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toxigenic fungi in food.forty-five fungal isolates from moldy supermarket foods were tested for toxicity to brine shrimp, and twenty-two of these isolates were subsequently tested for toxicity to chicken embryos. highly toxigenic fungi were cladosporium sphaerospermum from a bakery product, fusarium oxysporum from carrots, f. solani from cabbage, aspergillus niger and penicillium corylophilum from bread, p. cyclopium and p. herguei from corn meal, p. lanosum from onions,p. steckii from chocolate syrup, penicillium sp. ...19751147614
growth of the fungus cladosporium sphaerospermum with toluene as the sole carbon and energy source.the fungus cladosporium sphaerospermum was isolated from a biofilter used for the removal of toluene from waste gases. this is the first report describing growth of a eukaryotic organism with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. the oxygen consumption rates, as well as the measured enzyme activities, of toluene-grown c. sphaerospermum indicate that toluene is degraded by an initial attack on the methyl group.19957486990
[inhibition of growth of microscopic fungi with organic acids].fungicidal effects of five selected organic acids (lactic, acetic, formic, oxalic, and propionic) in concentrations 3, 5, 10, 20 and 50 ml/l on nine selected species of moulds were tested. lactic and oxalic acids did not prove the satisfactory fungicidal activity in any of the chosen concentrations. the antifungal effect of the other three acids, manifested by the growth inhibition of the tested moulds is shown in tab. i and it can be expressed by sequence: propionic acid, formic acid, and aceti ...19938122343
antifungal amide from leaves of piper hispidum.bioactivity-guided fractionation of a ch2cl2 extract from leaves of piper hispidum (piperaceae) yielded a new pyrrolidine amide, n-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(z),4(z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine 1, in addition to two known amides n-[5-(3', 4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(e)-pentadienoyl] pyrrolidine and n-[2-(3', 4'-methylenedioxy-6'-methoxyphenyl)-2(z)-propenoyl]pyrrolidine. the structure of compound 1 was elucidated by interpretation of spectral data, including es-ms. compound 1 showed antifung ...19989599264
biological activities of 7-epiclusianone.7-epiclusianone, isolated from rheedia gardneriana, was tested in several biological assays. it was active in vitro against trypomastigotes of trypanosoma cruzi but inactive in vivo in experimentally infected mice. it was also active against artemia salina, but inactive against the fungus cladosporium sphaerospermum and the snail biomphalaria glabrata.199910075791
hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers cultivating tricholoma conglobatum (shimeji).we report five cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers cultivating tricholoma conglobatum (shimeji). after having worked for 5 to 20 years, they began to notice symptoms of cough, sputum, and dyspnea. they were diagnosed as having a hypersensitivity pneumonitis based on clinical features, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. by the double immunodiffusion test, precipitating lines between shimeji spore antigen and sera were observed in all of the patients. by enzyme- ...199910364747
effect of tyrosinase inhibitors on tuber borchii mycelium growth in vitro.this paper reports the effect of the tyrosinase (monophenol o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase; ec 1.14.18.1) inhibitors diethyldithiocarbamate (detc), l-tropolone, kojic acid, phenylthiourea (ptu) and l-mimosine on the in vitro growth of tuber borchii (a white truffle) mycelium. a significant inhibitory effect on mycelium growth was observed for detc, ptu and l-tropolone (0% growth compared to control at 100 microg ml(-1) detc, ptu and l-tropolone and at 10 microg ml(-1) detc and l-tropolone). as ...199910547446
biological screening of brazilian medicinal plants.in this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. the plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. plant extracts were screened for: (a) molluscicidal activity against biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (artemia salina l.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with cladosporium sphaerospermum a ...200010800195
evaluation of the mycological status of luncheon meat with special reference to aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxin residues.the luncheon meat samples analyzed, which were produced locally by the two main luncheon meat producing companies in egypt were relatively highly contaminated either by moulds and yeasts in general, aflatoxigenic species and aflatoxin residues in particular. the most frequently encountered fungi from the samples were yeasts, aspergillus niger, a. flavus, penicillium chrysogenum, rhizopus stolonifer, mucor circinelloides. less common were cladosporium sphaerospermum, alternaria alternata, mycosph ...199910823186
effect of spores of saprophytic fungi on phytoalexin accumulation in seeds of frog-eye leaf spot and stem canker-resistant and -susceptible soybean (glycine max l.) cultivars.two saprophytic fungi (mucor ramosissimus and rhizopus sp.) were tested for their ability to induce phytoalexin production by seeds of frog-eye leaf spot and stem canker-resistant and -susceptible soybean (glycine max l.) cultivars. only m. ramosissimus was shown to elicit a response and qualitative differences in phytoalexin accumulation were found between the susceptible and resistant cultivars. glyceollins i, ii, and iii and glycinol were isolated from the susceptible cultivar, whereas glyceo ...200010956166
antifungal amides from piper hispidum and piper tuberculatum.piper hispidum and piper tuberculatum accumulate amides bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. the isolation and characterization of several representatives including two hitherto unreported amides were performed by chromatographic techniques and by analysis of spectroscopic data. the antifungal activity of each amide was determined by direct bioautography against cladosporium sphaerospermum.200011130674
