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[histopathological and ultrastructural studies of theolobania contejeani (microsporida, nosematidae) a parasite of the crayfish austropotamobius pallipes lereboullet]. 19734595619
the use of two species of crayfish as environmental quality sentinels: the relationship between heavy metal content, cell and tissue biomarkers and physico-chemical characteristics of the environment.in systems as heavily disturbed as rivers, the use of biological sentinels is a most interesting way of obtaining continuous assessment of environmental quality. this study seeks to establish the value of such sentinels of two species of crayfish: the native crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes, lereboullet 1858) and an introduced species, signal crayfish (pacifastacus leniusculus, dana 1852), by comparing the habitat quality (water and sediments) and heavy metal contents in crayfish with the deg ...200010803551
drastic bottlenecks in the endangered crayfish species austropotamobius pallipes in spain and implications for its colonization history.variation in mitochondrial dna (mtdna) was surveyed, using restriction endonucleases, in the white-clawed crayfish, austropotamobius pallipes lusitanicus, from 14 populations sampled in spain. four additional samples from france (1), slovenia (1) and italy (2) were also analysed. among the 11 haplotypes listed, only one was detected from the 154 animals sampled from spanish populations. this haplotype was also recorded in the fosso di ferfereta population (italy). estimates of nucleotide sequenc ...200111520343
population genetic structure of the endangered freshwater crayfish austropotamobius pallipes, assessed using rapd markers.random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis was performed to characterize the genetic diversity of austropotamobius pallipes, a threatened freshwater crayfish native to europe. four decamer primers which generated six unambiguous polymorphic bands were used to analyse crayfish from 21 populations sampled in the major part of its range. genetic diversity within populations of a. pallipes, estimated by shannon's diversity index, ranged from 0 to 0.446 with a mean of 0.159. a upgma dendrogram ...200111678990
immunological evidence for progesterone and estradiol receptors in the freshwater crayfish austropotamobius pallipes.in this article, we present evidence for progesterone and estradiol receptors (pr and er, respectively) in the female of the crayfish austropotamobius pallipes. to our knowledge, this is the first report of sex steroid receptors in crustaceans. by using immunohistochemistry and western blotting approaches and employing three different antibodies against pr (human pr, chicken pr-hinge region, and chicken pr a/b domain) and antibodies against human er, we showed the presence of pr in the ovary and ...200212211061
origin and colonization history of the white-clawed crayfish, austropotamobius pallipes, in ireland.the presence of the white-clawed crayfish austropotamobius pallipes complex in ireland is suspected to be a result of human translocations. two hypotheses have been formulated about the origin of the crayfish: from british populations or from western french populations. in order to resolve this question, nine irish crayfish populations (a total of 124 individuals) were sampled along a south-north cline and investigated by combining two molecular markers: mtdna and rapds. the mtdna marker, analys ...200312815455
chemical and biological effects of acid, aluminium and lime additions to a welsh hill-stream.chemical and biological responses to simultaneous additions of acid, aluminium and lime were investigated in contiguous 250m-reaches of a chronically acidic stream in wales. treatments were applied for 24 h, and from the upstream end were as follows: zone a-untreated, ph 5.0, 0.37 mg litre(-1) filterable al; zone b-acidified to ph 4.5, 0.40 mg al litre(-1) (47% of al attributed to release from the stream bed due to acid additions); zone c-acidified to ph 4.5 and al dosed to 0.67 mg litre(-1); zo ...198915092469
the role of water chemistry in the distribution of austropotamobius pallipes (crustacea decapoda astacidae) in piedmont (italy).over the last decades, the populations of austropotamobius pallipes have decreased markedly all over europe. if we evaluate the ecological factors that determine its presence, we will have information that could guide conservation decisions. this study aims to investigate the chemical-physical demands of a. pallipes in nw italy. to this end, we investigated 98 sites. we performed principal component analysis using chemical-physical parameters, collected in both presence and absence sites. we the ...201020176339
confirmation of crayfish plague in italy: detection of aphanomyces astaci in white clawed crayfish.in the summer of 2009, high levels of mortality among white clawed crayfish austropotamobius pallipes were observed in 3 watercourses of central italy. pcr and culture methods were used to detect the causative agent of the disease. two strains of aphanomyces spp. were isolated and identified by pcr and dna sequencing as aphanomyces astaci and a. repetans. this is the first crayfish plague outbreak in italy to be confirmed by the isolation in culture of a pathogen from austropotamobius pallipes.201020481093
