to contribute to the unique urogenital anatomy and social dominance of the female spotted hyena: overt phenotypes not shared by other hyenids (i.e. striped hyena, brown hyena, and aardwolf). because both androgens and estrogens influence development of genitalia and behavior, and because plasma shbg regulates their access to tissues, we compared the shbg gene sequences, structures, and steroid-binding properties in the four extant hy ...201222253421
schrodinger's scat: a critical review of the currently available tiger (panthera tigris) and leopard (panthera pardus) specific primers in india, and a novel leopard specific primer.non-invasive sampling has opened avenues for the genetic study of elusive species, which has contributed significantly to their conservation. where field based identity of non-invasive sample is ambiguous (e.g. carnivore scats), it is essential to establish identity of the species through molecular approaches. a cost effective procedure to ascertain species identity is to use species specific primers (ssp) for pcr amplification and subsequent resolution through agarose gel electrophoresis. howev ...201626860950
landscape suitability in botswana for the conservation of its six large african carnivores.wide-ranging large carnivores often range beyond the boundaries of protected areas into human-dominated areas. mapping out potentially suitable habitats on a country-wide scale and identifying areas with potentially high levels of threats to large carnivore survival is necessary to develop national conservation action plans. we used a novel approach to map and identify these areas in botswana for its large carnivore guild consisting of lion (panthera leo), leopard (panthera pardus), spotted hyae ...201424949735
coprolites as a source of information on the genome and diet of the cave hyena.we performed high-throughput sequencing of dna from fossilized faeces to evaluate this material as a source of information on the genome and diet of pleistocene carnivores. we analysed coprolites derived from the extinct cave hyena (crocuta crocuta spelaea), and sequenced 90 million dna fragments from two specimens. the dna reads enabled a reconstruction of the cave hyena mitochondrial genome with up to a 158-fold coverage. this genome, and those sequenced from extant spotted (crocuta crocuta) a ...201222456883
visceral pentastomiasis caused by armillifer armillatus in a captive striped hyena (hyaena hyaena) in chiang mai night safari, thailand.visceral pentastomiasis (porocephalosis) caused by armillifer armillatus larvae was incidentally diagnosed in a female striped hyena (hyaena hyaena) of unknown age which died unexpectedly in 2013. the hyena had been imported from tanzania 8years earlier and have been since then in a zoo in chiang mai, northern thailand. pathological examination revealed visceral nymph migrans of pentastomes throughout the intestine, liver, diaphragm, omentum and mesentery, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder. p ...201626460150
symbiotic bacteria appear to mediate hyena social odors.all animals harbor beneficial microbes. one way these microbes can benefit their animal hosts is by increasing the diversity and efficacy of communication signals available to the hosts. the fermentation hypothesis for mammalian chemical communication posits that bacteria in the scent glands of mammals generate odorous metabolites used by their hosts for communication and that variation in host chemical signals is a product of underlying variation in the bacterial communities inhabiting the scen ...201324218592
the population history of extant and extinct hyenas.we have analyzed partial dna sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from extant striped, brown, and spotted hyenas as well as from pleistocene cave hyenas. sequences of the pleistocene cave hyenas from eurasia and modern spotted hyenas from africa are intermixed in phylogenetic analyses, questioning any taxonomic delineation between the two groups. contrary to cave hyenas in eurasia, spotted hyenas in africa show a phylogeographic pattern with little geographical overlap between two mi ...200516120805
estimating relatedness and relationships using microsatellite loci with null alleles.relatedness is often estimated from microsatellite genotypes that include null alleles. when null alleles are present, observed genotypes represent one of several possible true genotypes. if null alleles are detected, but analyses do not adjust for their presence (ie, observed genotypes are treated as true genotypes), then estimates of relatedness and relationship can be incorrect. the number of loci available in many wildlife studies is limited, and loci with null alleles are commonly a large p ...200616868566
examining human-carnivore interactions using a socio-ecological framework: sympatric wild canids in india as a case study.many carnivores inhabit human-dominated landscapes outside protected reserves. spatially explicit assessments of carnivore distributions and livestock depredation patterns in human-use landscapes are crucial for minimizing negative interactions and fostering coexistence between people and predators. india harbours 23% of the world's carnivore species that share space with 1.3 billion people in approximately 2.3% of the global land area. we examined carnivore distributions and human-carnivore int ...201931218031
the diet of the striped hyena in nepal's lowland regions.striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena) are extremely rare in nepal, and only a few people have studied them in their natural forest and grassland habitat. their rarity is due to anthropogenic pressures such as hunting, habitat modification, being killed on roads, and depletion of their natural prey. here, we studied the feeding ecology of hyenas in lowland, nepal. we employed an opportunistic sampling to collect hyena scats in a range of habitats and the line transect sampling to identify the prey of th ...202032788952
evidence of high exposure to toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging and captive african carnivores.toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous intracellular protozoan parasite. mammals and birds are intermediate hosts and felid species are definitive hosts. in most human altered habitats the domestic cat is the predominant definitive host. current knowledge of t. gondii infection in african ecosystems is limited. this study aimed to assess exposure to t. gondii in wild carnivores in the serengeti ecosystem in east africa. carnivores can be infected by the consumption of tissue cysts when feeding on in ...201930740303