ergosterol biosynthesis in novel melanized fungi from hypersaline environments.halotolerant and halophilic melanized fungi were recently described in hypersaline waters. a close study of the sterol composition of such fungi, namely hortaea werneckii, alternaria alternata, cladosporium sphaerospermum, cladosporium sp., and aureobasidium pullulans revealed the dominance of ergosterol and the presence of 29 intermediates of its biosynthesis pathway. the presence or absence of intermediates from distinct synthesis routes gave insight into the operative synthetic pathways from ...200111254746
serum ige specific to indoor moulds, measured by basophil histamine release, is associated with building-related symptoms in damp buildings.to study the relationship between basophil histamine release (hrt) to indoor moulds, indicating specific ige, and building-related symptoms (brs), asthma, and hay fever in individuals working in damp and mouldy buildings.200111392611
polygodial, the fungitoxic component from the brazilian medicinal plant polygonum punctatum.polygonum punctatum (polygonaceae) is an herb known in some regions of brazil as "erva-de-bicho" and is used to treat intestinal disorders. the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of this plant showed strong activity in a bioautographic assay with the fungus cladosporium sphaerospermum. the bioassay-guided chemical fractionation of this extract afforded the sesquiterpene dialdehyde polygodial as the active constituent. the presence of this compound with antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and ...200111562711
[peculiarities of linear growth of the melanin-containing fungi cladosporium sphaerospermum penz. and alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler].results on determination of radial (linear) growth rate of melanin-containing fungi cladosporium sphaerospermum penz. and alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler concerning place of their isolation and ecologic peculiarities are presented in the paper. essential differences, as to all studied indices of the strains of c. sphaerospermum strains, isolated from premices of the chnpp 4th unit from the control strains of this species have been established. only strain 34 of c. sphaerospermum, isolated fr ...200111785260
biodegradation of anthracene and fluoranthene by fungi isolated from an experimental constructed wetland for wastewater treatment.pilot-scale constructed wetlands were used to treat water contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), particularly fluoranthene, and the possible role of fungi present in these ecosystems was investigated. a total of 40 fungal species (24 genera) were isolated and identified from samples (gravel and sediments) from a contaminated wetland and a control wetland. all of them were assayed for their ability to remove anthracene (ac) and fluoranthene (fa) from liquid medium. fa was degrad ...200111791842
shelf life extension of pre-baked buns by an active packaging ethanol emitter.the paper reports the influence of an ethanol emitter (ethicap) on the microbiological condition and the shelf life extension of a bakery product. pre-baked buns, with a water activity of 0.95, were packaged with different amounts of ethicap and stored at room temperature. yeasts and moulds remained largely absent from the core of the pre-baked bun (< 10(2) cfu g(-1)) during storage, independent of the presence of ethanol. the total mesophilic count was low at the beginning of the storage experi ...200211834079
antifungal amides from piper arboreum and piper tuberculatum.in continuation of our study of the piperaceae we have isolated several amides, mainly those bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts from leaves of piper arboreum yielded two new amides, n-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7(e),9(z)-pentadienoyl]-pyrrolidine (1), arboreumine (2) together with the known compounds n-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7(e)-pentaenoyl]-pyrrolidine (3) and n-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7(e ...200211853747
biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species.five fungal species, cladosporium resinae (atcc 34066), cladosporium sphaerospermum (atcc 200384), exophiala lecanii-corni (cbs 102400), mucor rouxii (atcc 44260), and phanerochaete chrysosporium (atcc 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (vocs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. compounds tested inc ...200211956756
indoor fungi and their ciliostatic metabolites.according to epidemiological studies, it is possible that some secondary metabolites of indoor airborne fungi could be responsible for health troubles which occupants suffer from. in our previous experiments, a model with tracheal rings of 1-day-old chicks in vitro was shown to be a very suitable method to study the ciliostatic chloroform-extractable endo- and/or exometabolites of filamentous fungi. in this study we isolated the filamentous fungi from walls of "mouldy" dwellings and schools (cul ...200212088399
[comparative analysis of radial linear growth velocity of micromycetes isolated from different ecotopes].the work aim was the discovering of peculiarities of microscopic fungi responding to radioactive pollution by growth velocity change. the linear growth velocity of a broad range of micromycetes was analyzed. they were chosen in such a way that every species, as far as possible, was presented by the strains isolated from radioactive polluted and clean regions. most of the studied species were characterized by the absence of reliable growth velocity differences of strains of the same species growi ...200212190032