mitochondrial dna structure of the iberian populations of the white-clawed crayfish, austropotamobius italicus italicus (faxon, 1914).this study describes the mitochondrial structure of the iberian population of the white-clawed crayfish austropotamobius italicus under a phylogeographyc context and considering the genetic variation of the entire taxon distributed in the southern part of europe. current sub-specific hypotheses were only partially supported, and a genetic structure related to climatic events is postulated as the main factor explaining its variation. due to a more extensive sampling and sequencing strategy, the t ...201020601016
performance comparison among multivariate and data mining approaches to model presence/absence of austropotamobius pallipes complex in piedmont (north western italy).freshwater inhabitants in piedmont (italy) have been deeply disadvantaged by environmental changes caused by human disturbance. hence there are engendered species that need human intervention of an entirely different kind - better management through the development of innovative practical tools. the most ecologically important of the river-dwelling invertebrates is a threatened species, the native white-clawed crayfish austropotamobius pallipes. this is the species that we focused on in our effo ...201121943518
influence d'une microsporidiose à thelohania contejeani sur le métabolisme des acides gras totaux, musculaires, hépatopancréatiques et hémolymphatiques chez l'écrevisse austropotamobius pallipes le reboulet, 1858.the fatty acids of muscular, hepatopancreatic, hemolymphatic of complete lipids of a. pallipes have a high degree of insaturation (40-50%). palmitic, eicosapentenoïc, arachidonic, stearic, oleic acids are more than 90% of the acids. into the parasited crayfishes, there is a decrease of the amount of the non-saturated acids and an increase of saturated acids rate.201123195089
ecotoxicological impact of zequanox®, a novel biocide, on selected non-target irish aquatic species.effective, species-specific zebra mussel control is needed urgently for ireland׳s freshwater bodies, which became infested with non-native zebra mussels in the 1990s. zequanox®, a newly commercialized product for zebra and quagga mussel control, is composed of dead pseudomonas fluorescens cl 145a cells. this paper describes ecotoxicology tests on three representative native irish freshwater species: anodonta (duck mussel), chironomus plumosus (non-biting midge), and austropotamobius pallipes (wh ...201424927392
predatory functional response and prey choice identify predation differences between native/invasive and parasitised/unparasitised crayfish.invasive predators may change the structure of invaded communities through predation and competition with native species. in europe, the invasive signal crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus is excluding the native white clawed crayfish austropotamobius pallipes.201222359673
horizontal transmission of thelohania contejeani in the endangered white-clawed (austropotamobius pallipes) and the invasive signal crayfish (pacifastacus leniusculus).the microsporidian parasite thelohania contejeani causes porcelain disease and has been implicated in mass mortalities in populations of the endangered european crayfish austropotamobius pallipes. however, the route of parasite transmission is not known. this paper investigates the horizontal transmission of t. contejeani between a. pallipes hosts as well as its transmissibility to the invasive signal crayfish (pacifastacus leniusculus). field collected juvenile a. pallipes and p. leniusculus we ...201222814084
histopathological survey of pathogens and commensals of white-clawed crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes) in england and wales.a histopathological survey of white-clawed crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes) from six rivers in england and wales was conducted between november 2007 and september 2011. a. pallipes bacilliform virus (apbv) was present in four samples; infected crayfish showed pathological responses ranging from mild hypertrophy of infected nuclei and emargination of chromatin through to loss of architecture of the hepatopancreatic cells. crayfish were found to be hosts to two different ciliate species, mites ...201222366663
aphanomyces astaci in wild crayfish populations in slovenia: first report of persistent infection in a stone crayfish austropotamobius torrentium population.all 5 crayfish species inhabiting slovenian freshwaters, of which 3 are indigenous crayfish species (ics: astacus astacus, austropotamobius pallipes, and a. torrentium) and 2 are non-indigenous (nics: pacifastacus leniusculus and cherax quadricarinatus), were inspected for the presence of aphanomyces astaci, the causative agent of crayfish plague. wild crayfish populations showing no clinical signs of infection were inspected using a. astaci-specific real-time pcr. in addition, a conventional pc ...201323548366
the prevalence of aphanomyces astaci in invasive signal crayfish from the uk and implications for native crayfish conservation.the crayfish plague agent, aphanomyces astaci, has spread throughout europe, causing a significant decline in native european crayfish. the introduction and dissemination of this pathogen is attributed to the spread of invasive north american crayfish, which can act as carriers for a. astaci. as native european crayfish often succumb to infection with a. astaci, determining the prevalence of this pathogen in non-native crayfish is vital to prioritize native crayfish populations for managed trans ...201728077183