dogs have the most neurons, though not the largest brain: trade-off between body mass and number of neurons in the cerebral cortex of large carnivoran species.carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. on the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constrain ...201729311850
genome-wide analyses provide insights into the scavenging lifestyle of the striped hyena (hyaena hyaena).hyenas (family hyaenidae) occupy a variety of different niches, of which the striped hyena (hyaena hyaena) scavenges mainly on the carcasses of animals. we compared its genome with the genomes of nine other mammals, focusing on similarities and differences in chemoreception, detoxification, digestive, and immune systems. the results showed that the striped hyena's immune and digestive system-related gene families have significantly expanded, which was likely to be an adaptive response to its sca ...202032936023
social interactions in striped hyena inferred from camera trap data: is it more social than previously thought?understanding the drivers promoting sociality over solitariness in animal species is imperative for predicting future population trends and informing conservation and management. in this study we investigate the social structure of a desert dwelling population of striped hyena hyaena hyaena. this species is historically regarded as strictly solitary albeit being the least studied of the extant hyaenids. accumulating evidence regarding the frequency of social interactions suggests a revision of s ...202032617083
comparison of physiological responses of arabian striped hyaena (hyaena hyaena sultana) to effective immobilisations with ketamine-medetomidine and ketamine-xylazine in (semi-) captive conditions.chemical immobilisation is an integral component for the conservation of wild animals and can be stressful if proper protocols are not administered. references on the immobilisation of arabian striped hyaena (hyaena hyaena sultana) are scarce. the current study was designed to evaluate the physiological and clinical responses of arabian striped hyaena, immobilised with ketamine-medetomidine (km) and ketamine-xylazine (kx); and to compare immobilisation effectiveness of the two combinations in a ...201931388470
characterizing ecomorphological patterns in hyenids: a multivariate approach using postcanine dentition.we analyze the multivariate pattern of lower and upper cheek dentition for the family hyaenidae along its evolutionary history. a total of 11,698 individual measurements of lengths and widths for the main postcanine teeth were collected for 54 extinct and three extant species of this family and analyzed by means of principal component analyses. our results indicate that the functional aspects are better reflected by lower cheek dentition as a result of mosaic evolution. the multivariate structur ...201930648005
big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in india.protected areas are extremely important for the long term viability of biodiversity in a densely populated country like india where land is a scarce resource. however, protected areas cover only 5% of the land area in india and in the case of large carnivores that range widely, human use landscapes will function as important habitats required for gene flow to occur between protected areas. in this study, we used photographic capture recapture analysis to assess the density of large carnivores in ...201323483933
rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in northern kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?rabies virus (rv) and canine distemper virus (cdv) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and rv threatens human lives. we investigated serological patterns of exposure to cdv and rv in domestic dogs (canis familiaris), african wild dogs (lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena) and african lions (panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may ...201223459924
identification of a forensic case using microscopy and forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (fins): a case study of small indian civet (viverricula indica).the exhibits obtained in wildlife offence cases quite often present a challenging situation for the forensic expert. the selection of proper approach for analysis is vital for a successful analysis. a generalised forensic analysis approach should proceed from the use of non-destructive techniques (morphological and microscopic examination) to partially destructive and finally destructive techniques (dna analysis). the findings of non-destructive techniques may sometime be inconclusive but they d ...201020470742
zinc toxicosis in a captive striped hyena (hyaena hyaena).an 11-yr-old captive-born female striped hyena (hyaena hyaena) acutely developed lameness and swelling of the left front foot with anorexia, depression, and lethargy. hematologic evaluation revealed regenerative anemia, azotemia, and other mild serum electrolyte and mineral abnormalities. twenty radiographically visible coins and 10 coin fragments were removed by laparotomy and gastrotomy following unsuccessful medical therapy. the animal died during anesthetic recovery. zinc serum levels were 4 ...199910572870
pancreas morphology of the striped hyena (hyena hyena).the pancreas of a striped hyena (hyena hyena) was examined by the naked eyes and light microscopy. the distribution of a, b, d and pp cells in the islets of langerhans was investigated immunohistochemically. the pancreas, located in the mesoduodenum, consisted of three lobes. it was about 420 mm in total length, about 10-30 mm in width and about 10 mm in maximum thickness. the smallest lobe was caudally separated from two cranial lobes. this characteristic lobe was named as a caudal lobe. two pa ...19979300358
descriptive and functional myology of the back and hindlimb of the striped hyena (hyaena hyaena, l. 1758).the musculature of the back and hindlimb of hyaena hyaena is described and the functional implications of some morphological aspects of muscles and skeleton are discussed. the trunck is characterized by its robustness. the thoracic cage is wide and long, the lumbar spine is short and the sublumbar musculature is less developed than in canidae and felidae. the well-developed gluteal muscles, m. biceps femoris and mm. adductores are, in combination with the long os femoris, powerful stabilizers an ...19883223596
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