microbiologic oxidation of isosafrole into piperonal.the biotransformation of isosafrole by cladosporium sphaerospermum yielded piperonal, which is a compound of great commercial importance in the flavor and fragrance industries. the experiments were performed in 500-ml conical flasks containing 100 ml of czapek-modified medium in an orbital shaker with controlled agitation and temperature. spores of c. sphaerospermum were used as inocula, and after 96 h of incubation the substrate was added to the culture. samples of 2 ml were withdrawn at 24-h i ...200312721444
intrabronchial lesion due to cladosporium sphaerospermum in a healthy, non-asthmatic woman.an intrabronchial lesion caused by to cladosporium sphaerospermum in a healthy and non-asthmatic 59-year-old woman is reported. intrabronchial infusion of amphotericin b was repeated three times followed by oral administration of prednisolone and itraconazole. the findings on chest radiographs subsequently improved. the possibility of intrabronchial lesions caused by c. sphaerosporum even in a healthy and non-asthmatic person is remarkable.200312950908
eleutherinone, a novel fungitoxic naphthoquinone from eleutherine bulbosa (iridaceae).the dichloromethane extract prepared from the underground parts of eleutherine bulbosa (miller) urban (iridaceae) showed strong activity in the direct bioautography assay with the phytopathogenic fungus cladosporium sphaerospermum. this assay was used to guide the fractionation of this extract and allowed the isolation of four compounds: the new naphthoquinone eleutherinone[8-methoxy-1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-naphtho(2,3-c)furan-4,9 -dione] and the known compounds, previously isolated from this speci ...200312973542
toluene monooxygenase from the fungus cladosporium sphaerospermum.assimilation of toluene by cladosporium sphaerospermum is initially catalyzed by toluene monooxygenase (tomo). tomo activity was induced by adding toluene to a glucose-pregrown culture of c. sphaerospermum. the corresponding microsomal enzyme needed nadph and o(2) to oxidize toluene and glycerol, edta, dtt, and pmsf for stabilization. tomo activity was maximal at 35 degrees c and ph 7.5 and was inhibited by carbon monoxide, metyrapone, and cytochrome c. tomo preferred as substrates also other ar ...200314637148
quantitative pcr analysis of house dust can reveal abnormal mold conditions.indoor mold concentrations were measured in the dust of moldy homes (mh) and reference homes (rh) by quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays for 82 species or related groups of species (assay groups). about 70% of the species and groups were never or only rarely detected. the ratios (mh geometric mean : rh geometric mean) for 6 commonly detected species (aspergillus ochraceus, a. penicillioides, a. unguis, a. versicolor, eurotium group, and cladosporium sphaerospermum) were >1 (group i). logistic regress ...200415237292
chromenes of polyketide origin from peperomia villipetiola.an extract of leaves and stems of peperomia villipetiola has been found to contain myristicin (3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-allylbenzene) and seven chromenes, whose structures are methyl 5-hydroxy-7-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2h-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1), methyl 5-methoxy-7-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2h-1-chromene-8-carboxylate (2), methyl 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2h-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (3), methyl 7-methoxy-5-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2h-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (4), 5-methanol-7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethy ...200515721950
benzopyrans from curvularia sp., an endophytic fungus associated with ocotea corymbosa (lauraceae).an isolate of curvularia sp. was obtained from the leaves of ocotea corymbosa, a native plant of the brazilian cerrado. the ethyl acetate extract from culture of this fungus afforded two benzopyran derivatives: (2's)-2-(propan-2'-ol)-5-hydroxy-benzopyran-4-one (2) and 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol (4); and two known benzopyrans: 2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (1) and (2r)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-5-methoxy-benzopyran-4-one (3). the structures of 2 and 4 were established on the basis ...200516038954
biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) by cladosporium sphaerospermum isolated from an aged pah contaminated soil.the ability of a deuteromycete fungus, cladosporium sphaerospermum, previously isolated from soil of an aged gas manufacturing plant, to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was investigated. this strain was able to degrade pahs in non-sterile soils (average 23%), including high molecular weight pahs, after 4 weeks of incubation. in a microcosm experiment, pah depletion was clearly correlated to fungal establishment. in liquid culture, this strain degraded rapidly benzo(a)pyrene during its e ...200416329856
[peculiarities of growth and development of strains hormoconis resinae (lindau) v. arx & de vries f. resinae and cladosporium sphaerospermum penz].the work deals with the effect of limitation of organic carbon (glucose) on the growth and morphology of two species of microscopic fungi hormoconis resinae and cladosporium sphaerospermum (11 strains), isolated from premises of the 4th unit of the chernobyl npp and isolation places which arc pure from radionuclides. the dissimilar reaction of each of the species to decreasing the amount of organic carbon in the culture medium has been established. ontogenesis reduction was observed for both spe ...200616786629
cadinane sesquiterpenoids of phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus associated with cassia spectabilis (leguminosae).five cadinane sesquiterpenes derivatives were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from phomopis cassiae, an endophytic fungus isolated from cassia spectabilis. the structures of the two diastereoisomeric 3,9,12-trihydroxycalamenenes (1, 2); 3,12-dihydroxycalamenene (3); 3,12-dihydroxycadalene (4) and 3,11,12-trihydroxycadalene (5) were established on the basis of analyses of 1d and 2d nmr and hrtofms experiments. antifungal activity of the isolates was evaluated against cladosporium sphaer ...200616857221
[moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. the contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. the methods of déak & beuchat and pitt & hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. the agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were debaryomyces hansenii, debaryomyces polymorphus, galactomyces geotrichum, metschnikowia pulcherrima, mucor circinelloides, ...200617037258
aromatic compounds produced by periconia atropurpurea, an endophytic fungus associated with xylopia aromatica.6,8-dimethoxy-3-(2'-oxo-propyl)-coumarin (1) and 2,4-dihydroxy-6-[(1'e,3'e)-penta-1',3'-dienyl]-benzaldehyde (2), in addition to the known compound periconicin b (3), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of periconia atropurpurea, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of xylopia aromatica, a native plant of the brazilian cerrado. their chemical structures were assigned based on analyses of ms, 1d and 2d-nmr spectroscopic experiments. biological analyses were performed using two m ...200617055010
ionizing radiation changes the electronic properties of melanin and enhances the growth of melanized fungi.melanin pigments are ubiquitous in nature. melanized microorganisms are often the dominating species in certain extreme environments, such as soils contaminated with radionuclides, suggesting that the presence of melanin is beneficial in their life cycle. we hypothesized that ionizing radiation could change the electronic properties of melanin and might enhance the growth of melanized microorganisms.200717520016
antifungal amides from piper scutifolium and piper hoffmanseggianum.chromatographic fractionation of a dichloromethane extract from the leaves of piper scutifolium yielded two new isobutyl amides, scutifoliamide a ( 1) and scutifoliamide b ( 2), together with the known compounds piperolactam c ( 3), piperovatine ( 4), piperlonguminine ( 5), corcovadine ( 6), isopiperlonguminine ( 7), and isocorcovadine ( 8). from the dichloromethane extract from the leaves of p. hoffmannseggianum two new isobutyl amides, hoffmannseggiamide a ( 9) and hoffmannseggiamide b ( 10), ...200718031016
subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by cladosporium sphaerospermum. 200818076601
activities of 2,4-dihydroxy-6-n-pentylbenzoic acid derivatives.esters of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-n-pentylbenzoic acid (2-8) (methyl, ethyl, butyl, pentyl, isopropyl, sec-butyl and benzyl), olivetol (9), methyl, ethyl, butyl perlatolates (10-12), 2,4-dihydroxy-6-n-pentylbenzoic acid (15), and methyl and ethyl esters of (15) were prepared through structural modifications of perlatolic acid (1) with the aim to detect new antifungal and antibacterial substances and also to evaluate the toxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay against artemia salina. the antif ...200818386484
phylogeny and ecology of the ubiquitous saprobe cladosporium sphaerospermum, with descriptions of seven new species from hypersaline environments.saprobic cladosporium isolates morphologically similar to c. sphaerospermum are phylogenetically analysed on the basis of dna sequences of the ribosomal rna gene cluster, including the internal transcribed spacer regions its1 and its2, the 5.8s rdna (its) and the small subunit (ssu) rdna as well as beta-tubulin and actin gene introns and exons. most of the c. sphaerospermum-like species show halotolerance as a recurrent feature. cladosporium sphaerospermum, which is characterised by almost globo ...200718490999
evaluation of quantitative pcr and culture methods for detection of house dust fungi and streptomycetes in relation to moisture damage of the house.microbial concentrations in vacuumed house dust samples (n = 71) were analysed by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) methods and their association with extent of moisture damage in the house was studied.200819241524
comparison of dry- and wet-based fine bead homogenizations to extract dna from fungal spores.the present study explored dna extraction kinetics from fungal spores, i.e., aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum and cladosporium sphaerospermum, by fine bead mill homogenization. in particular, the study aimed to investigate basic differences between the dry- and wet-based methods. the results showed higher initial rates of the dna extractions by the dry-based method than by the wet-based method, due to higher collision efficiency among fine beads and fungal spores. based on the experime ...200919332310
indoor fungal contamination of moisture-damaged and allergic patient housing analysed using real-time pcr.the aim of our study was to compare, using real-time (rt) pcr, quantitative levels of five fungal species in three kinds of dwellings.200919486284
treatment of vocs in biofilters inoculated with fungi and microbial consortium.an experimental study on the removal of xylene vapours from an air stream was conducted on three identical upflow laboratory-scale wood-chips-based bed biofilters. three different inoculums were used: fungi (phanerochaete chrysosporium and cladosporium sphaerospermum), a bacterial consortium (evb110), and a mixed culture of fungi and evb 110. the empty bed gas residence time was 59 s, and various inlet concentrations of the contaminant were tested. the results obtained revealed a strong correlat ...200919507439
fungal diversity in composting process of pig manure and mushroom cultural waste based on partial sequence of large subunit rrna.fungal diversity during composting was investigated by culture-independent rdna sequence analysis. composting was carried out with pig manure and mushroom cultural waste using a field-scale composter (hazaka system), and samples were collected at various stages. based on partial sequence analysis of large subunit (lsu) ribosomal rna (rrna) and sequence identity values, a total of 12 different fungal species were found at six sampling sites; geotrichum sp., debaryomyces hansenii, monographella ni ...200919734710