insights into the molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the white-clawed crayfish (decapoda, astacidae).in this study, the evolutionary history of the white-clawed crayfish (wcc) was evaluated using large-scale datasets comprising >1350 specimens from the entire distribution range. using species delimitation methods on mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequences, we propose four primary species hypotheses for wcc. sequences for several nuclear regions were screened but none showed significant variation within wcc. this result favours a single secondary species hypothesis and indicates the existence of a m ...201627404041
blue‑colour variants of the crayfish austropotamobius pallipes in 2 rivers of the abruzzo region, italy.blue‑colour variants have been reported in american and australian freshwater crayfish species. we report here the observation of 2 austropotamobius pallipes individuals with a blue‑colour carapace in 2 rivers of the aterno‑pescara river basin, located in the abruzzo region, central italy.201526129668
the complete mitogenome of the endangered white-clawed freshwater crayfish austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet, 1858) (crustacea: decapoda: astacidae).the austropotamobius pallipes complete mitogenome has been recovered using next-gen sequencing. our sample of a. pallipes has a mitogenome of 15,679 base pairs (68.44% a + t content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer rnas, and a 877 bp non-coding at-rich region. this is the first mitogenome sequenced for a crayfish from the family astacidae and the 4(th) for northern hemisphere genera.201625738217
aflp-pcr and rapd-pcr evidences of the transmission of the pathogen aphanomyces astaci (oomycetes) to wild populations of european crayfish from the invasive crayfish species, procambarus clarkii.aphanomyces astaci (oomycetes) is responsible for the crayfish plague disease. this species is endemic of north america and five genotypes have been described using rapd-pcr. the red swamp crayfish, procambarus clarkii, is one of the most widely spread north american species and invasive in the world. however, no outbreaks on its specific genotype, i.e., genotype d, have ever been described in nature. we investigated three major series of crayfish plague outbreaks in indigenous crayfish populati ...201425088075
prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen aphanomyces astaci in populations of the signal crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus in france: evaluating the threat to native crayfish.aphanomyces astaci, the crayfish plague pathogen, first appeared in europe in the mid-19(th) century and is still responsible for mass mortalities of native european crayfish. the spread of this parasite across the continent is especially facilitated by invasive north american crayfish species that serve as its reservoir. in france, multiple cases of native crayfish mortalities have been suggested to be connected with the presence of the signal crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus, which is highly ...201323894606
self-limiting outbreak of crayfish plague in an austropotamobius pallipes population of a river basin in the abruzzi region (central italy).crayfish plague, caused by the oomycete aphanomyces astaci, is a serious disease of european freshwater crayfish and has eliminated entire populations in several european countries. in september 2011, mortality was observed among the austropotamobius pallipes population of a river basin in the abruzzi region (central italy), and a. astaci dna was detected by pcr in dead crayfish. a systematic survey was carried out to evaluate the spread and the effects of the plague in the river basin. the sour ...201323548365
fluoride bioaccumulation and toxic effects on the survival and behavior of the endangered white-clawed crayfish austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet).laboratory experiments were performed to examine the toxic effects of fluoride (f(-)) on the survival and behavior of white-clawed crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes). body fluoride contents (bioaccumulation) of test crayfish were also examined. no significant differences between male and female crayfish regarding mortality, escape (tail-flip) response, and fluoride bioaccumulation were detected. for mortality, 48-, 72-, 96-, 120-, 144-, 168-, and 192-h median lethal concentrations (lc50) were ...201323532451
susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of white spot disease (wsd) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.despite almost two decades since its discovery, white spot disease (wsd) caused by white spot syndrome virus (wssv) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, cray ...201222484233
branchiobdellidan infestation on endangered white-clawed crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes) in the uk.branchiobdellidans or crayfish worms are clitellate annelids and ectosymbionts of freshwater crayfish. an investigation of branchiobdellidan infestation was undertaken in a population of endangered white-clawed crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes) in the river aire, uk. thirty two percent of animals were infested either by the adult parasite or their cocoons (n=107). parasite burden increased with host size, but did not differ with sex. observations of crayfish gill tissue revealed a strong posi ...201222310336