trypanocidal, leishmanicidal and antifungal potential from marine red alga bostrychia tenella j. agardh (rhodomelaceae, ceramiales).specimens of the red alga bostrychia tenella j. agardh (rhodomelaceae, ceramiales) were collected from the são paulo coast and submitted to room temperature solvent extraction. the resulting extract was fractionated by partitioning with organic solvent. the n-hexane (bt-h) and dichloromethane (bt-d) fractions showed antiprotozoal potential in biological tests with trypanosoma cruzi and leishmania amazonensis and presented high activity in an antifungal assay with the phytopathogenic fungi clados ...201020236785
isolation and taxonomy of filamentous fungi in endodontic infections.the purpose of this study was to research the presence of filamentous fungi in the root canals of teeth with pulp necrosis and periapical lesions and to perform the taxonomic study of the isolates.201020307734
antifungal activity of trichothecenes from fusarium sp. against clinical isolates of paracoccidioides brasiliensis.summary paracoccidioidomycosis (pcm), a human mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is a serious public health problem in several countries of latin america. in our search we found that the crude extract of the endophytic fungus ufmgcb 551 was able to inhibit several clinical strains of p. brasiliensis, and was also active in the bioautographic assay against cladosporium sphaerospermum. the endophytic fungus ufmgcb 551 was isolated from the plant piptadenia adiant ...201020337937
morphological plasticity in cladosporium sphaerospermum.a morphologically distinct isolate of cladosporium sphaerospermum from a north american patent collection, referenced as cladosporium lignicola in the patent, was examined. generic affinity was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic examination of conidiogenous loci and conidial hila. species identity as c. sphaerospermum was indicated by dna sequence data derived from actin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes, and the internal transcribed spacer region. the isolate broadens the ...200820396574
xanthones, biflavanones and triterpenes from pentadesma grandifolia (clusiaceae): structural determination and bioactivity.stem bark, roots, leaves and fruits of pentadesma grandifolia baker f. (clusiaceae) have been analyzed for the presence of xanthones, biflavonoids and triterpenoids. isolated and identified structures include the xanthones cowagarcinone b (1) and alpha-mangostin (2), further the two biflavanones 3,8"-binaringenin (3) and the corresponding 3,6"-binaringenin (4), which is here reported as natural constituent for the first time. structures were determined by nmr and mass spectrometry, as well as by ...201020734939
the presence of fungi on contact electrical stimulation electrodes and ultrasound transducers in physiotherapy clinics.to evaluate the presence of fungi on contact electrodes and ultrasound transducers from physiotherapy clinics.201122051582
role of oregano (origanum vulgare) essential oil as a surface fungus inhibitor on fermented sausages: evaluation of its effect on microbial and physicochemical characteristics.oregano essential oil (oeo) was evaluated to determine its effect on the growth of natural contaminating molds on the surface of spanish fermented sausage, the development of the internal microbial population of the sausage, and the physicochemical properties of the sausage. results indicated a dramatic reduction in the contaminant molds. at the end of ripening, the main endogenous fungal species in control samples were mucor racemosus (55%), aspergillus fumigatus (20.6%), cladosporium sphaeros ...201222221361
in vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of annona cornifolia a.st.-hil. (annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus paracoccidioides brasiliensis.fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. they are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties.201122231254
development of a dot-blot assay for the detection of mould-specific ige in the belgian population.data on mould sensitization in the general population are scarce and mostly on aspergillus fumigatus, alternaria alternata and cladosporium herbarum.201727878528
biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from red sea coast of saudi arabia.mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the red sea coast of saudi arabia. forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. the isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (its) rdna sequence analysis. the fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without ...201626981002
[the influence of b-irradiation on micromycetes isolated from the zone of radionuclide contamination].the resistance of the micromycetes to β-irradiation had been studied. the study was conducted on two species: cladosporium sphaerospermum penz. and alternaria alternata (fr.) keissl., each of them was represented by six strains. half of strains were isolated from the inner locations of the "shelter" object (so), which were characterized by different levels of radionuclide contamination. for c. sphaerospermum strains maximum resistance to β-radiation was observed among 20-day-old cultures. the gr ...201526638487
common airborne fungi induce species-specific effects on upper airway inflammatory and remodelling responses.whilst the exact cause of chronic rhinosinusitis (crs) remains elusive, it is clear that both inflammation and remodelling are key disease processes. environmental fungi have been linked to airway inflammation in crs; however, their role in the pathogenesis of this condition remains controversial. the current consensus suggests that whilst fungi may not be directly causative, it is likely that crs patients have deficits in their innate and potentially acquired immunity, which in turn may modify ...201626501134
vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.to date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (centaurea cyanus, c. nigra,papaver rhoeas,plantago lanceolata,rumex acetosa, and senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isola ...201424834319
analysis of the fungal flora in environmental dust samples by pcr-sscp method.conventional microbiological techniques yield only limited information on the composition of fungal communities in dust. the aim of this study was to establish and optimize pcr-single strand conformation polymorphism (pcr-sscp) analysis for investigation of fungal diversity in rural dust samples. three different dna extraction protocols were tested on 38 fungal cultures. a total of six known universal fungal primer pairs were tested targeting the 18s rrna gene, the 28s rrna gene and the its regi ...201323475138
fungal food choices of dermatophagoides farinae affect indoor fungi selection and dispersal.house dust mite (hdm) feces and molds are the main allergens involved in allergic asthma. differences exist between the housing fungal biome of allergic patients and standard or unhealthy housing. house dust mite (hdm) feed off spores and transport them on their bodies, but do they have fungal food preferences? we observed dermatophagoïdes farinae in vitro with 16 mold menus and repeated the experiment 10 times. this observation led us to define alternaria alternata, cladosporium sphaerospermum, ...201322774849
populations of some molds in water-damaged homes may differ if the home was constructed with gypsum drywall compared to plaster.starting in the 1940s, gypsum drywall began replacing plaster and lathe in the u.s. home construction industry. our goal was to evaluate whether some mold populations differ in water- damaged homes primarily constructed with gypsum drywall compared to plaster. the dust samples from the 2006 department of housing and urban development's (hud) american health homes survey (ahhs) were the subject of this analysis. the concentrations of the 36 environmental relative moldiness index (ermi) molds were ...201627104493
exploration of cultivable fungal communities in deep coal-bearing sediments from ∼1.3 to 2.5 km below the ocean floor.although subseafloor sediments are known to harbour a vast number of microbial cells, the distribution, diversity, and origins of fungal populations remain largely unexplored. in this study, we cultivated fungi from 34 of 47 deep coal-associated sediment samples collected at depths ranging from 1289 to 2457 m below the seafloor (mbsf) off the shimokita peninsula, japan (1118 m water depth). we obtained a total of 69 fungal isolates under strict contamination controls, representing 61 ascomycota ...201728028923
microbiological consequences of indoor composting.recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. air samples using the mas 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. collection of particle ...201626299932
microbiological evaluation of ten french archives and link to occupational symptoms.fungi that damage documents in archives may harm workers' health, depending on which mold species are inhaled, the concentrations of fungal species inhaled, and individual factors. our aim was to identify and quantify fungi in archives and to investigate possible links with the symptoms experienced by workers. ten french archives were sampled using an air impactor and electrostatic dust collectors. allergies and general symptoms felt by 144 workers were reported using a self-report questionnaire ...201222429323
application of antifungal cfb to increase the durability of cement mortar.antifungal cement mortar or microbiological calcium carbonate precipitation on cement surface has been investigated as functional concrete research. however, these research concepts have never been fused with each other. in this study, we introduced the antifungal calciteforming bacteria (cfb) bacillus aryabhattai knuc205, isolated from an urban tunnel (daegu, south korea). the major fungal deteriogens in urban tunnel, cladosporium sphaerospermum knuc253, was used as a sensitive fungal strain. b ...201222580322
cladosporium cladosporioides and cladosporium pseudocladosporioides as potential new fungal antagonists of puccinia horiana henn., the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust.puccinia horiana hennings, the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust, is a worldwide quarantine organism and one of the most important fungal pathogens of chrysanthemum × morifolium cultivars, which are used for cut flowers and as potted plants in commercial production regions of the world. it was previously reported to be controlled by lecanicillium lecanii, cladosporium sphaerospermum, c. uredinicola and aphanocladium album, due to their antagonistic and hyperparasitic effects. we report no ...201728141830
cladosporium lebrasiae, a new fungal species isolated from milk bread rolls in france.the fungal genus cladosporium (cladosporiaceae, dothideomycetes) is composed of a large number of species, which can roughly be divided into three main species complexes: cladosporium cladosporioides, cladosporium herbarum, and cladosporium sphaerospermum. the aim of this study was to characterize strains isolated from contaminated milk bread rolls by phenotypic and genotypic analyses. using multilocus data from the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal dna (rdna), partial translation elongation ...201627521633
xerotolerant cladosporium sphaerospermum are predominant on indoor surfaces compared to other cladosporium species.indoor fungi are a major cause of cosmetic and structural damage of buildings worldwide and prolonged exposure of these fungi poses a health risk. aspergillus, penicillium and cladosporium species are the most predominant fungi in indoor environments. cladosporium species predominate under ambient conditions. a total of 123 cladosporium isolates originating from indoor air and indoor surfaces of archives, industrial factories, laboratories, and other buildings from four continents were identifie ...201526690349
antifungal potential of avicennia schaueriana stapf & leech. (acanthaceae) against cladosporium and colletotrichum species.there is significant interest in research to develop plant extracts with fungicidal activities that are less harmful to the environment and human health than synthetic fungicides. this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the extracts of avicennia schaueriana against colletotrichum and cladosporium species and to identify the compounds responsible for the activity. leaves and stems of a. schaueriana were extracted with ethanol and partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform and et ...201525825048
microfungal contaminants on mobile phones of health services vocational school students in marmaris, turkey.in this study, it was aimed to determine microfungi on mobile phones. totally, 50 mobile phones were used belonging to health services vocational school students. the samples were taken by swabbing the screen and keys of mobile phones using moistened sterile swab sticks. a total of 24 different microfungal species were obtained belonging to alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, geotrichum, penicillium, phoma, rhinocladiella, scopulariopsis, trichoderma, and trichophyton genera. the genera of mi ...201424318841
insight into different environmental niches adaptation and allergenicity from the cladosporium sphaerospermum genome, a common human allergy-eliciting dothideomycetes.cladosporium sphaerospermum, a dematiaceous saprophytic fungus commonly found in diverse environments, has been reported to cause allergy and other occasional diseases in humans. however, its basic biology and genetic information are largely unexplored. a clinical isolate c. sphaerospermum genome, um 843, was re-sequenced and combined with previously generated sequences to form a model 26.89 mb genome containing 9,652 predicted genes. functional annotation on predicted genes suggests the ability ...201627243961
demadb: an integrated dematiaceous fungal genomes database.many species of dematiaceous fungi are associated with allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in human, especially in tropical climates. over the past 10 years, we have isolated more than 400 dematiaceous fungi from various clinical samples. in this study, demadb, an integrated database was designed to support the integration and analysis of dematiaceous fungal genomes. a total of 92 072 putative genes and 6527 pathways that identified in eight dematiaceous fungi (bipolaris papendorfi ...201626980516
augmentation of a microbial consortium for enhanced polylactide (pla) degradation.bioplastics are eco-friendly and derived from renewable biomass sources. innovation in recycling methods will tackle some of the critical issues facing the acceptance of bioplastics. polylactic acid (pla) is the commonly used and well-studied bioplastic that is presumed to be biodegradable. considering their demand and use in near future, exploration for microbes capable of bioplastic degradation has high potential. four pla degrading strains were isolated and identified as penicillium chrysogen ...201626843697
combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in hypersensitivity pneumonitis.combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is a distinct syndrome reported in patients who smoke. a 72-year-old, never-smoking female dairy farmer was referred for progressive dyspnoea on exertion, basal crackles on auscultation, normal spirometry and normal lung volumes but decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, centrilobular emphysema in the upper zones of the lungs and diffuse infiltrative lung disease in the lower zones on high-resolution ct scan. bronchoalveolar lavage ...201526689249
subcutaneous infection by cladosporium sphaerospermum-a rare case report. 201526275282
effects of temperature, humidity and air flow on fungal growth rate on loaded ventilation filters.this study compares the fungal growth ratio on loaded ventilation filters under various temperature, relative humidity (rh), and air flow conditions in a controlled laboratory setting. a new full-size commercial building ventilation filter was loaded with malt extract nutrients and conidia of cladosporium sphaerospermum in an ashrae standard 52.2 filter test facility. small sections cut from this filter were incubated under the following conditions: constant room temperature and a high rh of 97% ...201525849091
inactivation of mold spores from moist carpet using steam vapor: contact time and temperature.steam vapor has been shown to reduce viable mold spores in carpet, but the minimal effective temperature and contact time has not been established. this study evaluated the effectiveness of steam vapor in reducing the number of viable mold spores in carpet as a function of temperature and contact time. seventy carpet samples were inoculated with a liquid suspension of cladosporium sphaerospermum and incubated over a water-saturated foam carpet pad for 24 hr. steam was applied to the samples as t ...201525625432
cladosins f and g, two new hybrid polyketides from the deep-sea-derived cladosporium sphaerospermum 2005-01-e3.two new fungal hybrid polyketides, cladosins f (1) and g (2), with rare 6(3)-enamino-8,10-dihydroxy-tetraketide system were discovered from the deep-sea-derived fungus cladosporium sphaerospermum 2005-01-e3 guided by osmac approach. their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, and cytotoxicity, antitubercular, anti-influenza a h1n1 virus, and nf-κb inhibitory activities were evaluated.201525081023
mold management of wetted carpet.this study evaluated the growth and removal of fungi on wetted carpet using newly designed technologies that rely on physical principles of steam, heat, and fluid flow. sixty samples of carpet were embedded with heat-treated house dust, followed by embedding, wearing with a hexapod, and wetting. samples were inoculated using a liquid suspension of cladosporium sphaerospermum prior to placement over a water-saturated foam pad. incubation times were 24 hr, 7 days, and 30 days. cleaning was perform ...201424856911