fine-scale genetic structure, phylogeny and systematics of threatened crayfish species complex.systematic uncertainties in the crayfish austropotamobius pallipes are well grounded by the number of species and subspecies described using different approaches, causing scientists to define this taxon as "complex". however, a key task that conservation programmes are facing regarding the recent and drastic decline of european populations, is the coherent systematic classification of this threatened species. here we present results obtained by coupling mtdna and genome analysis suggestive of a ...201121524706
postmortem injuries inflicted by crawfish: morphological and histological aspects.a scavenging postmortem crawfish (austropotamobius pallipes) is presented. a 60-year-old woman was found dead immersed in 2m of water in an artificial lack near a dam. the divers, on discovering the body, observed numerous crawfish near the face, the abdomen and the hands of the cadaver that disappeared at their approach. her face showed extensive hemorrhagic lesions of the eyelids, lips and neck, initially attributed by the police investigators to a possible criminal assault. on autopsy, the fa ...201120813472
phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships in the crayfish genus austropotamobius inferred from mitochondrial coi gene sequences.the present study explores the utility of mitochondrial coi gene sequences to reveal phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships for the entire european freshwater crayfish genus austropotamobius. the two traditional taxa, austropotamobius pallipes and austropotamobius torrentium, were monophyletic, showing similar genetic diversity, with 28 and 25 haplotypes, respectively, and an uncorrected average pairwise divergence of 0.059 and 0.041. a third distinct haplotype clade, in sister relation ...200515579394
lactate sequestration in the carapace of the crayfish austropotamobius pallipes during exposure in air.when held in air for up to 24 h, crayfish accumulated ca(2+) and mg(2+) in their haemolymph in direct proportion to raised levels of lactate. k(+) levels were highly variable, with elevated levels associated with morbidity. lactate accumulation in the haemolymph was reflected in proportional increases in lactate levels in the carapace and muscle. pieces of carapace incubated in saline containing elevated levels of lactate accumulated lactate to up to half the dissolved concentration. measured le ...200111171417
characterization of microsatellite loci in the endangered freshwater crayfish austropotamobius pallipes (astacidae) and their potential use in other decapods. 200010792709
assessment of natural and artificial propagation of the white-clawed crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes species complex) in the alpine region with nuclear and mitochondrial markers.in a joint analysis of nuclear (allozyme) and mitochondrial markers (sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of the 12s and 16s genes), five genetically distinct groups of the austropotamobius pallipes lereboullet species complex were detected in the alpine region. the geographical distribution of these evolutionary lineages coincided largely with several taxa (a.p. pallipes, a. berndhauseri, a.(p.) italicus) formerly defined on the basis of morphological characters ...200010652073
extracellular and intracellular acid-base status in the freshwater crayfish, austropotamobius pallipes between 1 and 12(o)cfreshwater crayfish, austropotamobius pallipes, caught in the winter when water temperature was 5 °c, were acclimated in the laboratory to 5 °c for 1 week and to 1 and 12 °c for 1 month before haemolymph and tissue samples were taken for acid­base analysis. in vivo, haemolymph (extracellular) ph increased by 0.14 units between 5 and 1 °c but remained unchanged between 5 and 12 °c, giving an overall deltaphe/deltat value of -0.009 ph units °c-1 and an [h+] value of +3. ...19959318269
hemolymph phenol oxidases in drosophila melanogaster, locusta migratoria, and austropotamobius pallipes.the early enzyme-mediated reaction sequence in the biosynthesis of melanin from l-tyrosine involves an initial hydroxylation (monophenol oxidase activity, mpo) of the aromatic amino acid precursor to form l-dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), and the ensuing oxidation (diphenol oxidase activity, dpo) of the resultant diphenol to form dopaquinone. by means of high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (hplc-ed) both phenol oxidase activities were observed in the blood (hemo ...19911953749
toxicokinetic and metabolic study of dimethylnitrosamine and diethylnitrosamine in crayfish austropotamobius pallipes.the acute toxicities of dimethylnitrosamine and diethylnitrosamine have been evaluated in adult male crayfish austropotamobius pallipes; ld50 values are 2250 mg/kg and 230 mg/kg, respectively. toxicokinetic studies of 14c-dimethylnitrosamine and 14c-diethylnitrosamine in crayfish, administered by i.v. injection, show high concentrations of 14c in abdominal muscle and hepatopancreas. excretion is greater with dimethylnitrosamine, and retention in the tissues, especially the hepatopancreas, is gre ...19854090529
the ultrastructure and metal-containing inclusions of mature cell types in the hepatopancreas of a crayfish.the ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas of the crayfish austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet) is described in relation to its function in digestion. x-ray microprobe analyses of the cells of this tissue have been obtained after using a variety of fixatives and plasma oxygen etching. the distribution of metals in the digestive cells is considered in relation to the polarization of the cells and their ability to absorb materials across the apical and basal cell membranes.19846515645
metal-protein binding patterns in the hepatopancreas of the crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes) during short term cadmium stress.cd-binding patterns in the hepatopancreas of the crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes) have been analysed in response to the administration of a single dose of cd ions. four main components, with apparent molecular weights of 3-4, 12, 20 and greater than 70 k daltons, have been isolated from soluble cell fractions. the variation in molar metal/protein ratios of these components is discussed in terms of the uptake, transfer and detoxification of cd in the hepatopancreas. a model is proposed which ...19846149090
hemolymph iron in crustacea decapoda during the intermolt cycle.a study on the iron content in the hemolymph of austropotamobius pallipes and carcinus maenas has been made. the hemolymph iron content and the total iron binding capacity were investigated in males and females of both species. the values obtained for hemolymph iron content in the males were between 154 and 430 mug/100/ml and in the females between 134 and 431 mug/100/ml. the total iron binding capacity for the males was between 472 and 762 mug/100/ml and for the females between 390 and 698 mug/ ...19761005890
changes in muscle lipid composition and resistance adaptation to temperature in the freshwater crayfish, austropotamobius pallipes.the phospholipid and fatty acid composition of muscle lipid extracts from crayfish acclimated to 4 c and 25 c (18 hr-light photoperiod) were analyzed. the phospholipid content and class distribution, and cholesterol content were unaffected by the acclimation treatment. unsaturation of muscle phosphoglycerides was higher in cold acclimated crayfish. serine/inositol phosphoglycerides from cold-acclimated animals showed somewhat higher proportions of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas c ...19761263773
respiration in relation to ion uptake in the crayfish austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet).1. o2 uptake was determined for periods of 23-46 h in salt-depleted crayfish held in deionized water (dw) or na-free media at 10 degrees c. these media were replaced by artificial lakewater media (alw) containing 0-2-0-6 mm na and o2 uptake was again determined for periods of 24-66 h. 2. during net ion uptake in alw the metabolic rate was either elevated or depressed. standard metabolism in alw altered by amounts equivalent to 0-1 - 15-5% (mean 6-4 (15) +/- 4-4% s. d.) of the metabolic rate meas ...19751214124
an automatic respirometer for determining oxygen uptake in crayfish (austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet)) over periods of 3-4 days.1. an automatic respirometer has been developed for continuous measurements over 3-4 days on 1-15 g crayfish. the sensor is a modified mackereth oxygen electrode. respiration is recorded on a millivolt potentiometric pen recorder during closed periods when the o2 concentration in the medium falls to a predetermined level. a solenoid-operated valve is then opened via a relay circuit energized by a reed switch mounted on the recorder. medium flows through the respirometer until the o2 concentratio ...19751214123
the glair glands and oosetae of austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet). 19751112348
total body calcium and haemolymph calcium concentrations in the crayfish austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet). 19744416666
calcium balance at the postmoult stage of the freshwater crayfish austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet). 19744412276
[ionic gradients, bioelectric potential and role of branchial epithelium in austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet) in a calcium equilibrium state (intermoult)]. 19664225993
the electrical potential difference across the epithelium of isolated gills of the crayfish austropotamobius pallipes (lereboullet). 19655856538
resistance to the crayfish plague, aphanomyces astaci (oomycota) in the endangered freshwater crayfish species, austropotamobius pallipes.the pathogen aphanomyces astaci schikora 1906 is responsible for the decline of the native crayfish species of europe, and their current endangered status. this pathogenic species is native to north america and only colonizes aquatic decapods. the north american crayfish species have a high resistance to this pathogen, while species from other regions are highly susceptible. however, recent field and laboratory observations indicate that there might exist some populations with resistance against ...201728750039
ultrastructural and molecular characterization of vairimorpha austropotamobii sp. nov. (microsporidia: burenellidae) and thelohania contejeani (microsporidia: thelohaniidae), two parasites of the white-clawed crayfish, austropotamobius pallipes complex (decapoda: astacidae).the microsporidiosis of the endangered white-clawed crayfish austropotamobius pallipes complex has generally been attributed to only one species, thelohania contejeani, the agent of porcelain disease. species identification was mostly assessed by macroscopic examination or microscopic evaluation of muscle samples rather than by molecular or ultrastructural analyses. a survey conducted on a. pallipes complex populations in northern italy highlighted the presence of two different microsporidia cau ...201729122615
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