cladosins a-e, hybrid polyketides from a deep-sea-derived fungus, cladosporium sphaerospermum.five new fungal hybrid polyketides, cladosins a-d (1-4), that contain a novel linear 6(3)-enamino-8,10-dihydroxy-tetraketide (1 and 2) or 6-enamino-7(8)-en-10-ol (3 and 4) moiety, as well as the biogenetically related cladosin e (5), were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus cladosporium sphaerospermum 2005-01-e3. their structures (1-5) were elucidated through a combination of spectroscopic data, chemical conversion, and both mosher's and marfey's methods for stereochemical assignment. a pl ...201424499327
acute meningitis caused by cladosporium sphaerospermum.phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system is rare but typically associated with high mortality. treatment has not been standardized, but the combination of antifungal chemotherapy with surgical debridement is recommended. we report a 73-year-old, retired, male timber merchant with acute meningitis caused by cladosporium sphaerospermum. the patient, who had well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, presented with fever and weakness of the lower limbs. no brain abscess was apparent by crania ...201324263083
keratitis-associated fungi form biofilms with reduced antifungal drug susceptibility.to investigate the biofilm-forming capacity of fusarium solani, cladosporium sphaerospermum, and acremonium implicatum, and the activities of antifungal agents against the three keratitis-associated fungi.201223099491
exploring micromycetes biodiversity for screening benzo[a]pyrene degrading potential.twenty-five strains of filamentous fungi, encompassing 14 different species and belonging mainly to ascomycetes, were tested for their ability to degrade benzo[a]pyrene (bap) in mineral liquid medium. the most performing isolates for bap degradation (200 mg l(-1)) in mineral medium were cladosporium sphaerospermum with 29 % bap degradation, i.e., 82.8 μg bap degraded per day (day(-1)), paecilomyces lilacinus with 20.5 % bap degradation, i.e., 58.5 μg bap day(-1), and verticillium insectorum with ...201323093417
sequencing of cladosporium sphaerospermum, a dematiaceous fungus isolated from blood culture.cladosporium sphaerospermum is one of the most widely distributed allergens causing serious problems in patients with respiratory tract disease. we report the 26,644,473-bp draft genome sequence and gene annotation of c. sphaerospermum um843. analysis of the genome sequence led to the finding of genes associated with c. sphaerospermum's melanin biosynthesis, allergens, and antifungal drug resistance.201222544899
cutaneous and systemic pathogenicity of a clinical isolate of cladosporium sphaerospermum in a murine model.the pathogenicity of a clinical isolate of cladosporium sphaerospermum was determined in a murine model. balb/c mice were given two intraperitoneal injections of 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or normal saline on days 4 and 1 preinoculation, and were then challenged with 0.2 ml of c. sphaerospermum inoculum (2 × 10(7) cfu/ml) by topical application on an abrasive wound or by subcutaneous or intravenous injection. histopathology and inverse fungal culture were performed on the skin lesions and viscer ...201222516085
synthesis and characterization of seaweed cellulose derived carboxymethyl cellulose.in the present study, cellulose (swc) extracted from green seaweed ulva fasciata was processed to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose (swcmc). the seaweed cellulose (∼15% dw) was first processed for α cellulose extraction (10.1% on dw) followed by the synthesis and characterization of swcmc. thin films were prepared using commercial cmc (ccmc), swcmc and swcmc-metal nanoparticle (2% wt/v) by solvent evaporation technique. films were studied for molecular weight, degree of carboxylation, viscosity ...201727987874
comparison of fungicidal properties of non-thermal plasma produced by corona discharge and dielectric barrier discharge.the inactivation of four micromycete species by action of non-thermal plasma was followed. two sources of plasma were compared, namely, positive corona discharge and dielectric barrier discharge. the corona discharge appeared as suitable for fungal spore inactivation in water suspension, whereas the barrier discharge inactivated spores on the surface of cultivation agar. cladosporium sphaerospermum was the most sensitive, being inactivated within 10 min of exposure to plasma, whereas aspergillus ...201728623536
taxonomy, phylogeny and ecology of cultivable fungi present in seawater gradients across the northern antarctica peninsula.thirty-six seawater samples collected at different depths of the gerlache and bransfield straits in the northern antarctic peninsula were analyzed, and the average of the total fungal counts ranged from 0.3 to >300 colony forming units per liter (cfu/l) in density. the fungal were purified and identified as 15 taxa belonged to the genera acremonium, aspergillus, cladosporium, cystobasidium, exophiala, glaciozyma, graphium, lecanicillium, metschnikowia, penicillium, purpureocillium and simplicill ...201728856503
[chromoblastomycosis caused by cladosporium sphaerospermium]. 19744478876
synthesis of the fungus metabolite cladosin c.cladosin c is one of the few known enaminotetramic acids, isolated from extracts of the deep sea fungus cladosporium sphaerospermum. it was synthesised in ten steps and 14% overall yield by a late-stage amination of the corresponding 3-acyltetramic acid. this was obtained by a dieckmann condensation of an n-β-ketoacylaminoester derived from dehydrovalinate and the thioester-terminated side chain containing the stereogenic centre which stemmed from poly-(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate.201728871295
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